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Curtailments by War Industries Board.


Indispensable in order to put the matter in its true light. What did really take place? On February 22 last, with a view to the threatened need of food here in this country by the summer, the Dutch Government asked the American Government for an advance of 100,000 tons of wheat on the quantity of 400,000 tons to be definitely fixed. On March 6 the associated Governments replied, it is true, affirmatively with regard to the 100,000 tons, although regarding the 400,000 tons no definite answer was given, but to this apparent accommodation the objectional condition was added that the associated Governments should immediately obtain the disposal of the whole of that part of the Dutch mercantile marine that, according to the London draft agreement, would eventually come to them on the conclusion of a definite arrangement. The Dutch Government, being compelled to do so, intended to agree to this as soon as it could obtain the assurance that not only could it firmly rely upon the 100,000 tons advance, but also on the full 400,000 tons of grain as an accepted basis for the definite arrangement. It was able to entertain this stipulation because it was definitely and expressly fixed at the conversations in London, and also since then, that the Dutch vessels would only sail outside of the danger zone, and thus need not in any case perform war services for one of the contending parties, which would not be compatible with neutrality.

"Suddenly, on March 7 last, the London arrangement mentioned was broken when the agreement with us was withdrawn which had been come to on the cardinal point, namely, that the ships of about 500,000 tons, to be given up in exchange for the advance of 100,000 tons of wheat, should not be used in the danger zone. The particularly objectionable character of this lay in the fact that allowing the use of Dutch vessels in the danger zone would lead to a breach of neutrality, not on account of the zone itself this has nothing whatever to do with neutrality-but because it was clear that sailing through the zone, situated as it is around the associated countries of Europe, would mean at all events for a considerable part the transport of troops and munitions of war from America to her allies in Europe; while, moreover, the Dutch vessels, if they were armed, would run the chance of coming into armed conflict with German war vessels. Holland, as a neutral country, could not allow that her ships should be used in the danger zone unless the associated Governments were able to guarantee that they would not be armed and would not carry troops or war material. On the ground of the foregoing the argument used in the Presidential statement, according to which seizure was necessary, because Holland was not able to fulfill the obligation entered into, cannot be maintained. It is contrary to the actual facts of the case. The only correct presentation is this: The powers interested felt themselves compelled, owing to the loss of ships, to supplement their tonnage by obtaining the use of a very considerable number of ships which did not belong to them but to Holland. It appeared to them that the Dutch Government was not able to grant permission to its ships to sail for associated interests otherwise than upon conditions dictated by neutrality, but in the opinion of the interested Governments not sufficiently in accord with their interests, hence they decided to proceed to the seizure of the Dutch mercantile marine, inasmuch as this was within their power,

"The Dutch Government considers itself obliged, especially in such serious circumstances as the present, to speak with great frankness; it is giving expression to the feeling of the whole of the Dutch people when it says that it sees in the seizure committed an act of violence against which it protests with all the force of its conviction and its injured national feeling. The statement in the President's declaration saying that this action offers Holland, in a great measure, the opportunity of providing itself with bread cereals is only apparently the case. After the experience obtained with regard to Dutch vessels in British and American ports it would really be unwarrantable to allow other ships to sail to these ports without a proper guaranty that this experience would not be repeated. The American Government has always appealed to right and justice. It has always set Itself up as the protector of small nations. That it now co-operated in a deed in diametrical opposition to these principles is a manner of acting which cannot be balanced by any expression of friendship or assurances of any mild application of the wrong committed."

(Up to September 26, 1918.)

PASSENGER Automobiles-For the last six months of 1918 curtailed to 25 per cent. of 1917 production, provided the manufacturer will limit his purchases of materials, equipment and supplies to such as are absolutely necessary to match up stocks on hand.

Pianos, Plano-players, and Parts-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to one-third the production of the last four months of 1917.

Cutlery-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 70 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917, which 70 per cent. shall include Government orders.

Stoves For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 50 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917, which 50 per cent. shall include Government orders.

