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tion of Ministers in the county of Wind- high and obscure expressions to ham ; and they proceeded to expel me, the entrance of Christ on his pubon this account, not only from their lick ministry, L. Crellius wasted an body, as a voluntary Association, but
immensity of learning to make it from all “ ministerial connexion."
It was my intention to have publish- probable that we should read exw ined a general statement of the manner in stead of Bros in the first verse ; which this affair was brought to its cri- . Clarke and the Arians are contented lis. But for certain reasons which I did with affixing to Deos without the not sufficiently confider, it is at present article a subordinate sense ; the withheld. I would only observe, that, by the decree of the Association, or any de
more modern Unitarians suppose crees which, as a body of mere Ecclefiafticks, that the word noyos does not here quitbout appointment from the churches, without signify a person, but only an attheir fanćtion, and without purfuing the regular tribute of Deity, and that there is discipline pointed out by our Lord, they may affume the authority to make, I considermy till the 8th verse ; and last of all,
no unequivocal intimation of Christ good christian and ministerial standing not in the least degree impaired. Were they á critick, whose familiarity with an ecclesiastical court, known in the scrip- scriptural phrases and terms is tures; had they charged me with crime, not inferiour to the knowledge of with a breach of the divine law to man. kind ; and were there any other kind of any of his predecessors, Newcome iniquity found cleaving to my garment, Cappe, has ventured to restore and than that I cannot fee with their eyes, and vindicate the original interpretaperceive with their understandings ; I might tion of Socinus. Mr. S. adopts consider myself as affected by their de
the most common explanation of cision. But, as the matter now stands, I
the Unitarians, that by nogos is infeel the authority of the Lord Jesus still resting upon me, and shall not desert my
tended the reason, or wisdom of ministerial office. They, and others who God, which the evangelist eloshall subscribe to their doings, may treat quently personifies. We find me according to their pleasure : There some remarks on the use of the is One that judgeth between us. To
preposition as poss
and the word to. HIM shall the appeal be made.
xnwce, which are not unimportant, The work is divided into two and then are called to the famous parts. In the first the author en
passage in Col. i. 16, 17. deavours to shew “ that the pas- The difficulties, which attend the sages and considerations alleged explanation of these verses,as referin favour of the supreme and inde- ring to the new moral creation, or pendent deity of Christ do not es- rather organization under the gostablish such doctrine concerning pelare not a few; and Mr. S. has him."
in some degree injored the plauIn the first section, those pas- sibility and compactness of his sages are examined, which repre- own interpretation by not sufficsent Christ as the creator of all iently attending to the propriety worlds. These are John i. 1-14. of clearly referring all the clauses Col. i. 16, 17. Heb. i. The pro- without exception either to one em to John's gospel has long been creation or the other. Hence we the crux antitrinitarianorum. They think he shonld have admitted no have agreed in nothing but to other interpretation of apototoxOS tas wrest it from the hands of the ortho- XTITEWS than this, “first-born or most dox,but have never been able to con- eminent of the whole creation ;" vert it into an auxiliary. Though in the same sense in which Christ some of the early Polish Socinians is elsewhere styled “first born athought they could apply all its mong many brethren," Rom. viii. 29. Mr. S. also argues in favour deavours, though with no peculiar of the identity of the agency at- ingenuity, to obviate the proofs tributed to Christ in the 16th and from other texts of Christ's omniin the 20th verses, from the use presence. The passages which of the same preposition “ by” in are adduced to prove the eternity our English version; when he and immutability of Christ are exmust have recollected, that in the amined in the two next sections, original # is used in the former, and in the seventh the power which and Sic in the latter clause. This our Saviour exercised on earth of variation, though it does not de- forgiving sins is discussed with stroy the force of the argument, much learning and acuteness. The yet deserved to be noted. By distinction is pointed out between " things in heaven” Mr. S. sup- stvoria and Suvapeis ; it is shown that the poses are meant, Jews, and by former, derived from ežere, it is law" things in earth," Gentiles. The ful, conveys the idea of licence, lepassages, quoted to illustrate this gality, or a moral right to exermeaning of the words, certainly cise authority ; and that it is the prove no such application ; for word used by our Saviour to sig, though by "new heavens and new nify the power of forgiveness earth,” in Isaiah, is probably in- which he exercised on earth. It tended the flourishing state of the is afterwards maintained and conchristian church, in which Jewsfirmed by the authority of Calvin, and Gentiles are included, we have Macknight, and Pool, that the fornever yet seen any passage which giveness of the sins of the paradecisively shows, that Gentiles are lytick in the passage in question ever described under the figure of means only his deliverance from the earth, or Jews under that of his disorder. This Jewish mode heaven.
