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CHAP. XXII. Of lawful Oaths and Vows.

A LAWFUL oath is a part of religious worship", wherein, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth ; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth ". II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence “: therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred ". Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God under the New Testament, as well as under the Old “; so a lawful oath being imposed by lawful authority, in such

matters, ought to be taken'.

I, a Deut. x. 20. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name. b Exod. xx. 7. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Lev. xix. 12. And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God : I am the 1.ord. 2 Cor. i. 23. Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth. 2 Chron. vi. 22. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to make him swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house : Ver. 23. Then hear thou from heaven, and do, and judge thy servants, by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own head, and by justifying the righteous, by giving him according to his righteousness. II. c. Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his name. d Exod. xx. 7 [See letter b.] Jer. v.7. How shall I pardon thee for this?

thy children have forsaken me, and

sworn by them that are no gods: when
I fed them to the full, they then com--
mitted adultery, and assembled them-
selves by troops in the harlots' houses,
Matt. v. 34. But I say unto you,
Swear not at all : neither by heaven,
for it is God's throne. Ver. 37. But
let your communication be, Yea, yea;
Nay, may ; for whatsoever is more
than these cometh of evil. James v.
12. But above all things, my brethren,
swear not ; neither by heaven, neither
by the earth, neither by any other
oath: but let your yea be yea; and
your may, nay; lest ye fall into con-
e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear
by the greater: and an oath for con-
firmation is to them an end of all strife.
2 Cor. i. 23. [See letter b.] Isa. lxv. 16.
That he who blesseth himself in the
earth, shall bless himself in the God of
truth ; and he that sweareth in the
earth, shall swear by the God of truth;
because the former troubles are forgot-
ten, and because they are hid from
mine eyes.
f 1 Kings viii. 31. If any man tres-
pass against his neighbour, and an
oath be laid upon him to cause him
to swear, and the oath come be-

III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth 8. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what

he is able and resolved to perform *.

Yet it is a sin to re

fuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being

imposed by lawful authority".

fore thine altar in this house. Neh. xiii. 25. And I contended with them and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves. Ezra. x. 5. Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do according to this word : and they sware.

III. g Exod. xx. 7. M. letter b.] Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The Lord liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the mations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.

A Gen. xxiv. 2. And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh : Ver. 3. And I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell. Ver, 5. And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest ? Ver. 6. And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou, that thou bring not my son thither again. Ver. 8. And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath: only bring not my son thither again. Ver. 9. And the serwant put his hand under the thigh of

Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter. i Numb. v. 19. And the priest shall charge her by an oath, and say unto the woman, If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness with another instead of thy husband, be thou free from this bitter water that causeth the curse. Ver. 21. Then the priest shall charge the woman with an oath of cursing; and the priest shall say unto the woman, The Lord make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the Lord doth make thy thigh to rot, and thy belly to swell. Neh. v. 12. Then said they, We will restore them, and will require nothing of them : so will we do as thou sayest. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise. Exod. xxii. 7. If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolem out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. Ver. 8. If the thief be not found, them the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods. Ver, 9. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour. Ver. 10. If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep ; and it die, or be hurt,

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IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation *. It cannot oblige to sin; but in anything not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man's own hurt"; nor is it to be violated, although made to hereticks or


V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness".

or driven away, no man seeing it; Ver, 11. Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good. IV. A Jer. iv.2 [See letter g] Psal. xxiv. 4. He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart: who hath not lift up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn decei: fully. ! 1 Sam. xxv. 22. So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that pertain to him by the morning-light any that pisseth against the wall. Ver. 32. And 1)avid said to Abigail, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, which sent thee this day to meet me : Ver. 33. And blessed be thy advice, and bléssed be thou, which hast kept me this day from ceming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with mine own hand. Ver. 34. For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth, which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had not been left unto Nabal by the morning-light any that pisseth against the wall. Psal. xv. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemmed; but he honoureth them that fear the Lord: he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. m Ezek. xvii. 16. As I live, saith the Lord God, surely in this place where the king dwelleth that made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake, even with him, in the midst of Babylon, he shall die. Ver, 18. Seeing he despised

the oath, by breaking the covenant, (when, lo, he had given his hand,) and hath done all these things, he shall not escape. Ver. 19. Therefore thus saith the Lord God, As I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head. Josh. ix. 18. And the children of Israel smote them not, be cause the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel: and all the congregation murmured against the princes. Ver. 19. But all the princes said unto all the congregation, We have sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel: now there. fore we may not touch them. With 2 Sam. xxi. 1. Then there was a famine in the days of 1)avid three years, year after year; and David enquired of the Lord : and the Lord answered, It is for Saul and his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites. V. m. Isa. xix. 21. And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord, and perform it. Eccl. v. 4. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it: for he hath mo pleasure in fools; pay that which thou hast vowed. Ver. 5. Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay. Ver. 6. Suffer mot thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin, neither say thou before the angel, that it was an error: wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work"of thine hands? Psal, lxi. 8. So will I sing praise unto


VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone": and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for the obtaining of what we want ; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto P.

VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in the word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he hath no promise or ability from God q. In which respects, Popish monastical vows of perpetual sin

thy name for ever, that I may daily
perform my vows. Psal. lxvi. 13. I
will go into thy house with burnt-of-
oferings: I will pay thee my vows,
Ver. 14. Which my lips have uttered,
and my mouth hath spoken, when I
was in trouble.
VI. o Psal. lxxvi. 31. Vow, and
pay unto the Lord your God : let all
that be round about him bring presents
unto him that ought to be feared. Jer.
xliv. 25. Thus saith the Lord of
hosts, the God of Israel, saying, Ye
and your wives have both spoken with
your mouths, and fulfilled with your
hand, saying, We will surely perform
our vows that we have vowed, to burn
incense to the queen of heaven, and
to pour out drink-offerings unto her:
ye will surely accomplish your vows,
and surely perform your vows. Ver.
26. Therefore hear ye the word of the
Lord, all Judah that dwell in the land
of Egypt. Behold, I have sworn by
my great name, saith the Lord, that
my name shall ne more be named in
the mouth of any man of Judah in all
the land of Egypt, saying, The Lord
God liveth.
p Deut. xxiii. 21. When thou shalt
vow a vow unto the Lord thy God,
thou shalt not slack to pay it: for the
Lord thy God will surely require it of
thee; and it would be sin in thee. Ver.
22. But if thou shalt forbear to vow,
it shall be no sin in thee. Ver. 23.
That which is gone out of thy lips
thou shalt keep and perform; even a

free-will-offering, according as thou hast vowed unto the Lord thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth. Psal. 1. 14. Offer unto God thanksgiving, and pay thy vows unto the most High. Gen. xxviii. 20. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on ; Ver. 21. So that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the Lord be my God. Ver. 22. And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house : and of all that . thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth urnto thee. 1 Sam. i. 11. And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but will give unto thine handmaid a man-child, then will I give him unto the Lord all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head. Psal. lxvi. 13, 14. [See letter n.] Psal. cxxxii. 2. How he

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sware unto the Lord, and vowed unto

the mighty God of Jacob. Ver. S.
Surely I will not come into the taber-
nacle of my house, nor go up into my
bed ; Ver. 4. I will not give sleep to
mine eyes, or slumber to mine eye-
lids, Ver. 5. Until I find out a place
for the Lord, an habitation for the
mighty God of Jacob.
VII. 7 Acts xxiii. 12. And when
it was day, certain of the Jewsbanded

gle life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself".

chAP. xxiii. of the civil Magistrate.

G OD, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory, and the publick good ; and, to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good,

and for the punishment of evil doers".

together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying, that they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. Ver. 14. And they came to the chief priests and elders, and said, We have bound ourselves under a great curse, that we will eat nothing until we have slain Paul. Mark vi. 26. And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath’s sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her. Num. xxx. 5. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth, not any of her vows, or of her bonds, wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the Lord shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her. Ver. 8. But if her husband disallow her on the day that he heard it, then he shall make her vow which she vowed, and that which she uttered with her lips, where with she bound her soul, of nome effect: and the Lord shall forgive her. Ver, 12. But if her husband hath utterly made them void on the day he heard them; then whatsoever proceeded out of her fips, concerning her vows, or concerning the bond of her soul, shall not -stand : her husband hath made them void; and the Lord shall forgive her. Ver. 13. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may establish it, or her husband may make it void. r Matt. xix. 11. But he said unto

them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given. Ver. 12. For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother’s womb ; and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men; and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake: he that is able to receive it, let him receive it. 1 Cor. vii. 2. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband. Ver. 9. But if they cannot contain, let them marry : for it is better to marry than to burn. Eph. iv. 28. Let him that stole, steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. 1 Pet. iv. 2. That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh, to the lusts of men, but to the will of God 1 Cor. vii. 23. Ye are bought with a plice, be not ye the servants of men. I. a Rom. xiii. 1. Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Ver. 2. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. Verré. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the eyil. Wilt thou then not be

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