Black Galvanized and Enameled Ware-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 50 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917, which 50 per cent. shall include Government orders. Burial Goods Curtailed to 2,200 tons of the iron and steel for the twelve months' schedule. Clothes Wringers-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to two-thirds of the production of the last four months of 1917.

Corsets-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 40 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917.

Metal Beds-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 50 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917, which 50 per cent. shall include Government and Allies' orders, and that no brass beds be built except from stock now on hand and no brass or brass scrap be purchased.

Boilers and Radiators-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed to 40 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917 and all production and sale shall be under license from the War Industries Board or for Government buildings.

Breweries-All brewery products cease on and after December 1, 1918.

Baby Buggies-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed 50 per cent. of the production of the last four months of 1917, and that they be given a Class "C" rating for enough metal to match up stocks now on hand, provided discard steel only shall be used.

Composite Roofing-Manufacturers restricted to production and sale to buildings built by the Government and the Allies or under license from the War Industries Board.

Sporting Goods-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed as compared with production for the last four months of 1917, as follows: Tennis balls, 40 per cent.: footballs and equipment, 60 per cent.; baseballs, bats and equipment, 60 per cent.: golf balls and golf clubs, 40 per cent.; no athletic clothing manufactured after the stocks on hand have been used up.

Gas Stoves and Gas Appliances-For the last four months of 1918 curtalled to 50 per cent. of the production for the last four months of 1917, all copper eliminated except that on hand, which should be conserved for repairs to existing Installation.

Automobile Pneumatic Tires-War Industries Board will deal with rubber industry as a controlled industry. Using as a basis the production for the eighteen months ending June 30, 1918, the maximum production of each manufacturer for the last four months of 1918 is fixed at 50 per cent. of the average four months' period production during the eighteen months' period.

Tin Plate-For the last three months of 1918 curtailed the use of steel 30 per cent. from consumption of the last three months of 1917, an estimated saving of approximately 150,000 tons of steel.

Soft Drinks and Mineral Waters-Effective November 1, the production of non-alcoholic beverages


A Submarine in the Hudson, Directed by Washington.



(other than near beers, which have been prohibited after December 1), including the manufacture of fruit Juices, water, concentrated extracts, syrups and carbonic acid gas, curtailed on the basis of 50 per cent. per annum based on the production for the calendar year of 1917; that is, no month's production shall exceed 50 per cent. of the production of the corresponding month of the previous year. Grape juice, cider and loganberry juice products of this year's harvest may be produced, but the restriction must apply to the year 1919.

Talking Machines-For the last four months of 1918 curtalled 40 per cent. of the production for the last four months of 1917 in units and on a tonnage basis, with recommendation the industry secure war work before January 1, 1919.

Agricultural Implements and Farm Tractors-Effective October 1 on a twelve months' schedule curtailed in use of iron and steel 25 per cent. from consumption for calendar year ending September 30, 1918. Bicycles-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed 25 per cent. in iron and steel of the consumption for the last four months of 1917, with elimination of bicycles for children and for racing purposes. Refrigerators-For the last four months of 1918 curtailed 33 per cent. in iron and steel of the consumption for the last four months of 1917. with order for substitution of zinc plate where possible.

(By The American Red Cross.)

IN answer to inquiries frequently made, as well as to correct an impression regarding the original significance of the symbol that appears to prevail in some quarters, the following facts concerning the adoption of the Red Cross emblem are presented: The Red Cross was founded through a diplomatic convention held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864. The Treaty of Geneva, or, as it is sometimes called, the Red Cross Treaty, provided for a flag for hospitals and convoys and an arm badge for persons. The desigL proposed was a red cross on a white ground. This was in compliment to the country in which the congress was sitting, the Swiss flag being a white cross on a red ground. The Red Cross flag, therefore, is the national flag of Switzerland with the colors reversed.

Inasmuch as the cross symbolizes the Christian religion, the idea prevails with some persons, who are unfamiliar with the early history of the Red Cross, that the emblem has a distinctly religious significance -that in adopting it the signatories to the treaty had principally in mind the humanitarianism of Christianity. But the universality of the underlying idea, embracing all nations and all religions, divorced it from any such significance. In other words, the particular cross that suggested the Red Cross emblem was heraldic rather than religious. It is true that the Mohammedan antipathy to the cross in any form subsequently caused Turkish representatives to protest against operating under the emblem, and it was specially provided that the organization in Turkey should have a red crescent for a symbol. But Japan and China have the red cross for an emblem; and all the other countries of the world, in short, recognize it in its true non-sectarian and non-religious significance.

