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further confirmed by the discoveries of armor, bronze utensils, and other remnants of antiquity which the fishermen's nets frequently drag up from the bed of the Alpheus. To excavate the Olympic plain was a favorite project of the learned Winkelmann, who very reasonably expected that such an undertaking would be rewarded by the finest specimens of sculpture, and most precious remains of ancient art, both in bronze and marble. Tiber, at Rome,” says Mr. Dodwell (11. p. 329), “is supposed to contain a vast assenıblage of ancient sculpture; and thoughts are entertained of turning its course, in order to explore its hidden treasures. The diversion of the Alpheios from its present channel might be effected with less difficulty, and would probably be attended with greater profit.” This hint we submit to the consideration of those classical travellers (and there are many among our own countrymen), who, with the zeal, taste, and judgment, necessary for such an undertaking, possess abundantly ihe pecuniary means of accomplishing an object so desirable.

THE NIGHTINGALE.

After such a display of erudition and ingenuity respecting the Nightingale, in different numbers of the Classical Journal, (LI), LV, LVI, VII,) I should have thought it superfluous to indicate the following passages, did they not confirm the learned Mr. Barker's sentiments in proving what he declares the principal object of his Essay (No. lul. p. 97), “ that the Nightingale sings by day as well as by night.” The first passage to which I shall refer, occurs in Sir William Ouseley's Travels (vol. I. p. 218), where he says: “ But if Shiraz produced tarautulas, scorpions, and snakes, it abounded also in Bulbuls, or nightingales; hundreds of them singing in the Takht-i-Cajar garden, noť only all night, but during the day. Concerning the Nightingale, I remarked on a former occasion, that the plaintive melody, the love-labored song, of this sweet bird, is not by day suspended in the East, as in our colder region; and that even some parts of Europe are equally favored in this respect as Persia. 1 also quoted an English traveller of the seventeenth century (Dr. Fryer), who, writing fron, Shiraz, seems inspired

by the climate, and adopting the flowery language of that country, says: “The Nightingale, sweet harbinger of light, is a constant cheerer of these groves, charming with its warbling strains the heaviest soul into a pleasing ecstasy.'” Sir William then alludes to Strada's beautiful Prolusion, on the contest between a lutanist and nightingale, and to Sir William Jones's anecdote on the same subject; also in the Appendix, p. 482.) he notices from Bourdelôt, Robert Vilvain, and some Arabian authors, the extraordinary effects of instrumental music on nightingales. But reverting to Mr. Barker's object, we find in a former work of Sir William Ouseley (the “ Persian Miscellanies”), among various passages respecting the nightingale, one (p. 146) which mentions that from its song being heard at the first dawn, the Persians call it the " Early Nightingale,” or “Bird of Morn." Even in the southern parts of Europe, adds he, the voice of this bird is often heard by day. An ancient and interesting French poet thus begins one of his chansons or love-songs:

“ La douce voix du rossignol sauvage,

Qu'oi nuit et jor cointoier et tentir,

Me radoucit mon cuer et rasouage,” &c. These lines are thus translated by Sir W. Ouseley: “ The sweet voice of the wild nightingale, whom I hear by night and day amusing himself and singing, soothes the anguish of my heart, and consoles me.” They are taken from the eighteenth chanson of Raoul de Coucy, whose “ Mémoires Historiques,” (Paris, 1781, 12mo.) founded on melancholy facts, and record ing his unfortunate amours with the fair Gabrielle de Vergi, form, says Sir William, one of the most romantic and affecting stories of the age of chivalry.

P. V.

ORIENTAL LITERATURE.

NOTICES OF 1. An Essay towards the History of Arabia, antecedent to the birth of Mahommed.-2. Takyodini Ahmedis al-Makrizii Narratio de Expeditionibus a Græcis Francisque adversus Dimyatham ab A. C. 708 ad 1221 susceptis.-3. Das Muhammedanische Mŭnzkabinet des Asiatischen Muséums, 80.–4. Die Chosroen-Münzen der frühern Arabischen Chalifen.-5. De Baschkiris quæ memorie prodita sunt ab Ibn-Foszlano et Jakuto.-6. De Chasaris, excerpta ex Scriptoribus Arabicis.-7. Antiquitatis Muhammedana Monumenta Varia.-8. De Antiquis quibusdam Sculpturis et Inscriptionibus in Siberia repertis.

In whatever degree our humble efforts may have promoted the diffusion of a taste for Eastern literature, it is certain that within a few years the accomplished Orientalists who contribute to this Journal, or who honor it by their perusal, have considerably increased in number; and we flatter ourselves with the recol. lection that it has introduced to their acquaintance several works (more particularly some published on the Continent), of which, as far as our inquiries enable us to ascertain, no contemporary Journal in this country has hitherto given any account. We now present to our readers a brief notice of eight different works; not exactly observing chronological order on this occasion, but beginning with that which is the largest, and may be considered as the most important. We allude to an Essay towards the History of Arabia, antecedent to the birth of Mahommed,by Major David Price, whose excellent “ Retrospect of Mahommedan History” was noticed in the Classical Journal for June 1814 (Suppl. p. 546). Indeed the Essay before us may be regarded as a sequel, or rather as a supplement to the “ Retrospect;" for it traces the history of Arabia from the earliest ages to the appearance of Mahommed in the sixth century. Our author's principal authorities are the Tarikh, or Chronicle of Abi Jauffer Mahommed, surnamed Tebry, the Rouzut-usSuffa of Mirkhond, and the Kholauset-ul-akhbaur of Khondemir. From these rare manuscripts he has collected a variety of extraordinary traditions respecting the fall of Adam in Para

