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of the English Press. At last fellow when he called me a the fat man germinated an idea thief. After that, of course, exquisitely Andalucian.

honour being compromised, I “Will you accept thirty-seven was forced" pesetas and fifty centimos ? " The judge stilled him with a

“That's it!” exclaimed the wave of the hand. judge, thumping the table. “ You will pay the English“Will you accept thirty-seven man thirty-seven pesetas fifty pesetas and fifty centimos 1 centimos," he ordered. You cannot write to the British Miguel consulted with his Consul, nor can you arouse son in undertones. the English Press for two pes “Very well," he agreed at etas fifty.”

last. In a part they were right. With an evident reluctance, Had they but known it, I from various pockets they prowouldn't have dared to write duced a heap of silver coins, to the British Consul for five which with some care, fingering pesetas, nor yet maybe for the the cash lovingly, they counted whole forty. Still, old boy, out under my nose. There were don't you think that the British four large silver five - peseta Press may yet be roused for pieces, the rest being made up two pesetas fifty. However, of two-peseta, one-peseta, and the solution was 80 perfect fifty centimo coins. Spain that I could not disturb it. I has not suffered as has most stood up, and made the judge European countries by a withmy best bow.

drawal of her silver currency. “In deference to your exer- I thanked the carters, handed tions, Señor Juez," I said, over two of the douros to “I will accept thirty-seven the judge, shovelled the rest pesetas fifty centimos. But I of the money into my pocket, will still give five pesetas, nay, where it made a weighty bulge, ten pesetas, to the poor." bowed to the judicial com

The judge rubbed his hands. mittee, and took my leave He was very pleased with his exultant. I, a mere Englishsharpness. He had out-man- man, had beaten the Spaniard cuvred the British Press. He at his own game. sent his clerk running to find On my way home I thought Miguel

I would celebrate my victory. The carrier came in, looking I turned into a buvette and as bad-tempered as his dried-up ordered a glass of wine. I face would exhibit ; his son paid with one of Miguel's pesfollowed him in a sullen mood. etas. I was drinking with As soon as Miguel came into Miguel, as it were. The woman the room he began to talk. picked up the coin, turned it

“ There has been no need for over in her fingers, rang it, all this, Señor Juez," he cried. made a face, and gave it back "I was about to pay this to me.

Es falsa,” she said.

actly seven pesetas fifty centimos It was. A thought troubled worth of counterfeit money. me. I paid her with another He had paid me, under the peseta, drank my wine without very eyes of the judge—but relish, and hurried back to my how much did the latter susposada bedroom. Here I poured pect?—the very thirty pesMiguel's money on to the bed. etas first offered. And I had Fool that I was ! I should given ten pesetas of them to have remembered that Spain the poor. is rotten with snide coin. The All that afternoon I was general effect of legality, the packing my bags. I left Caldoz judge, his committee, had flur- with the dawn of next day. ried me. Slowly I sorted out Too well did I know what the false silver which Miguel Caldoz would be talking about. had palmed off amongst the Viva Espana, no obstante ! rest. Miguel proved to be a

Yours, man of humour: there was ex




THE purpose of this study is after his death, carried the to bring to notice two military Mongol menace into the heart leaders whose claims to inclu- of Europe, and shook the fabric sion in the rôle of the Great of mediæval civilisation in the Captains have been almost en West. The study may serve tirely overlooked. It deals with to show that the strategical two amazing, if almost un- ability of these two leaders is known, figures. First, Jenghiz matched in history only by Khan, the founder of the Mon- that of Napoleon ; that the gol Empire, the greatest land tactical methods of the Mongol power the world has known, Army hold lessons of importthe bounds of which made the ance for present-day students; empires of Rome and Alex- and finally, it may convince ander appear almost insignifi- us that we do wrong to discant in comparison. Second, miss lightly the military potenhis great general, Subutai, who, tialities of the Orient.

