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Chalifen,relating to those Persian coins which the early Khalifs adopted until they were enabled to strike money with inscriptions wholly Arabic.

To Dr. Fraehn we are also indebted for the fifth article, De Baschkiris quæ memoriæ prodita sunt ab Ibn-Foszlano et Jakuto.It appears from the Arabic text and Latin translation given in this little tract, that the Bashkirians (or Bashkurdians), whose ancient history is lost in darkness, occupy a region between Constantinople and Bulgaria. An ambassador sent into that country about the year 309 (A. D. 921), described the people as Turks of the worst kind; ferocious and bold in war; cutting off and carrying away the heads of their enemies : they also shaved their beards, and were fond of eating lice, wbich they considered as a dainty; they seemed to believe in twelve divinities, but chiefly in one supreme God, who inhabited the heavens : many of theni, however, worshipped serpents, others fishes, others cranes. But from a subsequent passage we learn that some of these Bashkurdians, who visited Aleppo, declared themselves to be Mahommedans, although in shaving their beards and in their dress they imitated Europeans; their country being situated among Christian states, beyond Constantinople and near Hungary.

The sixth article is also from the pen of Dr. Fraehn, and belongs to the Transactions of the Imperial Academy of Petersburg (vol. vin.), 1822. It is entitled “ De Chasaris, excerpta ex Scriptoribus Arabicis," and consists of Arabic passages from Ibn-Foszlan, Ibn Haukal, Schems ed din, and Jakuti; describing the Chasars (or Khozrians), a race of people once very powerful, occupying a country between the Caspian and Euxine seas. of this extraordinary nation, among whom were found Jews, Christians, and Mahommedans, the fullest account is, probably, that given in the manuscript which Sir William Ouseley translated, and published as the “Oriental Geography of Ibn Haukal;" and to this translation Dr. Fráehn in the tract before us frequently refers. As the English work may be easily consulted by any of our readers, we shall not dwell longer on the subject of those Khozrs or Chasars.

We proceed to another article by Dr. Fraehn, extracted likewise from the Transactions of the Imperial Academy of Petersburg (vol. vr.), 1822. This bears the title of “ Antiquitatis Muhammedana Monumenta Varia," and explains the Arabic inscriptions on a silver case for holding the Koran, now preserved in the Museum of the Imperial Academy, but originally belonging to Urus Chan, a lineal descendant of the great Chengiz Chan.

Next follows the Cufic inscription on a bronze lamp, found eight or nine years ago among the ruins of Bylar, and ascribed by our learned author to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The inscription' merely expresses a wish of “ prosperity and benediction, joy and felicity, to the possessor of this lamp;" and among its ornaments are four human figures, one playing on a harp, another holding some other instrument, a third a cup, and the fourth perhaps an apple.-Next' is an explanation of the Arabic writing, in Cufic characters, on the inaugural cloak of the German emperors, formerly preserved at Nuremberg: of this inscription many emivent Orientalists have offered interpretations; but Dr. Fraehn undertakes to correct them, and defends bis own explanation by a variety of critical and philological notes. It appears, according to his account, that this cloak was presented, in 1136 or 1137, to Roger II, King of Naples and Sicily, by the Sicilian Arabs; and that it was brought into Germany by the Emperor Henry VI, who had married Constantia, the daughter of King Roger.—Then follows an explapation of some Arabic words embroidered on the silken stockings preserved among various ornaments and ensigns of state formerly used at the inauguration of the German emperors. Next is our author's explanation, differing in many respects from that offered by Tychsen and others, of the Cufic inscription found on the cathedral at Cordova in Spain; an edifice originally constructed for the purposes of Mahommedan worship, and celebrated by Arabian writers as one of the finest mosques in the whole world. It appears from this interpretation of the Arabic lines, that El Mustansir billah Abdullah el Hakem, who reigned as Khalif in Spain from A. D. 961 to 976, caused the inscription to be executed in the year (of the Hegira) 354, or A. D. 965.-Dr. Fraehn next describes a remarkable bronze mirror, found ainong the ruins of Bylar, and exhibiting a double figure of the Borak, a fabulous quadruped with a human face, on which Mahommed is said to have been carried in one night from Mecca to Jerusalem. On this mirror, also, is an Arabic inscription in Cufic letters, expressing a wish that the possessor may enjoy length of life and uninterrupted felicity.--An astrolabe of the thirteenth century, preserved in the public library at Nuremburg, is the next subject of our learned author's remarks: it exhibits a Cufic inscription, which he explains with much ingenuity, showing that the astrolabe was made by Es Sall of Nishapour, for the use of Melik el Muszaffer Taky ed din, a prince whom he places in the year (of Mahommed) 642, of our era 1244,-We now proceed to another Cufic inscription, worked

on a piece of linen, inserted in a Latin Ms. copy of the Gospels, preserved at Luneburg. To show how materially one learned Orientalist may differ from another in the interpretation of three Arabic lines, we shall here give the celebrated Tychsen's explanation of this inscription : " In nomine Dei misericordis clementis. Et non auxilium meum est nisi in Deo:-donabitur tibi. Abu Muid Elazem Elatab Mumen ben Wakkel (s. Hudal), cujus familiam Deus protegat, insignem reddat et compenset. Sane Deus cum iis est, qui eum venerantur, et bene faciunt.” We now subjoin Dr. Fraehn’s translation : “ In nomine Dei misericordis et clementis. Non secundantur res meæ nisi a Deo: ei confido, throni magni possessori. Et quisquis Deo confidit habet quod sibi sufficiat: nam Deus adest iis qui ipsum verentựr, et recte vivunt.” This work is illustrated by three engravings.

