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« lords of the marches" in the province, who maintained their independence, until subdued by a general, called Rustam.
The beauty of the scenery in Mázenderán, its bills and dales, rocks and forests, mountains and streams, amply recompensed the traveller for other annoyances. · The manner of sleeping in this province, during the winter, is very curious: several assemble round a wooden frame (sowo), about 4 feet square, and 17 or 18 inches high, which is placed over a hole in the earthen floor, filled with burning charcoal: each person, putting his feet to the frame, lays his head on a pillow or cushion, whilst one great counterpane is thrown over all that are about to sleep. At Sári he paid a visit of state to the Prince Muhammed Kuli Mírza; where, and at Ashraf, he discovered some antiquities. From hence he shortly arrived at the shores of the Caspian Sea; but, notwithstanding the accounts of his escort, found none of those monstrous serpents mentioned as its inmates by Quintus Curtius. Its waters were fresh near the shore, and the beach was covered with sand as smooth as a carpet. He was informed, that between Mashehd-i-Sar and Langarúd, 300 rivers of various sizes flow into it. He next visited the celebrated town Farahh-abad, Sikh-Rud, which he crossed, Mashehd-i-Sar, and Bár Furush, where the Russians send cloth, paper, thread, iron, steel, gunpowder, locks, deal-wood, and Russian leather; taking back in return, silk, cotton, rice, fish, shawls, &c. &c. Amul was the succeeding stage; concerning which, the author has introduced much historical matter, and many copious extracts from unpublished Mss., which deserve to be minutely consulted; for they are singularly valuable and interesting. They proceeded on their return through the Hyrcanian forests; at Aien-1-Werzán they encountered the “ wind of Shahríar,” of which as fatal accounts exist as of that of Firuzkuh. The reader is referred to Sir W.'s description of Damávaud; from whence they shortly again arrived at Tehran. Here they witnessed the festival of the Nawrúz (sw), instituted at a very early period of the Persian monarchy. At the supposed moment of the sun's entrance into the zodiacal sign of the ram, a gun was fired from the citadel, and the commencing festivities were announced by the royal drums and trumpets. Khelaats and specimens of the latest coinage were sent as presents by the king, and gifts were interchanged among the lower orders. The ambassador and suite attended at court, and witnessed the sights and pageantry. Sir W. Ouseley, following the chronology of Sir W. Jones, has assigned a period of 2600 years to the antiquity of this festival. During their stay, 450 Russian prisoners arrived from the Prince
or a continuation of ,شاهنشاه نامه employed in writing the
Abbas Mirza. They paid a visit to Fateb Ali Kháu, called the “ King of Poets” (speil ollo), who has for some years been
, Firdausi's poem down to the present monarch's reign. The entertainment given by the Amin ad' douleh, with the ceremony of scattering rose-leaves, is worthy of a perusal. Here also the author met with some Gabrs from Yezd: his observations on them follow. Other particulars, however, at Tehran, the character of the monarch, &c. the reader must learn from the work itself.
From Tehran they proceeded to Nasrábád and Cazvín; part of the latter was founded by Sapor the 2d, called swXgs : from hence they went to Abher, the foundation of which many Eastern writers attribute to Darius; others impute it to Sapor. Sir W. visited the castle, which still goes by the name of Darius, which, some say, was finished by Alexander. Sultáníah was their next abode of consequence; it was founded by Arghún Khán, and completed by his son Aunjáitu Sultán. Passing through other places they reached A úján, on which the author has given much antiquarian information; and from this city they at length fixed their temporary abode at Tabríz. Several Europeans were in the city, in the service of Abbás Mírzá. The author in this place met a man of the Karachi (col) tribe, who appear, in a striking manner, to resemble our gypsies: they lead an erratic life, pilfering eggs, poultry, and other things, and telling the fortune by inspecting the palm of the hand. The Turks call them Chingánis, or Jinganis. The theatrical representations (if worthy of the name) which were exbibited here, and the appearance of Pahlawán, or Mr. Punch, with the same feigned voice and mighty deeds, are among the particulars mentioned in the description of this place. Tabriz, ihe capital of Azerbaijan, or Media, is imagined to be the Gabris of Ptolemy, by our author, D'Anville, and Sir W. Jones; yet a large body of authors assert it to have been the ancient Ecbatana, noticed in the Apocryphal books. It is, on the other hand, the opinion of Sir W. Ouseley, that Hamadán answers to Ecbatana. 'The province received the name of Azerbadegan, or Azerbaigán, from a celebrated fire-temple there : in this may be recognised the Atropatia, or Atropatena, of Strabo: the name may as well be referred “ to the Persian Aderábád," as to Atropatus, who has been said to have preserved it from being
subject to the Macedonians, because it is “ rather local than personal,” and would seem to have relation to the worship of the place. The foundation of Tabriz has been imputed to Zobeidah Khátún, the wife of Hárún Arrashid, in the 175th year of the Hejrah : its extent was formerly prodigious. Here was the sumptuous Masjed Jamra, or cathedral, built by the Vizier Táj ad dín Ali Shah, which exceeded in size the AiwánKesra; but being too hastily erected, it soon fell to the ground.