of speech is then illustrated by In the second section are exam- several passages in Isaiah, and a ined the proofs of Christ's omni- similar representation from the potence, which are usually drawn New Testament is produced in the from the introduction to the epis- following passage. tle to the Hebrews. On this pas- ment we do not recollect to have sage the author is unusually lucid;
seen stated before with equal acuteand congratulates himself on havá ness. ing derived from it “ substantial A very plain example of fimilar repand invincible evidence of the truth resentation occurs in the New Testament. of his doctrine."
Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace In the third section are consid- be unto you : As my. Father hath feue
me, even so I send you. And when he ered the texts, which are supposed had said this, he breathed on them and to teach the omniscience of Christ. faith unto them, Receive ye the holy Here we think the author quarrels gholt. Whosesoever fins ye remit they unnecessarily with our English are remitted unto them ; and whosesoevtranslation of. Rev. ii. 23.
er sids ye retain they are retained." The
But were the Apostles endowed with the expressions which he would sub- power of forgiving the fins of men, or stitute are not nearer to the orig- fixing their fins upon them in the literal inal, than those which he con- sense of this phraseology? All that can demns.
be said, concerning them in this respect, Section fourth contains a long
is, that they had the power of bealing all quotation from Christie to explain fuck as oppoja ilem in the performance of the
manner of dije ifes, and inflicting judgments on John jü. 13. The author then en- duties of their mifion. Accordingly we
The arguo xugios
find, that Paul caused the sins of Elymas, Op the original of John xx. 28. the forcerer, to be retained, by fixing Mr. S. makes the following obblindness upon him, for labouring to turn
servation : away the deputy from the faith. This was the extent of the Apostle's power to
Both xupros and tros, Lord and God, forgive and retain fins. This therefore
are in the nominative, and require some was all that Christ himself poffefsed, while verb to succeed, in order to make sense. here on earth. For he told them, that,
Osos God, is, indeed, often used, for the as the Father had sent him, so he com-,
vocative. But we have never seen an missioned them ; i. e. with the same pow. instance of this use of xugios Lord. It is er to forgive and retain fins which he believed, that there is no example of it in possessed. There can be no question the scriptures. then, that, by forgiving the fins of the paralytick,our Lord meant nothing more than healing him of his disorder, taking xii. 13. UMLEIS POVEITE us, Sidacnados, xal
What does Mr. S. think of John away the consequence of that intemperance, of which he had been guilty.
? He had better also have Hence our Lord replies to the malicious forborn to supply, what he supwresting of his words by the Pharisees, poses to be the ellipsis in this exW betber is it eaper to say, Tby fins be for- clamation of Thomas. given thee? or to say, Arise and walk ? i.e.
Jerem. xxiii. 6.
