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The Swedish navy, in 1852, consisted of, 10 Line-of-battle-Ships.

8 Schooners. 6 Frigates.

214 4 Corvettes.

7 Mortar-boats. 1 Brig,

21 Advice-boats. There are, besides, 10 steam-vessels.

Of the ten line-of-battle ships, two are said to be in bad condition and the remaining six were to be fitted to receive screwpropellers. The Norwegian naval force consists of —

3 Frigates.
4 Corvettes.
1 Brig.
3 Schooners, carrying .. 68-pr.
2 Do.

80 Gun-boats, , 2 68-pr.
40 Gun-yawls


24-pr. There is, besides, 1 steam.corvette.

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From the Report of the Secretary of the Navy in 1856. Wabash, steam-frigate.

James Town, sloop. Merrimac do.

St. Louis

do. Niagara do.


do. Susquehanna do.

Levant do. Minnesota

Portsmouth do. Saranac do.

Powhattan, steam-frigate. San Jacinto do.

Macedonian, sloop-of-war. Savannah.

Vandalia do. Resolute.

Independence, frigate. Fulton.

John Adams, sloop. St. Lawrence.

St. Mary do. Saratoga, sloop-of-war.

Decator d o. Cyane.

Massachusetts, steamer. Germantown.

John Hancock do. Falmouth.

Dolphin, brig. Bainbridge.

Fennimore Cooper, Water Witch.

Arctic, steamer. Congress, frigate.

Plymouth, sloop-of-war. Constellation, sloop-of-war.

| Vincennes.

* One of these, the 'Naijaden' (18 guns), is the exercising ship, for gunnery practice, in the Swedish navy. This vessel of war is now being repaired in Chatham dock, having sustained considerable damage by running aground on the Galloper Sands during her voyage from Christiansund, on her way to the West Indies.

The armament of five new frigates consists of 8, 9, 10, and 11-inch shell guns. The 8-inch guns are on the spar-deck, and the 9-inch guns on the gun-deck : the frigates have besides a 68-pounder solid-shot pivot-gun at bow and stern, the 10-inch shell-gun, which was formed upon the model of the 10-inch British shell-gun, having been abolished in the United States navy, as being deficient in accuracy, range, and power. Yet this very defective shell-gun, displaced, as a pivot-gun, in the British ser : vice, on account of its great inferiority to the 68-pounder solidshot gun, as shown in Article 268, p. 258, ‘Naval Gunnery,' and wholly proscribed from the naval service of the United States, forms the principal armament of the · Diadem,' and other frigates of her class, lately built and armed, as fully equal to contend with the United States frigate Niagara,' Merrimac,' &c.! Surely this defective shell-gun should be forthwith withdrawn, and the 68-pounder solid-shot gun substituted. There is ample displacement and deck-room to admit of this; and we have the authority of Captain Dahlgren, and even that of the gallant Captain of the Diadem,' for asserting, that the 95-cwt. solid-shot 68pounder may be worked as easily as a 32-pounder, and, it may be added, fired at long ranges with solid shot, as rapidly, at least, as a 10-inch shell-gun, which cannot fire solid shot.

The Niagara' carries twelve 11-inch guns, each capable of throwing a shell weighing 135 lbs. All the shell-guns are capable of firing solid shot; but in the United States' service hollow shot are abolished. Shells are preferred on account of the destructive effects which are expected to ensue when they explode in an enemy's ship.

It has been recommended to the Government of the United States that there should be constructed a number of sloops of war, each furnished with brass boat-guns—12 and 24-pounders. These vessels, on account of their small draught of water, are expected to do good service in defending the coasts, or on entering an enemy's harbours.


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he prestations relatiferent de the providente technieships the in

( C.) ON THE FORMATION OF A NEW CODE OF NAVAL TACTICS. A COMMITTEE of the most scientific and experienced Naval officers, with the aid of some officers of the Artillery and Engineers, well versed in tactical science, and in the arts of military attack and defence, should be appointed, in order to make a selection of formations adapted to fleets composed exclusively of steamers; and to decide upon the evolutions to be performed by such fleets previously to, and during the continuance of, an action at sea. A measure of this kind is now become one of paramount importance, and even of absolute necessity; since, as has been already stated in this work (Arts. 40, 97, 102, 112, 113), the motive powers of steam and wind cannot be made to act together without entirely nullifying, through the limitations imposed by the wind, and the complexity of the operations, the advantages which are to be derived from the application of steam being made with equal facility in all the various conditions of naval warfare.

In the presence of an enemy at sea, all sails must be furled, and the Regulations relating to warfare under sail must be disregarded. Others of a different character must be prepared ; and even a vocabulary of terms must be provided, in accordance with the new system of tactics, as substitutes for the technicalities relating to the movements, and the working of sailing ships; these will have no place in the tactics of steam fleets, and ought, in consequence, to become obsolete. In a steam ship there will be no starboard or larboard tack; the more simple terms right or left will suffice: there will be no luffing up or wearing round; and the order to turn ship in an assigned direction, communicated by signal or otherwise, may be given in their stead; and the like may be said of many other nautical phrases, which, henceforth, should be considered as antiquated, and should give place to others more in accordance with ordinary language. The circumstances of armies in the field have their analogues in naval warfare; therefore, military terms might with advantage be introduced in nautical science; and thus the inconvenience of employing different terms to designate similar actions or objects would be avoided.

It appears to the author that a committee of the most scientific and experienced officers of the Royal, and Royal Marine Artillery, that can be obtained, should also be appointed to revise the Regulations which now exist respecting the armament of the British line-of-battle steam ships, with a view of adapting the armament to the volumes of the ships, and keeping it in harmony with the

great tactical principle of reciprocal defence. In carrying out
this principle, the gunnery powers of the different ships require to
be combined with each other in such a manner as to give the
greatest military strength to the whole fleet, by enabling each
ship to give to, and receive from, the neighbouring ships, that
support which constitutes the main strength of a defensive system,
instead of, as in times past, leaving each ship to rely on its own
isolated strength.

When a special code of Regulations for the evolutions of steam
fleets shall have been completed, a new code of signals, by which
the regulations for executing those evolutions may be most effec-
tually carried into effect, should also be drawn up. The same
distinctive signal flags as are at present in use, may be employed ;
but they should be displayed in a different manner. Flags droop
in calm weather, which is the most propitious time for an engage-
ment between steam fleets, and then they become useless; even
when they flutter in the breeze they are not easily made out,
if the wind should be in the direction in which the signal is to be
made. Every signal flag should therefore be bent to two small
yards, one above and the other below, an expedient often put in
practice during the late wars, but which should now be invariably
adopted: the flags should be connected together in the prescribed
combination; hoisted to the most conspicuous part of the rigging,
their planes perpendicular to the direction in which the signal is
to be passed.


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