From Tabriz Sir W. Ouseley directed his course homewards, by way of Constantinople. The hospitality of the people at Sufianeh is pleasingly described ; and his journey through Marand, Gargar (at seven or eight miles from which he alighted on the banks of the way I as, or Araxes, which divides Media from Armenia) is very interestingly detailed. According to the Nuzhat el culub, here quoted, the stream is said to flow from šouth to north; but the direction of its course towards Ardubad (34,90,1), Sir W. states to be easterly, and notices the error in the Mss. It is applied to the agriculture of the countries through which it passes by means of irrigation. It is said in the Ms. to unite its stream with the (5) Kur or Cyrus, the (gul nj) Kará Sú, or Black Water, in the province of Gushtsafi, and to fall into the Sea of (jo slujo) Khozar, or the Caspian. The Ajáieb el Beldán describes its course from west to east.
Julfa was the first place at which he arrived in Armenia, where he examined the (üss is), or Damsels Tower, said to have been constructed for the daughter of Khojeh Nazer. At Nakhchuán were several antiquities, which the vatives condemn as remains of the sings, or idolatry, “ lingering in this country, since Noah and his family descended from Ararat," or Agridágh, as they call it. The appearance of the mountain was imposing from this town. This seems to have been the Naotava of Ptolemy (1. v. c. 13): the Armenians, as we collect from Moses Chorenensis, styled it Nakhdzhuvan: they believe it to have been founded by Noah immediately after the Deluge. An ecclesiastical author calls it Nakhidsheván, or the first place of Noah's descent. There is a current legend, that Noah was interred there, and his wife at Marand. Sir W.'s geographical and etymological remarks on Irván, or Eriván, are profound, and show an indefatigable research. For his account of the
Persian camp, of the Outch Kelisía, or Three Churches, of the Kara Kelaa, or Black Castle, of Kars (the Kágrson of the Byzantine writers), of Tosáni, Medjenkirt, Alwar, Arzerúm, and several following stages, we must, as we have before been frequently obliged, refer the reader to this volume. We regret much that our confined space compels us to this vast omission, as the matter by no ineans deserves to be passed by.
At length, after a long and tiresome journey, he arrived at Scutari, and shortly afterwards proceeded to the ambassador's palace at Constantinople. From this great city he directed his course to Snyma, and from thence he sailed to England.
In the Appendix, we recommend to the reader's attention, No. iii. On the Caspian Strait, No. iy. On the Caspian Sea, No. vi. On Eastern Manuscripts, and the Miscellaneous, No. ix. After which, we would notice the index of Biblical passages, quoted or illustrated, and the geographical index, which, independent of the general index, have, with great labor, been added to these Travels, and afford very considerable facility to the person consulting them.
The immense quantity of materials which the author has collected for his work, all requiring a minute and attentive perusal, together with the comparison of ancient and modern customs, of ancient and modern names of places, and his indefatigable antiquarian labors, render it almost an impossibility for us to give a fair detail of the whole in so contracted an essay as a review. Instead, therefore, of entering into a dissertation on particular parts, we have drawn up a summary of the contents, conceiving, that thus the world would be better able to form a judgment concerning the merits and assiduity of the writer. We know no book that we can so strongly recommend; for its contents are so erudite and diversified, that it is as well adapted to the classical as to the eastern scholar, and is an invaluable depository of rare disquisitions and extracts, which both may apply to excellent purposes. The theologian, by which name we would never understand any but the critical divine, may derive from it abundant information, and numerous illustrations of the sacred text. We trust, that a work of such extensive utility, and written with such unremitted perseverance, will find its proper place in the library of every scholar.
Eurip. Hippol. 445.
Tibullus. El. ii. 1. 79.
Eurip. Hippol. 449.
Lucret. i. 1.
Eurip. Hippol. 929.
Εur. Med. 516.
ουδείς χαρακτήρ εμπέφυκε σώματι ;-
There is no art
Eurip. Hippol. 990.
Shakspeare. Julius Cæsar, 111. 2.
I am no orator as Brutus is,
Eurip. Iph. A. 157.
λάμπουσ’ ήως. 6.