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two bows one for firing from ated. The result of these battle horseback, and the other, for drill tactics was seen in an greater precision, when on foot. amazing perfection and rapidity They had three quivers, each of execution. The Mongol force with a different calibre of arrows was a machine which worked for the various ranges. One like clockwork, and this very class could penetrate armour, mobility made it irresistible to and the other was suitable troops far more strongly armed against unprotected troops. In and numerous. addition, their light artillery The battle formation was consisted of various missile- comprised of five ranks, the throwing machines, mangonels, squadrons being separated by and catapults. These were wide intervals. The troops in taken to pieces, and formed a the two front ranks wore compack - artillery. They could plete armour, with sword and fire rapidly and accurately, lance, and their horses also could go anywhere, and were were armoured. The three rear adequate for open fighting. ranks wore no armour, and

Every trooper carried a com- their weapons were the bow plete set of tools, individual and the javelin. From these camp-kettle, and iron ration, latter were thrown out mounted for his own maintenance and skirmishers or light troops, who subsistence in the field. He harassed the enemy as he adhad also a water-tight bag in vanced. Later, as the two which he carried a change of forces drew near each other, clothes, and which could be the rear ranks advanced through inflated for crossing rivers. the intervals in the front ranks,

The tactics of the Mongol and poured a deadly hail of Army were rigid in conception, arrows and javelins on the without the possibility of wide enemy. Then, when they had variation, but flexible in execu- disorganised the enemy ranks, tion. They do not afford much they retired into the intervals, encouragement to lovers of and the front ranks charged to laissez faire tactics and the un- deliver the decisive blow. It controlled licence of subordin- was a perfect combination of ates, to whom the suggestion fire and shock tactics, the of a “normal method” is missile-weapon troops firing and anathema. They were indeed disorganising the enemy ready built up on a definite frame- for the shock troops to comwork of tactical moves, so that plete his overthrow. In addithey resembled an applied battle tion to these individual missiledrill. The analogy is further weapons, which were sometimes heightened by the fact that the fired by troops dismounted, the different manouvres were di- Mongols developed extensively rected by signals, so that the the heavier ordnance; they delays and upsets caused by were, indeed, the inventors of orders and messages were obvi- “ artillery preparation."

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Like all the Mongol cam- him concentrating his main paigns, the invasion of Turkes- forces on the Irtish to the east tan was prepared for by the of Lake Balkash. This was by employment of an extensive the Dzungarian Gates, the spy system, combining propa- northern route into Turkestan. ganda among the enemy peoples His first step is security to his with a wonderful service of plan. He covers his conceninformation to the Mongol com- tration, ensures its secrecy, and mand. The Mongols, indeed, avoids the danger of a Persian were the pioneers in that “at- offensive by sending his son, tack on the rear” which the Juji, with a force towards the 1914-1918 campaign developed. lower reaches of the Syr Daria Meanwhile the Shah devoted river (the Jaxartes of ancient his energies to surrounding history). This force, in accordSamarkand with immense forti- ance with his instructions, lays fications, which were never waste the whole trough of finished.

country between the desert of Let us now watch the ex- Ak-kum to the north and the traordinary skill, foresight, and Ala-tau range to the south. grasp of the principles of war By the time the Shah's son, with which Jenghiz Khan gradu- the valiant Jelaladdin, arrived ally unfolded his plan. We see on the scene to meet the sup

posed invasion, the Mongols also at Samarkand. Against have accomplished their mis- this Karismian total of 200,000 sion, have sent back all the the Mongols had about 150,000 horses and forage they required, in the invading armies. Jenand burnt the towns and fields. ghiz Khan had distributed his

After a doubtful rearguard main striking force into three battle, the Mongols set fire to armies, two of three toumans the dry grass on the plain, and each under his sons Juji and disappeared behind the barrier Jagatai, and the third of three of flame. This was in the toumans and the Guard under summer of 1219.

his direct control, with Subutai For several months there was as his adviser or chief of staff. no further move, and the Shah Chépé's southern detachment prepared his plan of defence. comprised two toumans, while He mobilised all his vassal there were 30,000 auxiliaries states, so that he had nearly distributed between the four 200,000 men available. But armies. like Napoleon's opponents he While Chépé was striking his adopted the fatal cordon sys- first blows in Fergana, the tem.

