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is mentioned as having been executed on the 16th of August, 1815; whereas he was shot on the 7th of December of that year. After such palpable errors, how difficult is it to place confidence in the accuracy of chronologists in general. To avoid such gross errors, we have not contented ourselves by gleaning at large from works of a similar nature, but uniformly referred to history, as the best and most infallible voucher of facts.

The first part of the Universal Chronologist is divided into six epochs, namely :I. From the Creation to the Deluge. JI. From the Deluge to the Calling of Abraham. III. From the Calling of Abraham to the Quitting of Egypt. IV. From the evacuation of Egypt to the Foundation of the

Temple of Solomon. V. From the Building of the Temple to the Reign of Cyrus;

and VI. From the time of Cyrus to the Birth of Jesus Christ.

Part the Second equally comprises six grand epochs, being as follow : 1. From the Birth of Christ to the Dismemberment of the

Western Empire. II. From the Termination of the Empire of the West to the

Heptarchy of Britain, under the name of England.
III. From the Heptarchy under Egbert to the Battle of Hastings,

when William of Normandy ascended the English throne.
IV. From the Conquest to the Reformation.
V. From the Reformation to the Revolution ; and
VI. From the Revolution to the end of 1825.

It had originally been intended that this work should close with 1824, but as the major portion of the year 1825 had elapsed before the manuscript could be terminated, it was conceived that the Universal Chronologist would be more complete if brought down to the very period of its publication, for which purpose, it was delayed till the commencement of January, 1826.

Such are the leading features of the present publication, in the progress of which errors may, no doubt, have crept in, for it is only those who have been occupied in chronological research that can fully enter into the arduousness of the task of such an undertaking. Should a liberal patronage crown our labour, due attention will be paid to rectify mistakes, in a future impression; and we shall then have reaped that satisfaction to which we humbly aspire-the meed of public approbation.

CONTENTS.

GENERAL HEADS.

PAGE

4
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19
29
35
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66

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68

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title of King of England

William of Normandy crowned King of England

The First Crusade

Kings of Jerusalem

The Seven Crusades

The Reformation

Landing of King William

Commencement of the Eighteenth Century

Foundations of the several Universities of Europe

Principal Voyages Round the World

Discoveries and Settlements of the British Colonists

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355

397

403

424

453

528
687
721

1409

1410

1411

CHRONOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL

ELEMENTS OF HISTORY,

PART THE FIRST.

This portion of the work commences at the creation of the world, and terminates with the birth of Christ, occupying a space of 4004 years, which is divided into six great epochs*.

Before
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Years.

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Ist, From the creation of the world to the universal deluge

1656 4001 2nd, From the deluge to the calling of Abraham 427 2348 3rd, From the calling of Abraham to the quitting of Egypt

430 1921 4th, From the evacuation of Egypt to the foun

dation of the temple of Solomon 487 1491 5th, From the building of the temple to the reign of Cyrus

468 1001 6th, From the reign of Cyrus to the birth of Jesus Christ

536 536

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4004

We now proceed to follow each of the epochs by centuries.

* The vulgate Hebrew text states the duration of the world before Christ to have lasted 4004 years; the Hebrew Samaritan text allows 4700 years; whereas the Greek text of the Septuagint produced under the Ptolemies, allows its duration to have continued 5872 years. As this difference however in the duration of epochs only bears reference to the extension of the lives of the patriarchs, and is productive of no change whatsoerer in particular events, the church tolerates these three chronological systeins: we have adopted the vulgate of the Hebrew.

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