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CHAPTER II.

Historical Reading

(a) Our author's term historicus (historical,) is not, perhaps, very happily applied, and yet it does not seem easy to substitute a better. The reader will see, in the course of the chapter, that it is here taken in a wider sense than it usually conveys.

(b) “The Sum and Substance of the Scriptures” is a designation frequently applied to some main doctrine of the Bi. ble; and thus Christ sometimes receives this character. In the instance before the Reader, it means a brief, but complete summary of the subjects, &c. recorded in the Scriptures. Such a synopsis is given by almost all commentators, as well as by Luther.

Lutheri Opera omnia, 7 vol. fol. Witteburg. 1554, et ann. feqq.

(c) Heideggeri Enchiridion Biblicum, Lips. 1703. Tig. 1681, and Amst. 1688.

(d) Wolffgangi Franzü Tractatus de Interpretatione Scripturæ Sacræ, 1654, 4to. Vide page 294.

The division of the sacred text into chapters and verses is of modern date. Hugo de Sancto Caro, who flourished in the thirteenth century, projected the first Concordance to the Scriptures, and found it necessary to divide the books into

sections, and the sections into subdivisions, in order to find out with the more ease any word or passage of Scripture. These sections are the same as our chapters, but the subdivisions do not correspond with our verses. This was the invention of Rabbi Mordecai Nathan, about 1445, who, in imitation of Hu. go, drew up a concordance to the Hebrew Bible for the use of the Jews. See the Ency. Perth. Art. BIBLE." Blackwall's Sacred Classics,” says Dr. Doddridge, "contains good observations on the divisions of chapters and verses, by which the sense is often obscured."

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(e) Chemnitii Loci Theologici, Francof. et Wirtemb. 1690.

(f) 1. The student may find it useful to consult Locke's Common-Place Book to the Bible by Dodd, 4to. Lond. and Talbot's Complete Analysis and New Arrangement of the Bible, 4to. Leeds, “ including the whole Scripture verbatim, scientifically arranged." Warden's System of Revealed Religion, 4to. Lond. 1769, has its subjects “ digested under proper heads, and is compiled in the express words of Scrip.

ture."

2. Tossani Concordantia Bib. Lat. Junü et Tremellii, et Theod. Bezæ, fol. 1639.

(8) The Works enumerated in this and the following Note, on the subject of External Circumstances, are in high re. pute ; and as they are within the compass of English Readers, and are equally as valuable as those scarce pieces which the Professor has introduced, no apology can be requisite for noticing them here.

Waltheri Officina Biblica, 4to. 1668.

Kortholtus (Christianus) de variis Scripturæ Saerxe Edition ibus, Kilon. 1684, 4to.

Father Richard Simon's Critical History of the Old and

manner.

New Testaments, 2 vols. 8vo. " is a work of long established reputation. It was first published in French, in 1768.” Dr. E. William's Christian Preacher, p. 416.

Jo. Hen. Maii Examen Historia Criticæ Novi Testamenti, Rich. Simon. Francof. 1690 ; and Gies. Has. 1694.

Dr. Walton's Prolegomena treat on philological, chronological, geographical, and other points, in a very full and learned

See the Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, 6 vol. fol. Lond. 1657.

“Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations to his new translations of the Gospels, possess various excellencies, and rectify some considerable mistakes in Father Simon's Critical History,

vols. 8vo. or (an inferior edition,) 2 vols. large 8vo. 1807." Vide Dr. E. Williams' Christian Preacher, p. 416; Forbes' Life of Beattie, vol. 2, p. 112 ; Crit. Rev. vol. 67, p. 179, and vol. 68 p. 276.

Dr. Gerard's Institutes of Biblical Criticism, 8vo. 1808. For a high character of this work which lays down the Laws of Sacred Criticism, see the Annual Review, vol. 7, p. 309, and the British Critic, vol. 32, p. 340.

Professor Michaelis' Introduction to the New Testament, translated and considerably augmented with Notes, and a Dissertation on the origin and composition of the first three Gospels by Dr. Herbert Marsh, 6 vols. large 8vo.—"Michaelis treats of the genuine antiquity, the language, readings, M. S. S. and principal editions of the New Testament; also, of the marks of distinction, aspirations, and accents, the ancient versions, and the divine inspiration of the books." Dr. E. Williams' Christian Preacher, p. 416; Monthly Rev. vol. 17, p. 296, and vol. 18, p. 86; Brit. Crit. vol. 4. p. 54, and vol. 20, p. 667.