By stringing out his three armies which formed the forces in packets all along the main force traversed the devasline of the Syr Daria, he vio- tated route in the north, and lated the principle of concen- in February suddenly detration, and with it those of bouched on the left flank of security and the offensive, for the Syr Daria line. The speed by such a disposition he re- of this move was the more stricted himself to a purely remarkable when we remember defensive rôle.

that it was made by a mounted Then early in 1220, Jenghiz force of more than 100,000, Khan struck his opening blow, without counting the packa shrewdly conceived diversion. animals of the train, and across Chépé, with two toumans a country that had been turned (20,000 men), had passed by into a desert. the southern route from Kash The two armies of Juji and gar into Fergana, and was Jagatai turned south from advancing on Khojent, which Otrar, clearing the line of the covered the southern end of Syr Daria, capturing the fortthe Syr Daria line. Thus Chépéresses, and working towards directly threatened the Shah's Chépé's detachment, which, right flank, as well as Samar- after taking Khojent, was seekkand and Bokhara, which laying to join hands with them. beyond the two centres of his During the whole of February power. It was a dagger point- these operations on the Syr ing at the heart of the enemy. Daria continued, destroying in The Shah reinforced the Syr detail the Shah's forces and Daria line, and concentrated drawing in his reserves. Then, some 40,000 at Bokhara, and like a thunder-clap, as the

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Like all the Mongol cam- him concentrating his main paigns, the invasion of Turkes- forces on the Irtish to the east tan was prepared for by the of Lake Balkash. This was by employment of an extensive the Dzungarian Gates, spy system, combining propa- northern route into Turkestan. ganda among the enemy peoples His first step is security to his with a wonderful service of plan. He covers his conceninformation to the Mongol com- tration, ensures its secrecy, and mand. The Mongols, indeed, avoids the danger of a Persian were the pioneers in that “at- offensive by sending his son, tack on the rear " which the Juji, with a force towards the 1914-1918 campaign developed. lower reaches of the Syr Daria Meanwhile the Shah devoted river (the Jaxartes of ancient his energies to surrounding history). This force, in accordSamarkand with immense forti- ance with his instructions, lays fications, which were never waste the whole trough of finished.

country between the desert of Let us now watch the ex- Ak-kum to the north and the traordinary skill, foresight, and Ala-tau range to the south. grasp of the principles of war By the time the Shah's son, with which Jenghiz Khan gradu- the valiant Jelaladdin, arrived ally unfolded his plan. We see on the scene to meet the sup

posed invasion, the Mongols also at Samarkand. Against have accomplished their mis- this Karismian total of 200,000 sion, have sent back all the the Mongols had about 150,000 horses and forage they required, in the invading armies. Jenand burnt the towns and fields. ghiz Khan had distributed his

After a doubtful rearguard main striking force into three battle, the Mongols set fire to armies, two of three toumans the dry grass on the plain, and each under his sons Juji and disappeared behind the barrier Jagatai, and the third of three of flame. This was in the toumans and the Guard under summer of 1219.

his direct control, with Subutai For several months there was as his adviser or chief of staff. no further move, and the Shah Chépé's southern detachment prepared his plan of defence. comprised two toumans, while He mobilised all his vassal there were 30,000 auxiliaries states, so that he had nearly distributed between the four 200,000 men available. But armies. like Napoleon's opponents he While Chépé was striking his adopted the fatal cordon sys- first blows in Fergana, the tem. By stringing out his three armies which formed the forces in packets all along the main force traversed the devasline of the Syr Daria, he vio- tated route in the north, and lated the principle of concen- in February suddenly detration, and with it those of bouched on the left flank of security and the offensive, for the Syr Daria line. The speed by such a disposition he re- of this move was the more stricted himself to a purely remarkable when we remember defensive rôle.

that it was made by a mounted Then early in 1220, Jenghiz force of more than 100,000, Khan struck his opening blow, without counting the packa shrewdly conceived diversion. animals of the train, and across Chépé, with two toumans a country that had been turned (20,000 men), had passed by into a desert. the southern route from Kash The two armies of Juji and gar into Fergana, and was Jagatai turned south from advancing on Khojent, which Otrar, clearing the line of the covered the southern end of Syr Daria, capturing the fortthe Syr Daria line. Thus Chépéresses, and working towards directly threatened the Shah's Chépé's detachment, which, right flank, as well as Samar- after taking Khojent, was seekkand and Bokhara, which laying to join hands with them. beyond

the two centres of his During the whole of February power. It was a dagger point- these operations on the Syr ing at the heart of the enemy. Daria continued, destroying in The Shah reinforced the Syr detail the Shah's forces and Daria line, and concentrated drawing in his reserves. Then, some 40,000 at Bokhara, and like a thunder-clap, as the

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