At a banquet given for the delegates to the original convention of 1864 there was in the centre of the table a large piece of confection, representing a fortress with its garrison and sanitary workers, distinguished by the Red Cross brassard, pursuing their functions. The tower was surmounted by small silk flags of the Swiss Republic and Canton of Geneva, around the central flag, a red cross on a white field, the emblem of neutrality just adopted After the first toast this flag was taken from its place by the president of the convention, who, turning to the representative of the United States Sanitary Commission, presented ft to him as a token of appreciation of the Commission's labors for the good of humanity.


THE following statement is authorized by the Secretary of War: The Director of Military Aeronautics received from the Commander of Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., the following official report: "The Board found that Major J. P. Mitchel, R. C. A. S., while flying à scout airplane, Signal Corps, No. 41,372, at Gerstner Field. Lake Charles, La., at about S A. M. on July 6, 1918, fell out of said airplane at an altitude of about 500 feet when said airplane nosed down sharply and was killed instantaneously. Said airplane was found about half mile south of hangar No. 24, a total wreck, and Major Mitchel's body was found about 500 yards nearer hangar No. 24. The Board also finds that death occurred in line of duty and not the cause of his own misconduct. The accident investigation officer reports that safety belt was found unbuckled and intact with no evidence of any strain having been placed upon it. The fire extinguisher was found seventy yards from body on line with ship. Body bounded ten feet in opposite direction to ship on line with it. The consensus of opinion of witnesses is that he failed to buckle safety belt and upon nosing over for glide was thrown out by the peculiar quick snap of the scout when the stick pushed too far forward.-KIRBY.'


(By E. H. Mott, in the New York Sun.)

IN a file of the Goshen Independent Republican for 1821, of the issue of November 26, is an obituary notice of Capt. Ezra Lee, a soldier of the Revolution, who had died in Lyme, Conn., aged, seventy-two, "on the 29th ult.," in which is recounted his daring exploit in a submarine boat in the North River, in an attack on enemy ships. Stating that “it is a little remarkable that Capt. Lee is the only man of which It can be said that he fought the enemy upon land, upon water, and under water," the account of this pioneer submarine fighter's daring deed is as follows:

"When the British lay in the North River opposite New York, and white Gen. Washington had possession of the city, he was very desirous to be rid of such neighbors. A Mr. Bushnell at Saybrook, Conn., who had the genius of a Fulton, constructed a submarine machine, of a contcal form, bound together with iron bands, within which one person might sit, and with cranks and sculls could navigate it to any depth under water. In the upper part was affixed a vertical screw for the purpose of penetrating ship bottoms, and to this was attached a magazine of powder, within which was a clock which, on being set to run any given time, would, when run down, spring a gun lock, and an explosion would follow. This marine turtle, so called, was examined by Gen. Washington and approved. To preserve secrecy, it was experimented with in an enclosed yard in over thirty feet of water, and kept during daylight locked in a vessel's hold. The brother of the inventor was to be the person to navigate the machine into action, but on sinking it at the first time he declined the service.

"Gen. Washington, unwilling to relinquish the object, requested Major Gen. Parsons to select a person in whom he could confide voluntarily to engage in the enterprise. The latter, being well acquainted with the heroic spirit, the patriotism and the firm and steady courage of the deceased above mentioned, imme diately communicated the plan to the officer, which he accepted, observing that his life was at Gen. Washington's service. After practising with the machine until he understood its powers of balancing and moving under water, a night was fixed upon for the attempt. Gen. Washington and his associates in the secret took their stations upon a roof of a house in Broadway, anxiously awaiting results. Morning came and



Terrestrial Temperature and Atmospheric Absorption.