Beausobre and L'Enfant's Introduction to the reading of the Holy Scriptures, intended chiefly for young students in divinity, sto. Lond. 1784. Bishop Watson republished this piece in his collection of Theological Tracts, 6 vols. 8vo. Cantab. 1785 ; and observes respecting it, that it is "a work of great merit:

the authors have not left any topic untouched, on which the young student in divinity may be supposed to want information.”

(h) Bocharti Opera omnia, curis Joannis Leusden. et Petri Villemandy, Lugd. Bat. 1712, 3 vols. fol. “ This," says Dr. A. Clarke, “is the best collection of his works.” Besides the Hierozoicon mentioned by our author, “he wrote a very learned and accurate work on the geography of the Sacred Writings, entitled Phaleg and Canaan. Both these pieces, as well as several valuable dissertations in his works, throw much light on many obscure places in the Sacred Writings.”

“ Dr. I. James Scheuchzer, is author of a very elaborate work, entitled Physica Sacra, which has been printed in Latin, German, and French, and forms a regular comment on all the books of the Bible, where any subject of natural history occurs. The learned author has availed himself of all the researches of his predecessors on the same subject, and has illustrated his works with 750 engravings of the different subjects in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, to which there is any reference in the Scriptures. The German edition was published in 1731, in 15 vols. folio; the Latin edition in 1731 ; and the French in 1732, & vols, folio, often bound in 4. The work is as rare, as it is useful and elegant.” Dr. A. Clarke.

Wolffgangi Franzii Animalium Historia Sacra, Amstel. 164S, 12mo. and 4 tom. Franc.

Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible, explaining the names, histories, &c. of persons, places, and natural productions, mentioned in Scripture; the antiquities, buildings, coins, habits, laws, customs, and peculiarities of the Jews and other Eastern nations; with chronological tables, calenders, &c. &c To which are added, entirely new illustrations of Scripture incidents and expressions, selected from the accounts of the most authentic historians, travellers, &c. Illustrated by numerous Plates of views, plans, habits, &c. Also, the Supplement to Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible, containing

words omitted in the Dictionary, and further remarks, &c. in continuation of the fragments, 4to. See Dr. E. Williams' Christian Preacher, 2d edit. p. 423, Mon. Rev. 1797, p. 392 ; Crit. Rev. 1788. p. 462.

Scripture Illustrated, by Engravings referring to Natural Science, Customs, Manners, &c. By the Editors of Calmet's Dictionary, 4to. See the Monthly Rev. May, 1803 ; and Evangelical Mag. vol. 11. p. 317-9.

A Companion to the Holy Bible ; the subject, Sacred Geography: being a geographical and historical account of places mentioned in the Holy Scriptures; originally composed by Edward Wells, D. D. Now revised, and corrected, and aug. mented by a series of geographical excursions, in which the geography of Scripture is confirmed by evidence entirely new in its application, &c. By the Editor of Calmet's Dictionary ; with (forty four) maps and{plates.--Lit. Panorama, vol. 5, p. 858. The original work is in the Bishop of Chester's List of Bool

Brown's (of Haddington) Dictionary of the Bible; containing an historical account of the persons; a geographical and historical account of the places; a literal, critical, and systematical description of other objects, whether natural, artificial, civil, religious, or military ; and the explication of the appellative terms mentioned in the writings of the Old and New Testaments. 5th Edition, 2 vols. 8v0.-For a high character of this work, see the Gospel Mag. 1778, p. 424 ; and the Evan. Mag. Nov. 1799.

Prittii Introductio ad lectionem Novi Testamenti, in quâ quærem criticam historiam, chronologiam, et geographiam pertinent breviter et perspicue exponuntur, 8vo. Lipsiæ 1704, and a fourth edition in 1737. “ I have never,” says Bishop Watson," met with any book superior to this, as an introduction to the New Testament.”

Harmer's Observations on various parts of Scripture, revised, corrected, and enlarged from modern writers, with Notes, &c.

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