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dise; the subsequent history of our first parent and of his de. scendants; Cain, the founder of idolatry; and Tubal, whom the Devil taught to make wine; Noah, who survived the deluge three centuries; Abraham; the posterity of Shem; the early kings of Persia; Solomon; Balkeiss, the Queen of Sheba; Nebuchadnezzar; the Jewish captives; the prophet Daniel ; Esther and Ahasuerus; Alexander the Great; and various Arabian tribes, until the time of Noushirvân, King of Persia, when, in the year 570, the night of Mahommed's birth was announced by many portentous circumstances : fourteen pinnacles of Noushirvân's palace fell to the ground; the lake of Sawah was sud, denly dried up; the sacred fire, which had glowed for a thousand years in the Magian temple at Istakbar, or Persepolis, became unaccountably extinct :-omens indicating the birth of a prophet, who was to overthrow the religion and power of the Persian monarch. Our limits will not allow us to notice Major Price's judicious remarks on the absurd and incredible fables with which even the most respectable Eastern records are found to be replete, whenever we consult them for facts of remote antiquity; and we shall close this short account with the passage which concludes his preliminary address to the reader (p. ix.), where, alluding to Pocock's “ Specimen Historiæ Arabum,” he says:

The opinion which the author had early formed, that, anterior to the age of Mahommed, the Arabs possessed, in fact, no authentic records of their history, remains however unaltered; and considering that so distinguished an Orientalist as Dr. Pocock could advance no further, the author must abide in the belief that, without launching into the ocean of conjecture, into the mazes of an ever-varying speculation, all attempt to produce a regular history of Arabia, antecedent to that period, will, if the truth be acknowleged, ever terminate in a Specimen or an Essay.

This curious and entertaining work is comprised in a quarto volume of above 260 pages. (London, 1824.)

The second publication which we shall here notice, is likewise a quarto volume, printed at Amsterdam, in the present year (1824), and entitled, Takyodini Ahmedis al-Makrizii Narrațio de Expeditionibus a Grecis Francisque adversus Dimyatham ab A.C. 708 ad 1221 susceptis.For this work, which appears to have been originally published in the Transactions of the Royal Belgian Lustitute, we are indebted to the learned Professor Hamaker, of Leyden, whose name is already familiar to our readers. (See Classical Journal, No. xlviii. p. 392, and No. LII, p. 381.) It contains the Arabic text of Makrizi, with a Latin translation, describing the various expeditions undertaken by the Greeks and Franks against Dimyatha (or Damyata) in

Egypt, from the year 90 to 618 of the Mahommedan era, or froni 708 to 1221 of Christ; and to the translation is subjoined a body of most valuable notes, illustrating from a variety of authors, both European and Oriental, this very obscure and interesting portion of history. Among the curious and authentic anecdotes furnished by Makrizi's narrative, we might notice some which betray a little of Eastern exaggeration; such as the appearance of an immense fish near Dimyatha (in the year 1017), which was two hundred and sixty cubits long, and one bundred ells in breadth; it was called the Sea-ass: a loaded camel could pass through its belly, and in its skull five men stood upright. However this may be, we are fully inclined to believe our author's account of the scarcity which prevailed in Dimyatha during the last memorable siege (in 1219), when, besides other inhabitants, twenty thousand soldiers were reduced to such distress by fámine, that they paid thirty pieces of gold for one hen: to relieve them a camel's body was stuffed with provisions by their friends above the city, and committed to the Nile, which carried this timely supply to the starving garrison; but the Christians having discovered the stratagem, prevented a repetition of it; and, the streets and houses being filled with dead bodies, the place soon after became an easy prey to the besiegers, who scaled the walls, and slew vast numbers of the Muselmans. An engraved map and a plan of Dimyatha are annexed, illustrating the account of

this siege.

We now proceed to the third work, an octavo volume published in 1821, at St. Petersburg, under the title of “ Das Muhammedanische Mŭnzkabinet des Asiatischen Museums, &c.” a very elaborate and curious numismatical treatise, by that accomplished Orientalist Mr. Fraehn, who takes a masterly survey of the various Mahommedan dynasties under which money was coined in different countries of the East, Arabia, Persia, Turkestan, Syria, Asia Minor, India, also Spain, Morocco, &c. The title-page is ornamented with a vignette, very accurately and neatly engraved, representing a silver coin of Nasir el hakk chan el muaijed el adil Ilek Nasr, struck at Bochara, A. Heg. 393 (A. D. 1002), as appears from the inscriptions in Cufic characters; and at the end is given another vignette, exhibiting the inscription, also Cufic, on a coin of Beha-eddaula Arslan Ilek, struck about the year of Christ 1024. This work contains 124 pages.

The fourth article is likewise a numismatical treatise by the same learned author, Dr. Fraehn; printed at Mittau; 1822, and intitled “ Die Chosroen-Münzen der frühern Arabischen

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