A SUBMARINE IN THE HUDSON, DIRECTED BY WASHINGTON-Continued. intelligence could be had of the intrepid navigator, nor could the boat attending him give any account of him after parting with him the first part of the night. While these anxious spectators were about to give him up as lost, several barges were seen to start suddenly from Governor's Island (then in possession of the British) and proceed toward some object near the Asia, ship of the line. As suddenly they were Seen to put about and steer for the island with springing oars. In two or three minutes an explosion took place from the surface of the water, resembling a water spout, which aroused the whole city and region. The enemy ships took the alarm, signals were rapidly given, the ships cut their cables and proceeded to the Hook with all possible despatch, sweeping their bottoms with chains, and with difficulty prevented their affrighted crews from leaping overboard.

During this scene of consternation the deceased came to the surface, opened the brass head of his aquatic machine, rose up and gave a signal for a boat to come to him, but they could not reach him until he again descended under water to avoid the enemy's shot from the island, who had discovered him and commenced firing in his wake. Having forced himself against a strong current under water until without the reach of shot, he was taken in tow and landed at the Battery amid a great crowd, and reported himself to Gen. Washington, who expressed his entire satisfaction that the object was effected without the loss of lives. Capt. Lee was under the Asia's bottom more than two hours, endeavoring to penetrate her copper, but in vain. He frequently came up under her stern galleries searching for exposed plank and could hear the sentinel's cry. Once he was discovered by the watch on deck and heard them speculate upon him, concluding that a drifting log had paid them a visit. He returned to her keel and examined it fore and aft, and then proceeded to some other ships. To the impossibility of penetrating their copper hundreds owed their lives. The longest space of time he could remain under water was two hours.'

This is all that the chronicler of this venturesome soldier thought it worth while to say about his daring and unprecedented submarine attacks on enemy ships, although a detall of the manner in which Capt. Lee managed to supply himself with air for breathing purposes while prowling about among the copper bottoms of the ships, endeavoring for two hours to find a vulnerable spot in which to insert the explosive prow of his machine, would have been at least enlightening. The chronicler mentions, however, that "the deceased during the war had the confidence and esteem of the Commander in Chief, and was frequently employed by him on secret missions of importance. He fought with him at Trenton and Monmouth. At Brandywine the hilt of his sword was shot away."


(By Professor Jacques Loeb of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington.)

IT is well known that isolated pieces of a plant or a lower animal may regenerate into a whole organism again. In order to replace the current vague speculations concerning this phenomenon by a scientific theory ìu the sense of the physicist, quantitative experiments are required. The writer has for the past two years made such experiments which have led to a remarkably simple law controlling the quantity of regeneration in an isolated piece of an organism. This law can be expressed as follows: The mass of tissue regenerated by an isolated piece of an organiam is under equal conditions and in equal time in direct proportion to the mass of growth material contained in the sap (or blood) of the isolated piece. The experiments on which this law is based were carried out on an organism unusually favorable for investigations of this kind, namely, the Bermuda "life plant." When leaves of this plant are isolated from the stem they will regenerate shoots in some or many of their notches. If a piece of stem is cut out from a plant it will form shoots from its two most apical buds. My experiments have yielded the result that the mass of shoots formed in the latter case is in direct proportion to the mass of a leaf attached to the stem; and to the mass of the isolated leaf in the former case. When we cut out two sister leaves of Bryophyllum. i. e., a pair of leaves taken from the same node of a plant, and keep them under the same condition of moisture, temperature, and light, the two sister leaves possessing equal mass will produce approximately equal masses of shoots in equal times, although the number of shoots produced by the two sister leaves may vary considerably.

