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ance with the language by the readiest way. The proper office of the preceptor is to explain difficulties, as, in the course of reading, they occur; and to point out, in a perspicuous manner, the method best adapted to private study. I am not unacquainted with the different modes prescribed by others; but I am fully warranted in saying, that this which I have proposed is most fully calculated to answer the ends in view, and the least likely to issue in disappointment. (n)

If the student use Men. Ben. Israel's Bible without points, and habituate himself to search out the texts proposed in public and in private, and to compare them with the Hebrew, he will promote and confirm his progress. (0)

In learning a language, it is a practice of no all utility, for two or three friends to unite in the prosecution of their studies, and strive to afford mutual assistance. This may be accomplished, by instituting some kind of exercise or examination between the parties.

When engaged in this branch of Scripture reading, the student should observe the following rules:

1. Never be weary of writing the signification of words. This is an excellent auxiliary to the memory; and, though it may, perhaps, appear to be a tedious, unnecessary provision at the first, it will soon recommend itself by its practical utility.

2. When the Root of any word is not of easy at

tainment, write the word in the margin; and, instead of laboriously searching it out in a Lexicon, ascertain it from a Friend or Tutor. This plan will not be found unprofitable, in the second, or even the third reading; provided it have been duly executed in the first reading.

3. The biblical student should carefully guard against reading without rule or plan: he must proceed through the books of the Inspired Writings in their regular succession. The persevering will, eventually, succeed; while they who are incessantly vacillating, must naturally expect to suffer considerable loss. A good acquaintance with a language is but seldom acquired, when order is not deemed of importance.

4. Let it be deeply impressed on the mind, that all things cannot be learned at once.

It is not requisite, that the student should, in the first reading, make himself master of every difficulty: some points appertain rather to a second and more accurate perusal, and their consideration should, on that account, be deferred. Many have imbibed an early distaste for the study of languages, in consequence of neglecting to attend to this precept.

5. The Text should be frequently read aloud; for the custom of reading mentally, often induces a habit of stammering and reading slowly, even after a great part of the Bible has been perused.

6. It will conduce to improvement, if the Tutor sometimes read the Text, and cause his pupils carefully to imitate his pronunciation.

7. When it can be done, it may be found useful to review and repeat on the Saturday, the lessons of the preceding days. Subsequent weeks will bear abundant testimony to the excellency of this practice.

8. The books of the Chronicles, are to be taken in their natural order, and follow the books of Kings; which, in point of subject matter, they much resemble.—Those parts of the Hagiographa which are written in Chaldee, may, in the first reading, be omitted. (P)

9. Different Teachers should not be employed, when learning the rudiments of a language.

10. Words that seldom, or but once, occur, may be noted on paper; or, they may be impressed on the mind, by the frequent repetition of Leusden's Compendium.

11. In a first reading, those Proper Substantives which are not easily distinguishable from Appellatives, should be marked with the pen. The progress of students is too frequently protracted, through their inability to discern between Common and Proper Names.

2. Of Idiom.

If we wish to interpret the Original Scriptures with propriety, and to form a right judgment of Translations, it is indispensable, that we be acquainted with the Idiom of the Old and New Testaments. It will be highly necessary, however, to ascertain what is meant by the term itself, before we proceed to treat of it, as a branch of study. The doctrine may,

otherwise, be extended to phrases to which it by no means applies: or, it may be thought on the other hand, that all Idiomatic expressions can be included in a few rules; and thus the major part of them will be overlooked.

“ An Idiom," observes Danhauerus, “ is an ex“pression common to the whole language of which it “is a part; pertaining to that language only; and ap“ plying to it ahvays. Common to the whole lan

guage, because always employed by writers in that tongue, when they wish to express the same thing:

pertaining to it alone, because not only exclusively “but also eminently peculiar to it; and always that “is, not from mere accident, or from casual analogy."

Danhauerus also makes a just distinction between Idiom and Signification; intimating that the Signification of words is not in itself to be referred to Idiom, but is a study antecedent to it, and distinct from it; being chiefly learned from etymology, and the use of

words.-It may also happen, that, through the mere signification of words, when translated, expressions may sometimes be improperly deemed Idiomatic: as, when a word cannot be rendered into another language by a word synonymous; or only by one that is very rarely used to convey the meaning proposed.

That is properly an Idiom, which cannot be rendered, word for word, into another language, without violating the native purity of that language, and wounding the ears of those who are conversant with it. Danhauerus cites a remark from Augustine, that is extremely pertinent.—“ We should learn how the lan

guage of Inspiration is to be received, consistently 66 with the peculiarities of the respective languages

employed: for every tongue has modes of expression “ peculiar to it, which if literally translated, would

appear absurd.” If this observation be duly weighed, we shall readily apprehend the nature of Idiom. (9)

It is now proper to notice, in reference to the Old Testament, that an Idiom is called, from the Hebrew tongue, a Hebraism: except that Syriac and Chaldee Idioms are called respectively, Syriasms, Chaldaisms. In the New Testament, Idioms are, by some, denominated Hellenisms; by others, “ The Holy Greek Style;” a designation which includes those phrases that are properly Hebraistic, but are expressed by Greek words.

In studying the New Testament, we are carefully

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