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clamation, wherein it might lie in his power to prevent or hinder the same, he the said Officer shall likewise suffer death. Given under my hand the 19th of December, 1650.


It is now Thursday: we gain admittance to the Castle on the Tuesday following, and the Scotch forces march away,– in a somewhat confused manner, I conceive. For Governor Dundas and the other parties implicated are considered little better than traitors, at Stirling: in fact, they are, openly or secretly, of the Remonstrant or Protester species; and may as well come over to Cromwell; — which at once or gradually the most of them do. What became of the Clergy, let us not inquire : Remonstrants or Resolutioners, confused times await them! Of which here and there a glimpse may turn up as we proceed. The Lord General has now done with Scotch Treaties; the Malignants and Quasi-Malignants are ranked in one definite body; and he may smite without reluctance. Here is his Letter to the Speaker on this business. After which, we may hope, the rest of his Scotch Letters may be given in a mass; sufficiently legible without commentary of ours.


For the Honourable William Lenthall, Esquire, Speaker

of the Parliament of England: These.

Right HONOURABLE, Edinburgh, 24th Dec. 1650.

It hath pleased God to cause this Castle of Edinburgh to be surrendered into our

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 99). VOL. III.

hands, this day about eleven o'clock. I thought fit to give you such account thereof as I could, and “as' the shortness of time would permit. ,

I sent a Summons to the Castle upon the 12th instant; which occasioned several Exchanges and Replies, which, for their unusualness, I also thought fit humbly to present to you. Indeed the mercy is very great, and seasonable. I think, I need to say little of the strength of the place; which, if it had not come in as it did, would have cost very much blood to have attained, if at all to be attained; and did tie up your Army to that inconvenience, That little or nothing could have been attempted whilst this was in design; or little fruit had of any thing brought into your power by your Army hitherto, without it. I must needs say, not any skill or wisdom of ours, but the good hand of God hath given you this place.

I believe all Scotland hath not in it so much brass ordnance as this place. I send you here enclosed a List thereof, and of the arms and ammunition, so well as they could be taken on a sudden. Not having more at present to trouble you with, I take leave, and rest,

Your most humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.* 1 We have already read them.

» Drakes, minions, murderers, monkeys, of brass and iron,-not interesting to us, except it be the great iron murderer called Muckle-Meg," already in existence, and still held in some confused remembrance in those Northern parts.

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 99).


The Lord General is now settled at Edinburgh till the season for campaigning return. Tradition still reports him as lodged, as in 1648, in that same spacious and sumptuous · Earl of Murrie's House in the Cannigate ;' credibly enough; though Tradition does not in this instance produce any written voucher hitherto. The Lord General, as we shall find by and by, falls dangerously sick here ; worn down by over-work and the rugged climate.

The Scots lie entrenched at Stirling, diligently raising new levies ; parliamenting and committee-ing diligently at Perth ; -crown their King at Scone Kirk, on the First of January,! in token that they have now all . complied with him. The Lord General is virtually master of all Scotland south of the Forth;—fortifies, before long, a Garrison as far west as Newark,"2 which we now call Port Glasgow, on the Clyde. How his forces had to occupy themselves, reducing detached Castles ; coercing Mosstroopers ; and, in detail, bringing the Country to obedience, the old Books at great length say, and the reader here shall fancy in his mind. Take the following two little traits from Whitlocke, and spread them out to the due expansion and reduplication :

February 3d, 1650. Letters that Colonel Fenwick sum'moned Hume Castle to be surrendered to General Cromwell. « The Governor answered, “I know not Cromwell; and as for

1 Minute description of the ceremony, in Somers Tracts, vi. 117.

Milton State-Papers, p. 84.

'my Castle, it is built on a rock.” Whereupon Colonel Fen

wick played upon him' a little with the great guns. But the Governor still would not yield ; nay sent a Letter couched in these singular terms :

“ I, William of the Wastle,

Am now in my Castle;
And aw the dogs in the town
Shanna gar' me gang down.”

So that there remained nothing but opening the mortars upon this William of the Wastle ; which did gar him gang down,more fool than he went up.

We also read how Colonel Hacker and others rooted out bodies of Mosstroopers from Strength after Strength ; and

took much oatmeal,' which must have been very useful there. But this little Entry, a few days subsequent to that of Willie Wastle, affected us most : Letters that the Scots in a Village

called Geddard rose, and armed themselves ; and set upon • Captain Dawson as he returned from pursuing some Moss* troopers ;-killed his guide and trumpet ; and took Dawson and eight of his party, and after having given them quarter,

killed them all in cold blood.”? In which · Village called Geddard,' do not some readers recognise a known place, Jeddart or Jedburgh, friendly enough to Mosstroopers; and in the transaction itself, a notable example of what is called “ Jeddart Justice,'— killing a man whom you have a pique at; killing him first, to make sure, and then judging him ! — However there come Letters too, “That the English soldiers married divers of the Scots Women ;' which was an excellent movement on their part;—and may serve as the concluding feature here.

1.Shand garre' is Whitlocke's reading.

14 Feb. 1650 (Whitlocke, p. 464).


THE ‘Empson' of this Letter, who is now to have a Company in Hacker's regiment, was transiently visible to us once already, as 'Lieutenant Empson of my regiment,' in the Skirmish at Musselburgh, four months ago. Hacker is the well-known Colonel Francis Hacker, who attended the King on the scaffold; having a signed Warrant, which we have read, addressed to him and two other Officers to that effect. The most conspicuous, but by no means the most approved, of his military services to this Country! For which one indeed, in overbalance to many others, he was rewarded with death after the Restoration. A Rutlandshire man; a Captain from the beginning of the War; and rather favourably visible, from time to time, all along. Of whom a kind of continuous Outline of a Biography, considerably different from Caulfield's and other inane Accounts of him,might still be gathered, did it much concern us here. To all appearance, a somewhat taciturn, somewhat indignant, very swift, resolute and valiant man. He died for his share in the Regicide ; but did not profess to repent of it; intimated, in his taciturn way, that he was willing to accept the results of it, and answer for it in a much higher Court than the Westminster one. We are indeed to understand generally, in spite of the light phrase which Cromwell reprimands in this Letter, that Hacker was a religious man; and in his regicides and other operations, did not act without some warrant that was very satisfactory to him. For the present he has much to do with Mosstroopers ; very active upon them ;—for which ‘Peebles' is a good locality. He continues

1 Letter CXXXV., antea, p. 19. .

· Caulfield's High Court of Justice, pp. 83-7 ; Trials of the Regicides ; &c.

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