« His name What matter is it about the expressions, which we use, if they are but in- shall be called Jehovah our righttelligible? Which best conveys the idea eousness." On this appellation of cure, to say, in the language of the Mr. S. observes, « Christ is here prophets, which you cannot but under called, in Hebrew, Jehovah—7'sidstand, Thy fins be forgiven thee? or to say, 'kenu. Abraham, that Father of in plain common language, Arise and walk? Surely you display a captious the faithful, called the mount, on disposition in cavilling about words. But, which he was to sacrifice his Son, that ye may know that the Son of men bath Jehovah Jireh. Moses built an authority on the earth to forgive fins, to take altar and called it JEHOVAH away the diseases which come upon men for their fins, then faith be to the sick of the
Nissi-Gideon built an altar and
called it JEHOVAH_Shal. palsy, Arise, take up thy bed, and go into tbine boufe. p. 60.
lum. Yea, when David brought
up the ark, from the house of 0. The eighth section contains a bededom, to the city of David, he very full discussion of the use of styles it, in his song on the occathe word worship in the Old and sion, both God and Jehovah ; God New Testament, in order to prove, is gone up with a shout, the Lord what we believe no one will deny, (Heb. Jehovah) with the sound of that “ there is nothing in the word the trumpet. Thus evident is it,
itself, which confines it to that Jehovah is not a name approπροσκυνεώ divine homage. The kind of hom- priated only to the supreme God.” age implied in any particular in- Here we think the zeal of the austance is to be decided by the thor has rather overleaped his good circumstances under which it is sense, and led him to express himpaid." P. 62.
self inaccurately. If any thing is The next section is employed plain from the Old Testament, it in examining several important is, that the title Jehovah can in texts, in which names and titles ap- strictness of speech be given to propriated to God appear to be none but the only true God. Be, given to Christ.
We have not cause it is sometimes used in comroom to pass every criticism in position with other words, as in review before us ; a few remarks the instances above cited, to conon some erroneous suppositions of stitute a name, it cannot with any Mr. S. may not be unprofitable. more propriety be said, that per
sons or things thus nominated are Er capxı (in Mr. S.'s version, 10 called Jehovah, than that the city mortal man) cannot be justified by Elizabethtown is called Elizabeth. any parallel passage in scripture, Surely also it cannot be supposed and hardly by theGreek idiom ; apon by any person, who attends to the is never used in the passive to exsubject, that, in the passage which press the disclosure of truths to Mr. S. has quoted from Psalm the understanding ; and finally, it xlvii., the ark is called either God is too much to say that the verb or Jehovah.
avanaufaves no more signifies to reWe are also satisfied that the ceive us, than it does to receive author is mistaken in his inter- down." Though its classical use pretation of Isaiah viii. 14. com- is undoubtedly extensive, yet in pared with 1 Pet. ii. 8 ; but we the New Testament it is repeatedcan only refer him to a most val- ly used to signify the assumption uable note of the learned James of Jesus into heaven. Indeed Peirce, on Heb. ii. 13., and also to whether ó, or os, or boas be the true Dodson on this passage in Isaiah ; reading in this celebrated text, we for the limits of our review, and think every impartial theologian perhaps others will say of our must confess that the subsequent knowledge, do not allow us to clauses can be properly applied expatiate in elaborate criticism, to a person only, and to no person and copious illustration.
but Jesus Christ. “ We now proceed to exam- Mr. S. conjectures that him is ine," says Mr. S. in the next sec- the true reading in Zach. xii. 10. tion, such passages as are said to He might have added, that Kenindicate or imply two natures in nicott assures us it is found in Christ, a divine and human na- forty Hebrew MSS. to which De ture.” After stating the argu. Rossi has added the authority of ments in favour of the reading ó several editions. in 1 Tim. iii. 16. Mr. S. offers the On the celebrated prediction of following translation of a passage, the birth of Jesus in Isaiah vii. 14. which, we believe, will forever ex- we have much to observe, but this cruciate the wit of the antitrinita, is not the place for our remarks. rian.
