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feeling sympathy with the lot concerning whom a local tradiof the average planter, much tion relates that Carib raiders of whose labour went to the captured his wife and carried support of absentee landlords. her off. He pursued and rePrivate letters of this period covered her, but the shock are eloquent upon the hard- caused her to pine away and ships of the colonist's life- die soon afterwards, and he frequent hunger and sickness, himself did not long survive financial ruin from hurricanes, her. Carib raids and arbitrary taxa The first Earl of Carlisle tion, and consequent improvi- died in 1636, and the affairs dence, drunkenness, and im- of the proprietorship fell into morality. These men, who laid confusion owing to the clamours the foundations of an empire, of his creditors and the minpaid dearly for their enter-ority, by a year or two, of his prise.

son. The trustees who manIn spite of all deterrents, aged the estate were accused of emigration increased and ex- doing so only for their own pansion took place. By 1635 benefit ; and when the second Nevis was well populated, and earl gained control he found a beginning had been made in his authority irreparably Montserrat and Antigua. In shaken. Henry Hawley, the 1639 there was a determined Governor of Barbados, made attempt to colonise St Lucia, a bold attempt in 1639-40 to but it was beaten by fevers and steal the island and set up as Carib attacks. The same fate an independent ruler. He had also befell similar undertakings acted prematurely, and was in Trinidad and Tobago, pro- sent home a prisoner. Had he moted by the Earl of Warwick, waited a year or two he might who had bought up the Earl of have succeeded, for Charles I. Pembroke's derelict rights to was drifting into war with his those islands. In the Leeward people, and the power of the group Warner exercised a gen- Crown in the colonies became eral control, usually filling the a nullity after 1642. vacancies which occurred in Warner watched these events the governorships. With Bar- and shaped his course accordbados, on the other hand, he ingly. There was no love lost had little concern, and that between him and the second island was more directly ad- earl, who wrote that he found ministered by the earl from in him “nothing but airy England. The French about flashes and self-conceit." 1635 made permanent settle- was, in fact, quietly changing ments in Martinique and Guade- from servant into master, for loupe, but failed in Grenada he realised that the Civil War and other islands. The earliest was cutting away the foundaGovernor of Antigua is said to tion of the proprietorship. Carhave been Edward Warner, ligle joined the king, and was

captured by the Roundheads tion and the ensuing submisin the first campaign and his sion were delayed until 1651-2. property sequestrated. The Meanwhile the colonies were colonists at the same time undergoing a rapid transition ceased to pay his revenues. in their social and economic The Earl of Warwick sided life. About 1640 Dutchmen with Parliament, and was ap- from Brazil introduced sugarpointed by it in 1643 to the planting in Barbados. This presidency of a committee for industry could not profitably the rule of the plantations. be conducted on the old small One of his first acts was to holdings of the tobacco period. confirm Warner's Lieutenant- The typical sugar estate was Generalship; but his power of about five hundred acres, in the West Indies was no with windmills, crushing mamore effective than that of the chines, copper boilers, draught Royalist proprietor. Warner animals, and gangs of negroes. kept up a civil correspondence The Dutch mercantile firms with him, but refused all real supplied all this equipment on submission. The colonists were credit, and the planters who waiting to see which side would were wise enough to accept win before committing them- their terms speedily paid off selves; meanwhile they were their indebtedness, and grew enjoying the sweets of a new- rich on the high profits which found liberty. We have no accrued. They were the fortudetails of Warner's admin- nate few. The majority of the istration at this period, but it old-time planters were in a few can hardly have been so oppres- years crowded out, and sank sive as of old. The general to the condition of wageimpression to be gathered is earners, or emigrated to new that his rôle was changing colonies in Surinam, Jamaica, from that of the stern agent and elsewhere. This change of an outside power to that of was most evident in Barbados, the benevolent despot and but it took place, although father of his people.

more gradually, in the LeeEven when the Puritans ward Islands. triumphed and the king's head Warner's ascendancy - perfell at Whitehall the Leeward sonal, and appealing to no colonies showed no great con- higher authority-was typical

Barbados, on the other of the tobacco period, and unhand, the chosen resort of suited to the new order which exiled Royalists, openly defied was coming in. He could rule the Commonwealth. All real- as a military tyrant or as a ised that they had no need to paternal despot over the strugsubmit unless the new govern- gling twenty - acre tobaccoment should be in a position planters, living from hand to to send out a strong force to mouth, and liable to ruin by the Caribbean. That expedi- a stiff fine or a bad season.

" In

But the new wealthy men of he saw an enemy's head he hit
the sugar estates, who could it, and did his best to make an
put down five or ten thousand end. Yet with all his egoism
pounds to purchase a planta- he was a worthy pioneer of the
tion, were not to be bullied. empire. He strove for his own
The proprietorship and its re- ends, but his ends were those
presentatives had few terrors of the state, which cannot be
for them ; it required the said for many a more amiable
might of the English State, as character of his century.
wielded by the Commonwealth Sir Thomas was thrice mar-
and the Restoration, to bring ried. Of one of his sons, the
them under control. Perhaps unhappy Edward Warner, we
fortunately for himself, Warner have already spoken. He is
did not live far into the transi- described as a man of gentle
tion period. He died at Stand melancholy temperament.
Christopher on 10th March Another son, Colonel Philip
1649. His death, with that Warner, lived long into the
of Charles I. six weeks before, Restoration period, and his de-
marks the end of the first scendants are to be found in
period of Caribbean plantation. the West Indies to-day. A
His character is to be deduced half-breed, Thomas or
only from his career; it is dian” Warner, was the off-
nowhere portrayed for us by spring of Sir Thomas and a
a contemporary. Only one or Carib woman. He proved to
two of his letters have been be a firebrand in the islands,
preserved one to the king in and was killed at Dominica in
1636, containing a vigorous stab 1674 by an expedition led by
at Hawley of Barbados, whom his half-brother Philip.
he disliked. That was in keep In St Christopher there ex-
ing with the general record, ists a broken gravestone with
which never shows us Warner a half - obliterated inscription
as guilty of any chivalry or commemorating the colony's
delicacy of feeling; wherever founder :-