The eighth and last publication to which we shall call the reader's attention in this article, is intitled “ De Antiquis quibusdam Sculpturis et Inscriptionibus in Siberia repertis," by Greg. Spassky, a corresponding Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg, where this volume (consisting only of a few pages of letter-press and seven lithographed plates) was printed in 1822. The plates represent several extraordinary and most rude figures of beasts and men found sculptured on a rock near the city of Tomsk, besides various inscriptions hitherto undeciphered, some of which appear to be Mongol or Manchu, copied from rocks and sepulchral monuments in different parts of Siberia.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

LATELY PUBLISHED.

Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, No. XXIX. The work will be certainly comprised in 39 Nos. or all above given gratis, and will be completed within the year 1825. The copies of some deceased Subscribers may still be had at il. 5s. Small, and 21. 12s. 60. Large Paper; but the Prices will be raised to 11. 7s. Small, and 21. 155. Large. Subscribers always remain at the price at which they originally enter. Nos. I. to XXIX. contain above 13,000 words omitted by STEPHENS. Total Subscribers, Large and Small paper, 1086. The copies printed are strictly limited to the number of Subscribers. Nos. XXX. and XXXI, will be published in October.

The Delphin and Variorum Classics, Nos. LXVII, and LXVIII., containing Aulus Gellius and Prudentius. Pr. 17. 1s. per No.-Large paper, double. Present Subscription, 983.

As it may not be so convenient to new Subscribers to purchase at once the whole Nos. now published, Mr. V. will accommodate such by delivering one or two back Nos, with each new No. till the set is completed.--STEPHENS' Greek Thesaurus may be subscribed for on the

same terms.

Poetical Chronology of Ancient and English History; with Historical and Explanatory Notes, and an Index. By R. Valpy, D.D. Eleventh Edition.

An Historical Connexion between the Old and New Testaments, showing the Types of the former, and their fulfilment in the latter. 12mo. Vincent, Oxford.

This little tract, intended for Undergraduates previous to their second examination, deserves also the attention of Candidates for Holy Orders. A concise Prophetical Connexion has issued from the same press, with Questions on the Scriptures and Articles of the Church of England. To the more abstruse Questions references are given, which may induce the Student to consult several valuable works. Questions on the Classics and the Sciences are in a progressive state, and a View of the Harmony of the Gospels' is announced. From the specimens we have seen, we confidently recommend the whole series to Tutors out of the University.

Sophoclis quæ extant omnia, cum veterum Grammaticorum Scholiis. Superstites Tragedias VII. ad optimorum Exemplarium Fidem recensuit, Versione et Notis illustravit, deperditarum Fragmenta collegit Brunck. Accedunt Schæferi Annotatio integra, Excerpta ex Varietate Lectionis, quam continet Editio Erfurdt, Denetrii Triclini Scholia Metrica, et Notæ ineditæ C. Burnei. 8vo. 2 vols pr. 11. 1s.—A 3d vol. containing the Notes of Erfurdt, Hermann, and others, may also be had, pr. 1l. 11s. 6d. the 3 vols.--The 3d vol, may be had separately,

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Pensées de Platon sur la Religion, la Morale, la Politique, recueillies et traduites par M. J. V. Le Clerc, Professeur d'Eloquence Latine. Seconde édition, augmentée d'une histoire abrégée du Platonisme et de notes sur le texte. Paris. 1824. 8vo.

Wyttenbachii Lectiones quinque, nunc primum editæ, atque Præfatione et Annotatione auctæ a G. L. Mahne. 1824. Svo.

Tib. Hemsterhusii Animadversionun in Lucianum Appendix; ex schedis Mss. in Bibl. Lugd. Bat. servatis collegit, disposuit et edidit J. Geel. 1824. 4to.

Contents of the Journal des Savans for January, 1824: 1. The Dramatic Works of F. Schiller, translated from the

German. 2. A Grammar of the Three Principal Languages of the East;

Hindostanee, Persian, and Arabic; to which is added a series of Persian Dialogues, composed by Mirza Mohammed Saleh,

and accompanied with an English translation by M. W. Price. 3. Asia Polyglotta von Julius Klaproth (second article). 4. Lucretius on the Nature of Things, translated into French,

by M. J. B. S. de Pouqueville. 5. An Abridgment of the History of Rome, by L. Annæus Florus, with notes by M. C. Paganel.

For February, 1824. 1. The Rhetoric of Aristotle in Greek and French, by M. E.

Gross. 2. The History of France, by M. Simonde de Sismondi, vol. 4,

5, and 6, (second review or article). 3. Lockmani Fabulæ, et plura loca ex codicibus maximam par

tem historicis selecta ; in usum scholarum Arabicarum, edidit

G. W. Freytag. 4. Dictionary of the Provincial Language of the Limosin (de

partment of Corrèze), particularly of the environs of Tulles, a posthumous work of M, Nicolas Beronie, and published by

Joseph-Anna Vialle. 5. A Journey in Spain, in the years 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819;

or an Inquiry concerning Irrigations, the laws and customs that regulate them, and on the Demesne and Municipal laws, considered as a powerful means of perfecting French agriculture, preceded by a Report made at the Central Society of Agriculture, with this motto, " Agriculture requires but few

laws and much independence.” 6. A Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in three parts, by R.

Morrison. 7. Joannis Laurentii Lydi, de Ostentis quæ supersunt, &c. ex

codd. regiis edidit, Græcaque supplevit et Latine vertit Ca

rolus Benedictus Hase. 8. Organic Chemistry applied to Physiology and to Medicine,

containing the Analysis of Animal and Vegetable substances, by Leopold Gmelin.

For May, 1824. 1. Chefs-d'Euvres of Foreign Theatres, German, English, Chi

nese, Danish, Spanish, Dutch, Indian, Italian, Polonese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, &c. 25 vols. in 8vo.

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