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And in Iulius Cæsar, act 2, pag. 120.
« Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes?" And, in Hamlet,
“ Would I had met my dearest foe in heauen,
“ Ere I had euer seene that day.” Johnson and Malone, who trusted to their Latin to explain his English, for deer and deerest, would have us read dire and direst ; not knowing that dere and depiend mean hurt and hurting, mischief and mischievous : and that their Latin dirus is from our Anglo-Saxon dere, which they would ex.
LIRTH..... That which dissipateth, viz. care, sorrow, melancholy, &c. the third person singular of the indicative of Mýrran. See before morrow.
The Anglo-Saxons likewise used Morid, monde, mors, i. e. Quod dissipat (subaud. vitam ;) the third person of the same verb Mýrran, to mar, &c.
(5) “ Martinius, in voce pretiosus censet Angl. DEARE affine “esse to Impov, diuturnum ; quod majoris pretii sint ac pluris “ fiant quæ sunt durabiliora. Ita quoque B. Duy, , pretiosus 6 derivant a Duyren, durare.” Junius.
“ DEAR alludit Gr. Onpaw, consector, capto, venor ; quia quæ « pretiosa sunt omnes captant.” Skinner.
“ Dirus, Dei ira natus" Festus. “ Dirum est triste, infestum et quasi Deorum ira missum."
Nannius. Servius says it is a Sabine word....“ Sabini et Umbri, quæ nos “ Mala, dira appellant."
Vossius and Dacier will at all events have it from the Greek Aelvos; N mutato in R.
and having itself the same meaning as mirth; but a different application and subaudition. Hence, from Monde, MURTHER, the French meurtre, and the Latin mors.
GROWTH..... The third person of to grow.
Birth ..... The third person of to bear. See before BORN.
Ruth..... The third person of to rue. þrýpian, misereri.
Sheatr.... The third person of sceadan, segregare. See before shade and shed.
Drougth.....A. s. drugog. It was formerly DRYETH, DRYTH, and DRITH.
" When ouermuch heate or DRYETH in the “ matrice is cause of the hynderaunce of concep" tion." Byrth of Mankynde, (1540) boke 3, fol. 83, pag. 1.
“ They whiche be compounde, are in compounde " or myxte qualities : as heate and moisture, heate ti and DRYTHE.
Castel of Helth, (1541) fol. 3, pag. 1. “ Hot wynes, &c. be noyfull to theym whyche “ be choleryke, because they be in the highest degree
of heate and DRYTHE aboue the just temperaunce of mannes body in that complexion." Castel of Helth, boke 2, cap. 4, fol. 17, pag. 2. “ Where great weerinesse or drith greueth the body, their ought the dyner to be the lesse.” Castel of Helth, boke 2, cap. 27, fol. 41, pag.
2. Drougth is that which dryeth, the third person singular of the indicative of drigan, drugan, arescere. Custom has transposed the th, to DROUGHT. DRY....A. s. drig is the past participle of the same verb. As is also DRUGS, a name common to all Europe, and which means dryed (subaud. herbs, roots, plants, &c.) When we say, that any thing is a mere DRUG; we mean dryed up, worthless.
Sloth.... That which sloweth, or maketh one slow, the third person of the indicative of slapian. See before slow.
STRENGTH.... That which stringeth, or maketh strong, A. s. streng. See before STRONG(").
Mouth. (MATGIM).... That which eateth; the third person of the indicative of MTGAN, Metian, edere(j). See before MEAT.
Moth.... The name of an insect that eateth or fretteth a garment” (frettan, vorare). It is the same word as mouth, differently written, pronounced and applied.
Junius indeed says, of Morm...." tanquam sit ex uox Onpos, pravus; propter importunam scelestissmi insecti malitiam."
And Skinner....“ Hoc credo, a uudaw, uligine putresco.”
Tooth (T\ngio).... That which tuggeth; the third person singular of the indicative of TinGAN, teogan, to tug.
(h) Mer. Casaubon derives STRONG from Ectypi/pevas.
“ Videri potest (says Junius) affine Gr. Etgayyeuw vel & Etenye Gou, torqueo, stringo."
Skinner derives it from the Latin strenuus a Gr. Ergnuns asper, acutus : he adds....“ Alludit et Gr. gaww, pwovopei, corroboro.”
(1) Minshew and Junius derives MOUTH from Mudos, sermo.
FAITH. A. s. fægð.... That which one covenanteth or engageth. It was formerly written
“ Sainct Paule speaketh of them, where he « writeth that the tyme shoulde come when some
erring in the FAIETH, shoulde prohibite mari. age.” Dr. Martin, of Priestes unlauful Mariages,
chap. 2, pag. 15. “ The very profession of FAIETH, by the whiche “ we beleue on the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghoste, of what writyng haue we this?
Id. chap. 2, (pag. 20.) “ In saint Gregories daies, at whose handes Englande was learned the FAIETI of Christ.”
Id. chap. 8. (pag. 116.) It is the third person singular of the indicative of Fægan, dangere, pagere, to engage, to covenant, to contract.
SMITH.... One who smiteth, scil. with the ham
Thus we have blacksmith, whitesmith, silversmith, goldsmith, coppersmith, anchorsmith, &c.
“ A softe pace he wente ouer the strete
Miller's Tale, fol. 14, pag. 2, col. 2. This name was given to all who smote with the hammer. What we now call a carpenter, was also antiently called a smith. The French word car. penter was not commonly used in England in the reign of Edward the third. The translation of the New Testament, which is ascribed to Wicliffe, proves to us that at that time smith and carpenter were synonimous: and the latter then newly introduced into the language.
“ He bigan to teche in a sinagoge, and manye “ heeringe wondriden in his teching, seiynge, of “ whennes ben alle these thingis to this man, and " what is the wisdom whiche is gouun to him, and “ suche vertues that ben maad by hise hondis. « Wher this is not a smith, ether a carpentere, “ the sone of Marie.” Mark, chap. vi. (v. 2, 3.)
STEALTH...the manner by which one STEALETH.
Month....moon was formerly written mone ; and MONTH was written MONETH. It means the period in which that planet moneth, or compleateth its orbit.
“ And he his trouth leyd to borowe
Gower, lib. 4, fol. 67, pag, 1, col. 2.
G:wer, lib. 5, fol. 76, pag. 2, col. 1. Earth....that which one ereth or eareth, i. e. plougheth. It is the third person of the indicative of crian, arare, to ere, to eare, or to plough. “ He that erith, owith to ere in hope.”
1 Corinthies, cap. 9, (v. 10.) « I haue an halfe acre to erie by the hygh waye “ Had I eried thys halfe acre and sowed it after “ I woulde wend wyth you."
Vis. of P. Ploughman, fol. 31, fag. k.