“First read, then weep when thou art hereby taught,
That Warner lyes interr'd here, one that bought
With loss of Noble bloud the Illustrious name
Of a commander Greate in acts of Fame,
Traynd from his youth in armes, his Courage bold
Atempted brave Exploites, and Vncontrold
By fortunes fiercest frowns hee still gave forthe
Large Narratives of Military worth,
Written with his Sword's point, but what is man

the midst of his glory, and who can
His life a moment since that hee
by sea and land so long kept free
Mortal stroakes at length did yeeld
all to conquering Death the field.”

fine coronat."

.

THE GINGER-BEER STANDARD.

BY ISOBEL JAMIESON.

III.

THE possible maids whom we had accommodated ourMrs Frendo-Falzon had sent selves to the cheaper Maltese

were waiting downstairs standard, and I almost shared when we had finished break- Octavia's pronounced horror. fast. Half-hidden in their fal- Further inquiry showed we dettas, in the obscurity of the were paying for our own ignorhall they looked more like ance rather than their ability Little Sisters of the Poor than as maids, for it was theirdomestic servants, and the con- presumed - linguistic acquiretemplative patience with which ments that doubled their marthey waited added to that im- ket value. It was soon settled, pression.

and Mr Caruana, emerging into I left the negotiating to the hall, assured us they were Octavia, or, it might be more “good girls and used to Engtruthful to say, she took it. lish ladies," so they apparently

“Do you both speak Eng. knew the worst and were willlish ?” was naturally the first ing to face it again. It is question.

small wonder they were, for “Yez, mees.

their wages were sumptuous, Their names? Dolores and from a Maltese point of view. Carmela—charming! To ask Their fathers and brothers, we after that which was the cook found later, were earning four and if she could make steam- and five shillings a week as puddings and what were their labourers. wages seemed to me horribly The Chocolate Soldier was terre-d-terre. I thought how to hand over the keys and much more “Dolores” sug- inventory that morning, so we gested fans and castanets trysted Dolores and Carmela than pots and pans, but Octavia to meet us at the house, and quite rightly felt that by any we and our luggage were to name a cook could be equally drive round to Sliema. We incompetent, and pursued her could not fit into a carrozza investigations.

with all our belongings, so Mr Wages were rather a blow. Caruana produced a small flat £2 a month each. True, we cart, with donkey and brigand could not have got them at complete. home for that, and wages do Going to Sliema by road is not really go by rental, like a very different matter from the water-rates, but already going by the ferry, as the road

has to find its way round the matter of indifference to their two-fingered end of Marsamu- guardian, who was giving his scetto Harbour. We got a new entire attention to belabouring and very astounding view of the hard-working little beast. Valetta as we left it. We drove In the first arm of the harout through a stone archway bour we passed there were and bridge over an immense some big steamers moored. dry moat. There must be Octavia prodded our driver in some other name for a ditch of the back, and asked him if these proportions; and yet, as that were Marsamuscetto HarI feel sure there cannot be bour. He answered, “No another such in the world, Piano,” which

Piano,” which we later reperhaps no one bothered to solved, correctly, into “P. and invent a name for it. Every 0."! The next arm was apday and in every way I wonder parently shallower, as near the more and more why one has end there was a long bridge not heard as much about Val- connecting the Sliema side to etta as about any of the Seven the peninsula that divides the Wonders of the world. This arms. On this, nearly-island, amazing ditch is cut through is another splendid massive the limestone from one har- fort called Manoel, belonging bour to another, so cutting off also to the age of the Knights, Valetta from the rest of the so frequently thought finer and island, and the depth is some- nobler than our own, but fightwhere about 200 feet. In every ing between Turks and Maltese nook and cranny was growing was not likely to be scrupulous, some queer green trailing-plant, and

and the Knights, although and here and there veritable mediævally

mediævally picturesque, had cascades of the beautiful purple not necessarily our ideas of Bougainvillæa. The 200 feet what romantic chivalry was. was my estimate by looking At last we reached our mauve at it, but Octavia was hunting dwelling, and again admired for the actual figures in the the effect of black faldettas, guide-book, with the result that

as seen against its lemon and I saw and was conquered by purple beauty.

purple beauty. Dolores and the beauty and queerness of Carmela

Carmela were

So far satisit all while she was still fumb- factory in that they had arling. When she looked up rived. again the ditch was far behind, But nowhere was our Chocoand the most interesting object late Soldier to be seen. This in sight was our luggage-cart, somewhat annoyed Octavia, for tearing along as fast as the low the luggage-man was busy degear of a donkey will allow, positing our goods on the verand our various boxes bound- andah, and to be left to sit ing at every bump; whether on our boxes, in company with they always bounded back on two faldettas, seemed to her a to the cart was evidently a trifle infra dig. This, no doubt,

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