Summary-By measuring the influence of the mass of a leaf attached to an isolated piece of stem upon the process of regeneration in the piece, it has been possible to prove that the quantity of regeneration is in equal time and under equal conditions in direct proportion to the mass of the leaf. Since nothing except substances produced and sent out by the leaf can vary in direct proportion to its mass, it follows that the quantity of regeneration in an isolated plece of an organism is under equal conditions determined by the mass of material necessary for growth circulating in the sap (or blood) of the piece. If we measure the rate of regeneration by the mass of material regenerated in a given time, the law of regeneration becomes a special case of the law of chemical mass action. That this mass action on a bud is only possible in a piece of stem after it is isolated, the writer explains on the assumption that the apex of an intact plant sends constantly Inhibitory substances into the stem preventing the buds contained in the stem from growing and consuming the material required for growth. When a piece of stem is isolated, the supply of these inhibitory substances from the growing region ceases and the most apical bud being the first to become free from the inhibitory substance will then come under the influence of the acting masses of the substances in the sap and regeneration will occur. The mystifying phenomenon of an isolated piece restoring its lost organs thus turns out to be the result of two plain chemical factors: the law of mass action and the production and giving off of inhibitory substances in the growing regions of the organism.

TERRESTRIAL TEMPERATURE AND ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION. (By C. G. Abbot, Astrophysical Observatory, Smithsonian Institution. Read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington.) Is the earth's surface a perfect radiator? Its surface is about three-fourths water. Of the remainder much is moist soil or moist vegetation. The radiative power of the earth must therefore be near that of water. My colleague, Mr. Aldrich, finds that of the rays emitted by lamp-black paint at 100°C. & layer of water 1 cm. thick transmits none and reflects as follows: 30° 70°


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As the absorption is 1- (Ref. + Trans.) he computes that of rays reaching a water surface from a hollow hemispherical inclosing lamp-black-painted surface at 100°, the absorption would be 90%. Experiments on lamp-black paint having shown nothing strongly selective about its radiation in this region of spectrum, we seem justified in concluding, in accord with Kirchoff's law, that water is a 90% perfect radiator in this region of spectrum. As is water, so is the earth's surface. Hence we conclude that the earth's surface sends out 0.50 calories per cm2 per minute on the average. From recent experiments Fowle has computed that in clear weather, when preciptable water in the atmosphere is 1 cm., the atmospbere transmits 28% to space of the radiation emitted by the earth's surface. In the tropics where a load of atmospheric humidity equal to precipitable water of 3 cm. or more is common, the transmission would not exceed 20% on clear days. A. Angström has shown that on cloudy nights practically all radiation from the earth's surface tr space is cut off.

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It seems to be &D propriate that where several flags or Gmblems are displayed on a pole, or otherwise, the United States flag should always be hoisted first and hung or displayed at the top; that in any parade the United States flag should always have the place of honor, and that the flag should never be hung or displayed with the union down except as a signal of distress at sea. Existing regulations governing the army provide that when officers and enlisted men pass the national flag, not encased, they will render honors as follows: If in civilian dress and covered. they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder with the right hand; ff uncovered, they will salute with the right hand salute. A flag unfurled and hung in a room in which officers or enlisted men of the army are present will be saluted by them the first time they may have occasion to pass it, but not thereafter. The band salute is as follows: Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches the lower part of the headdress above the right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to left, forearm inclined to about 45 degrees, hand and wrist straight; at the same time look toward the person saluted; drop the arm smartly to the side.

(By the Adjutant General of the United States Army.) THERE is no Federal law now in force pertaining) in the same manner. to the manner of displaying, hanging or saluting the United States flag or prescribing any ceremonies that should be observed in connection therewith. In fact, there are but two Federal laws on the statute -books that have any bearing upon this subject, one the act of Congress approved Feb. 20, 1905 (33 Stat. L., p. 725), providing that a trademark cannot be registered which consists of or comprises, inter alia, "the flag, coat of arms or other insignia of the United States, or any simulation thereof,' and the other the act of Congress approved February 8, 1917 (Public No. 30564th Cong.), providing certain penalties for the desecration, mutilation or improper use of the flag within the District of Columbia. Several States of the Union have enacted laws which have more or less bearing upon the general subject, and it seems probable that many counties and municipalities have also passed ordinances concerning the matter, to govern action within their own jurisdiction. Warning against desecration of the American flag by allens has been issued by the Department of Justice, which has sent the following notice to Federal attorneys and marshals: "Any allen enemy tearing down, mutilating, abusing or desecrating the United States flag in any way will be regarded as a danger to the public peace or safety within the meaning of regulation 12 of the proclamation of the President issued April 6, 1917, and will be subject to summary arrest and punishment." It is the practice in the army, each day in the year, to hoist the flag briskly at sunrise, irrespective of the condition of the weather, and to lower it slowly and ceremoniously at sunset, indicating the commencement and cessation of the activities of the day, and to display it at half-staff on Memorial Day (May 30) from sunrise until noon and at full staff from noon until sunset, and also on other days specially designated for that purpose by the proper authority, the flag always being first hoisted to the top of the staff before being lowered to the half-staff position.