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If we study a physical map channel for armies, for it offers of Asia and Europe, we can few obstacles to movement, and trace a vast belt of open and there uniquely the all-essential level territory, though of vary- principle of mobility has full ing altitudes, which stretches rein. from the Yellow Sea in the In the centre of the continent Far East to the Baltic Sea and lies the Mongolian Plateau, the Danube in the West. This barred by lofty and inacceschain of plains and plateaux issible Tibet from the fertile practically unwooded, and only plains of India, but with combroken by a few well-defined paratively easy access to the mountain ranges. It is the rich fields of China to the East, trough of the world's migra- and of Western Turkestan and tions, the path by which the Russia to the West. Here, in great racial invasions have come this bare bleak enclosure, is to Europe and to China. Along the birthplace of the Turcoit have passed the trans-conti- Mongol race, and the condinental routes of commerce from tions of their environment have the early caravans the given the race their special Siberian Railway. But in even characteristics. The European greater volume has it been the peoples have become seafarers


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by reason of their lengthy rated, these off-shoots retain coast-lines and close touch with the instincts and characteristics the sea. The Mongolian peoples of the race. They settle only are horsemen because con- in open level country - the stant and far-reaching land plains of Hungary, the steppes movement was necessary to of Russia-which recalls their obtain pasturage, and a war- ancestral pastures. Their very like race because the barren- tribal names are often a ness of the land and the result- reminder the essential ing migrations have brought unity of the race" Cossack” them into repeated conflict with is but a corruption of Kasak, other tribes and peoples. Long which means “separated from before the days of Jenghiz the

tribe," and Kirghiz Khan, this lateral expansion implies “errants.” They share of the Turco-Mongol race, and many of the same physical their pressure on the peoples and social characteristics. who lay to the West, had pro- They are essentially a warduced. barbarian invasions like and not an industrial which overran Europe and race; they do not take kindly overthrew the Roman Empire, to the arts of peace. “Man is culminating in the invasions born in the house, and dies on of the Huns. The Bulgars, the field " is one of their proand the Magyars of Hungary, verbs, and the ties of family are of the Turco-Mongol race, and dwelling-place are as nothas are the Cossacks of Southern ing to those of military comRussia. Yet though long sepa- radeship.

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The father of Jenghiz Khan, then, in 1206, at the age of Yesukai, had attained the over- forty-four, that he assumed the lordship of a congery of Mon- name and title of Jenghiz Khan, golian tribes. His son, Temu- which is given by historians chin, to give him his true name, almost as many meanings as was born in a tent on the bank spellings, the Chinese “Chingof the river Onon in 1162 A.D., sze" - i.e., perfect warriorand succeeded his father at the being the most appropriate at age of thirteen. A number of least. the tribes seized the occasion In 1213 he overran the Kin to break away, and the early Empire in China by a conyears of his reign were occupied centric attack by three armies. with the successful endeavour With his borders now firmly to re-establish his sway. This established as far as the river done, he gradually extended his barrier of the Hoang-Ho, his rule over the whole of the base was secure for an advance Mongolian steppes. It was towards the West. Here lay

the rich and fertile empire of with Jenghiz Khan's) desire the Shah of Khwarizm (Karis- for expansion, brought about mian Empire), which embraced a conflict, the signal for what is to - day Turkestan, which was the Shah's folly Persia, and Northern India. in putting to death the envoys The latter's intrigues, combined of Jenghiz.


Fuller knowledge has dis- and Subutai rose to high compelled the excuse of mediæval mand before they were twentyhistorians that the Mongol vic- five, over the heads of far tories were due to an over senior generals. whelming superiority of num The organisation of the army bers. Quality rather than quan- was on a decimal basis. The tity was the secret of their strongest unit was the touman, amazingly rapid sequence of a division of 10,000 troops, successes. Alone of all the which could act as an indearmies of their time had they pendent force. The army was grasped the essentials of stra- made up by a temporary tegy, while their tactical me- grouping of toumans, genechanism was so perfect that rally three. Each touman was the higher conceptions of tactics composed of 10 regiments were unnecessary.

of 1000 men, and each regiTo a unique degree had they ment of 10 squadrons, and attained the “intellectual dis- that again into 10 troops of cipline” preached by Marshal 10 men apiece. Foch. The supreme command In addition there was a was in the hands of the Em touman d'élite, the guard, which peror ; but once the plan was usually formed a general redecided upon, the subordinate serve in the hands of the comgenerals executed the actual mander-in-chief.

mander-in-chief. There were operations without interference, also various formations of auxand with but the rarest com- iliary troops. munication with the supreme For their protective equipcommand. The nominal com ment the Mongols had an mand of the various armies was armour of tanned hide in four held by royal princes, but the pieces, composed of overlapactual control was exercised ping plates, which were lacby generals of experience, of quered to prevent humidity. whom the most famous were The shield was only used when Chépé and Subutai in the on sentry duty. Western campaigns, and Muk Their weapons comprised a huli in China. Merit and not lance, a curved sabre with seniority was the key to ad- sharpened point, suitable either vancement: thus both Chépé for cutting or thrusting, and

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