We will only suggest, that if this
prediction, as Mr. S. supposes, Indeed openly proclaimed to all ranks and descriptions is the sublime mystery of does not relate to the birth of godliness, which has been made known Christ, there is no literal predic. to mortal man, substantiated by miracu- tion of his birth in the Old Testa, lous attestations, revealed to inspired ment. It is true that many illus. messengers, preached to the nations, credited by the world, embraced with joy- cism, among whom we may men
trious names in scriptural critiful exultation.
tion Grotius, support Mr. S. in his Mr. S. must pardon us for our opinion ; but it should be recolopinion, that he derives not his lected, that they also maintained a principal credit from his original double sense of the prophecy, attempts at Greek criticism. He whereas Mr. S. with Porphyry, the makes several remarks to justify modern Jews, and the subtile Colhis unnecessary and paraphrastick lins not only contends that the version of owongy weivws, a word to name Immanuel belongs only to which confessedly in English ex- the child which the prophetess of actly corresponds.
that time was to conceive, but far
ther supposes that the evangelist dignity upon the sufferings of the human in Matth. i. 23. does not mean to nature, is only an imagination of their apply it in any sense, as a predic. of this absurdity. They say nothing of
own brain; for the scriptures say nothing tion of the birth of Jesus. Mr. S. the virtue of his sufferings being enventures also to intimate his doubt hanced by any such connexion. If the whether Isaiah ix. 6, 7. has any union of Deity to humanity rendered the reference to Christ. We are fully humanity any thing different from mere sensible of the difficulties, which humanity; if it raised it beyond its naattend the application of prophe- may we not conclude, that it rendered it
tural dignity to the digņity of God; why cies under the old dispensation imposible, incapable of suffering? This, in the to characters and events in the days of the apostles, was the conclusion new, but we are not yet prepared of certain metaphysical reasoners. And to give up these capital predic- it may be as well inferred, from the con
fideration of the union of Deity to humations, though they have always nity, that Christ must have been impaffible, perplexed the apologist for christ- as that the sufferings of the man Chrift ianity, as well as the controver. Jesus were infinitely more than human sialist. We think also that a more sufferings.
full and accurate account of the It was, say our opponents, e divine per· variations of the different versions for, who suffered ; and therefore these in this latter passage might have sufferings were precious, in proportion
to the dignity of the personage suffering. been expected.
They will have it that it was GOD, who Section twelfth, upon the plu- died on the cross. ralisms applied to God in the Old That Christ was really the infinite God, Testament, and section thirteenth, is a doctrine not known in the scriptures. upon the appearances of what is Besides, may we not turn the tables and called the angel of the Lord, are in the human nature, after earthly food,
say, that God's hungering and thirsting, written with much ability ; and a was infinitely derogatory from the digconsideration of two very popular nity of the divine nature, as to affirm, objections, in section fourteenth, that God's suffering on the cross, in the closes this part of the work. In human nature, conferred an infinite dig. answer to the question what atone- inconceivably more precious, than mere
nity upon that, and rendered its sufferings ment can there be, if Christ be ly human sufferings? Sufferings surely not verily the supreme God, Mr. denote great weakness, want of itrength, S. has the following observations. and dignity of nature. And, fince the
infinite God suffered, he must be very Did the supposed divine nature become
weak, impotent, and devoid of dignity.. obedient unto death, even the death of
Do our opponents dillike this reprethe cross ? Did divinity itself suffer ? fentation ? Will they say that these things Our opponents do not pretend it. This
are true only of the human nature, the is true only of the man Christ Jesus
. found things which they themselves dif
man Christ Jesus? Then let them not conWhatever virtue in his obedience unto death, muft therefore be the virtue of the tinguish. Let them acknowledge, that man Christ Jesus only.
the sufferings of the man Christ Jesus But, say our opponents, the union of
were clothed with no other than merely divinity to the humanity conferred an
human dignity ; and were no more preinfiuite dignity upon the sufferings of the cious than merely human sufferings. Let human nature, and rendered them into them look out for some more scriptural nitely precious, so as to amount, in effect, and rational doctrine of atonement: For to the eterpal sufferings of the whole hu- there is, clearly, no more ability in the man race. Thus Christ satisfied the de
man Christ Jesus to satisfy divine justice, mands of justice, in the room and stead
upon their scheme, than upon ours,
P. 142. of our apostate world.
The doctrine that the union of the The second part is introduced divinity to humanity conferred an infinite by the following statement,