No anthem, hymn or musical air has been recognized by any Federal law as the national anthem, hymn or air, but army and navy regulations providé that the musical composition familiarly known as The Star-Spangled Banner shall be designated as the national air of the United States of America. It should be stated, however, that these regulations are binding only upon the personnel of the military and naval service. Whenever the national air is played at any place where persons belonging to the military or naval service are present, all officers and enlisted men not in formation are required to stand at attention, facing toward the music, excepting when the flag is being lowered at sunset, on which occasion they are required to face toward the flag. If in civilian dress and uncovered, they are required to stand and salute at the first note of the air, retaining the position of salute until the last note of the air is played. If in civilian dress and covered, they are required to stand and uncover at the first note of the air, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder until the last note is played, excepting in inclement weather, when the headdress may be held slightly raised. The custom of rising and remaining standing and uncovered while The Staranong ofvillans.

Old or woru-out flags should not be used either for banners or for any secondary purpose. When

a flag is in such a condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, it should not be cast aside nor used in any way that might be viewed as disrespectful to the national colors, but should be destroyed as a whole, privately, preferably by burning or by some other method lacking in any sugges tion of irreverence or disrespect due the emblem representing our country. It should be borne in mind that the views set forth here are merely suggestive and that it is not the intention of the department to give them out as authoritative. HISTORY OF THE FLAG AND ITS CHANGES IN DESIGN.

There has been some question among civilians concerning the exact location of a flag hung at "halfstaf." Theoretically, the flag is always hung on a separate staff, much shorter than the staffs usually erected on buildings, and as a consequence a flag hung at half-staff would be located much higher on the ordinary flagstaff than under the present practice, but still the custom of placing the half-staffed flag in about the center of the flagpole, whatever its length may be, is rather generally observed | Spangled Banner is being played is growing in favor throughout the country, and this department sees no real objection to this custom. ́ Considerable discussion has arisen throughout the country concerning the proper manner of hanging and displaying the flag for decorative purposes. As already stated, there is no Federal law governing the subject, and individual opinion differs as to the procedure that should or should not be followed. It has been suggested that as far as possible the hanging of the flag should be restricted to suspending it from a flag pole, in the regular way, and not to displaying it otherwise; that for purposes of decoration only the national colors should be arranged in the form of bunting and not to be used in the form of the flag: that if it is nevertheless the desire to use the flag for decorative purposes it should always be hung flat, whether on the inside or the outside of buildings, with the union to the north or east, so that there will be a general uniformity in the position of the union of each flag displayed: that the flag should rarely be displayed in a horizontal position or laid flat; that under no circumstances should it be hung where it can easily be contaminated or soiled, or be draped over chairs or benches to be used for seating purposes, and that no object or emblem of any kind should be placed above or upon it. This department sees no objection to flying the flag at night on civilian property, provided it is not so flown for advertising purposes. Days for Displaying Flag-It is becoming the practice throughout the country, among civilians, to display the national flag on all patriotic occasions, especially on the following days: Lincoln's Birthday, Washington's Birthday, Mothers' Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, Independence Day. In certain localities other special days are observed


According to the Smithsonian Institution there were many forms of early flags, especially Colonial types used by the individual colonies and militia regiments, before the flag of the United States was established by the Continental Congress on June 14, 1777, now celebrated as Flag Day. This act required that the flag of the United States be of thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white, and that the union be thirteen white stars on a blue feld, representing a new constellation, but it did not detine how many points the stars should have, how they should be arranged, nor make provision for additional ones. One of the first occasions for public display of the "Stars and Stripes" is said to have been on August 6, 1777, when the new flag was holsted over the troops at Fort Schuyler, Rome, N. Y. John Paul Jones is said to have been the first to fly the "Stars and Stripes" over the bish


