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Fleets of ships, moved both by sail and steam, shouldl

perform the evolutions under steam only J

en echelon not liable to be enfiladed in approach-!

y ing an enemy J

Formations en echelon, advantage of, for making false \

demonstrations /

Fouling of a screw by floating materials

method of diminishing the risk of, previous to)

action J

Fuel, consumption of, less with the screw than with thel

paddle, the velocities being equal /

, economy of, gained by working steam ex-\

pansively /

, consumption of, proportional to the number of I

revolutions of the shaft I

, economy of, by allowing greater space fori

expansion I

Fulton executes the 'Clermont' paddle-steamer inl

America in l807 J


Galloway, invention of, for feathering paddle-boards ..
Garay, Uapt., pretensions of, to the invention of steam-)

propulsion J

Gearing, inconvenience of, for steering screw-steamers
Gunnery, good, might have prevented the British fleet)

from breaking the line at Trafalgar .. .... .. I

Gun-ports, dimensions of

Guns may be trained to fire at 37° 30' before the beam


Horse-power, estimated value in pounds weight • • _ ,

, discrepancy between, and gunnery force in British i

ships of war J


Indicator, description of the



Leeward, a fleet to, may decline action

Line abreast, advance in, is difficult for sailing ships ..

should change into line en echelon when near the^


, a fleet in, may obtain a powerful defence from I

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the fire of the bow-guns )

Line ahead, a fleet in, affords no reciprocal defence ..

, single, disadvantage of

, a fleet in, may be more advantageously attacked I

by a steam fleet at the head than at the-rear .. .. I





Line of battle, reversing the extremities of, a difficult i
and complex operation I

, difficulty of penetrating a, from the leeward ..

, manner of forming the, with sailing ships

, reason why ships are close-hauled in the ..

, difficulty of penetrating, obviated by steam-pro-1

pulsion ,.'

may be strengthened by a double echelon on the I


may be formed by steamers as easily as by an I

army in the field'

may be strengthened by ships en e'chelon on the I

wings I

Line of bearing defined

should make an angle of 45° with the keels of

the ships

, double, ships may he formed in, in order to I

obtain reciprocal defence )

, double, the wings of, with steamers, may make)

with each other occasionally less than 90° .. .. .. 1

, —, sailing ships in, should be close-hauled ..

, with ships en echelon, should be the general order)

of sailing or steaming .. .. .. .. .. .. ../

Lines en echiquier, manner of disposing ships in ..


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Marine steam-engines more powerful than formerly

Masts, necessity of still firing at the ..

Melees may occasionally occur in naval actions
Millar of Dalswinton employed paddle-wheels moved by
mechanical means

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Order of battle, the enemy assumed to be close-hauled)
in /

, oblique, manner of forming

, oblique, in attack must be formed with ships in)

line ahead /

, oblique, two cases of: when fleets move in like)

directions, and in contrary directions

-, oblique, may be used at sea as on land

Order of retreat is in two lines of bearing

, defensive, may be converted into an offensive"


Orders of sailing, in double e'chelon

, Paul Hoste enumerates six .

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Paddle-board, the upper edge of the lowest, should be on\

a level with the surface of the water /

Paddle-boards act directly and obliquely on the water

, lengths and breadths of

, strains on, caused by the oblique action of the!

water /

, defects in the common manner of fixing ..

liable to be too little or too much immersed

, the operation of reefing, difficult

, improvements on, by Mr. Field, and in America

Paddle-wheels, steam-vessels with, first constructed in)

l802 ..' /

, diameters of

and the screw are the means of propelling ships]

by steam-power J

Paddles, feathering, Mr. Galloway's invention

Paul Hoste, work on Naval Tactics by

Parallel order of battle renounced in modern tactics ..
Piston, the reciprocating motion of the, produces re-)

volving motion in the wheel and screw J

Pitch of a screw defined

increasing, described

Preventive tiller

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Principles, general, can alone be laid down for attack!

and defence in naval warfare /

Prometheus and Rattler, experimental trials by the
Pursuit after victory, a duty in steam-warfare at sea

Raking or enfilading fire, can only take place when ships
are near one another

Rattler and Alecto, experimental trials by the

Rattler and Prometheus, experimental trials by the

Rattler, screw of the, entangled with warps, nets, &c. ..

Reaction of water, force of, against a paddle-board and!
a screw J

Reserve, a second line of ships should be considered as a

, use of a, when the fleet is attacked at the rear..

Resistance of water against paddle-boards

Reversing ships is difficult and dangerous in line of
battle when near the enemy

Rodney breaks the French line in l782

Royal Albert, accident to the

Savannah, steamer, first crossed the Atlantic in l8l9 ..

Screw, the blade or feather of a, defined

, action of a, in the water

, best form of a, in two halves of a spiral feather

, shake of a, injurious in the stern of a ship

, effects of a, diminished by the disturbance of the |

water at the stern of the ship t

, risk of injury to a, by its being struck by shot









Screw liable to be fouled by floating materials

, manner of clearing the obstruction on a ..

, Maudslay and Field's, described

, advantage of a, over a wheel

, inconvenience of a, from friction when the I

velocity is great J

, form of a, producing a diminished shake ..

, manner of hoisting, and replacing a ..

Shake of a screw, causes of the

Ships, small, in advance of a line, the importance of
Slip defined

is occasionally negative

Speed, advantage of superior, in the battle of February, l

l797 • J

of steamers in the same fleet should be uniform

of steamers increased by increasing the length of

the vessel )

Steam-fleet, en echelon, difficulty of penetrating a .. / , manner in which a, might counteract an effort)

to double it J

Steam-fleets not limited to any line of bearing

should always act offensively

may move to an attack in two divisions

Steam, importance of, in reaping the fruits of victory ..
Steam-ships in line of battle may be reversed individually
Steam-speed, a superiority of, advantageous in making I

the cross attack I

Steam-power cannot be conveniently combined with!

wind-power in paddle-wheel ships J

cannot be combined with wind-power in the)

manoeuvres of fleets J

Steamers (wheel and screw), objects to be attended to in I

obtaining their relative values J

Steam-vessels employed on the Thames in l8l5
Steering apparatus for the rudder of a screw-steamer |

described I

Stevens, of New York, first took a steamboat to sea,\

in l804 J

Stockton, Captain, U.S. Navy, constructed an iron I

steamboat with screw-propeller J

Symington built two steam-vessels in l802


Taylor first employed steam-power to move small wheels

Tiller, short

Trochoidal curves are described by the edges of paddle-I

boards J

Trunk, through which to hoist or lower the screw of ai

steamer, described J

, space occupied by the, on each deck

Trafalgar, peculiar formation of the French and Spanish!

fleets, at J

Victoria and Albert, paddles of the, are on the feathering)
principle J

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Watt, patent for the improved steam-engine taken out by
Wheel and screw, points to be attended to in finding the)

relative capabilities of the I

Wheel, locomotive powers of the, greater than those of)



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a screw with an equal consumption of fuel J

Widgeon and Archimedes, experimental trial by the .

Wladimir, steam-power of the

Windward position, advantage of the, for sailing ships

Yokes employed for steering screw-steamers

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