The American Flag-Continued.


seas, on the on the Ranger, in November, 1777. The National Museum has an early naval 12-star type dag said to have been flown by John Paul Jones during the War of the Revolution. From the time of the Revolution the stars and stripes in the flag have varied. There were 13 stars during the Revolution, 15 in the War of 1812, 29 in the Mexican War, 33 to 35 in the Civil War, 45 in the Spanish War, and 48 to-day. The stripes were changed first from 13 to 15, and then back again to 13. It may be surprising to know that our national flag is among the oldest flags of the nations, being older than the present British Jack, the French Tricolor and the dag of Spain, and many years older than the flags of Germany and Italy, some of which are either personal flags or those of the reigning families.

The American flag of the highest historic and sentimental value to the whole country is in the National Museum collections. It is the the original "StarSpangled Banner" which flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor during the bombardment on September 13-14, 1814, and was the inspiration of Francis Scott Key's immortal poem, now sung as our national anthem. It is of the 15 star and stripe type adopted after the admission of Vermont and Kentucky by an act approved by President WashIngton, January 13, 1794. The Star-Spangled Banner" measures about 30 feet square, though it was probably somewhat longer, and is much battered and torn, with one star missing, possibly shot away. From 1795 this form continued as the standard flag until President Monroe's Monroe's Administration, when Congress enacted that it should thereafter be of thirteen stripes and twenty stars, with the addition of a star for each new State, commencing July 4, 1818.

It seems that for many years the army did not carry the Stars and Stripes in battle, though it had been in general use as a garrison flag. The land forces during this period and before carried what was known as national colors or standards of blue, with the coat of arms of the United States, comprising an eagle surmounted by a number of stars, emblazoned thereon, with the designation of the body of troops. In 1834, War Department regulations gave the artillery the right to carry the Stars and Stripes. The infantry and cavalry still used the national standards, which remained the colors of the infantry until 1841 and of the cavalry until 1887, when that branch of the army was ordered to carry the Stars and Stripes. From its adoption in 1777, however, naval vessels universally displayed the National

Flag. The history of the flag thus indicates that the Stars and Stripes was not officially carried by American troops in battle until the period of the Mexican War, 1846-47. In that war a flag of 13 stars and stripes was carried by the battalion of volunteers from Maryland and the District_of_Columbia, and the flag of Company I, Fourth Reglment of Indiana Infantry, of 13 stripes, with an eagle in the field. Ten flags of the National Museum collection pertain to the Civil War. Other flags include some of the Spanish-American War, a flag used by Admiral Charles Wilkes, U. S. Navy; a miniature flag carried by Captain C. F. Hall in the Arctic, 1864-1869; the American colors carried by Rear-Admiral Peary in his Arctic explorations in 1909; the flag carried by the Smithsonian African Expedition under the direction of Col. Theodore Roosevelt, in 1909-10; and numerous examples of the National Ensign which has flown in notable engagements and during countless worthy achievements.


The official flag of the United States bears fortyeight white stars in a blue fleld, arranged in six rows of eight stars each. Two stars were added in 1912 by the admission of Arizona and New Mexico to the Union. The garrison dag of the Army is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly and twenty feet hoist, thirteen stripes, and in the upper quarter, next the staff, is the field or "union" of stars, equal to the number of States, on blue feld, over one-third length of the flag, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top. The storm flag

is twenty feet by ten feet, and the recruiting flag nine feet nine inches by four feet four inches. The "Union Jack" is blue with a star for every State in white. The Coast Guard flag, authorized by act of Congress, March 2, 1799, was originally prescribed to "consist of sixteen perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign bearing the arms of the United States in dark blue on a white fleld." The sixteen stripes represented the number of States which had been admitted to the Union at that time, and no change has been made since. June 14, the anniversary of the adoption of the flag, is celebrated as Flag Day in a large part of the Union.

When the National and State or other flags fly together the National flag should be on the right. When used on a bier or casket at a funeral the stars In no case should should be placed at the head.

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