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Part VI.-[Concluded from No. LVIII.]
CHAP. V. MONEY. Tue etymology of this term is not difficult to be ascertained. There is a manifest relationship between Money, the Mwuai of the ancient British, and the 7 of the Hebrews, the origi. nal import of which plainly evinces its significant appropriation, Its literal meaning in all languages is necessary to be observed in order to a correct kuowledge of its history, in ancient and in modern times. To every variety of articles or commodities, it may be applied.
It is of frequent occurrence in Scripture, but few primary terms stand connected with its illustration. Spw, as already noticed, a signifies to weigh, to transact commercial business by weighing. This mode of trafficking still continues among the eastern nations ; nor have the westerns lost sight of the principle, since all their species of money are adjusted by standards of weight.— Is. lv. 2: po spun ab, Wherefore do ye weigh silver ?
70%, silver, or money in the general; as this metal was chiefly used by the ancients, in tbeir mercantile transactions. Gen. xx. 16. 703 58, a thousand of silver.
The only Greek terın to express money is agyupsov, literally, silver ; but sometimes employed to denote a particular species of money. Thus is the French argent usually appropriated. In the Syriac there are no fewer than these three words : 19.00, as in Matth. xvii. 24; law, in Mark vi. 8; and leaves in Mark xii. 41. Whence arises this comparative inferiority of the Greek ?
All the various kinds or species of money, noticed in the Old and New Testament, whether Hebrew or heathen, were regulated by weighing. This, of course, most especially regards the modern and common acceptation of the word money.
· Richards Welsh and English Dictionary, p. 324.- Calepini, Dict. undecim Linguarum, p. 1040.
2 Class. Journ. No. LVIII. p. 252. VOL. XXX. CI. JI. NO. LX. X
The materials, of which their money was usually composed, were either
705, apruproy, argentum, silver ;
371, xpuros, aurum, gold; or
TUTTI, xanxos, aurichalcum, copper, native brass. Silver was in use at a very early period; the first notice of which is in Gen, xiji. 2. Gold has a variety of appellations ; significant either of gradations of excellency, or sometimes of places at which it prevails. It is either the ordinary 3177 of Deut xvii. 17; the 73 of Job xxii. 24; the 15 of Ps. xix. 11; or else, the 7978 of Job xxii. 24. Although the Hebrews had no brazen coins of their own; yet it appears from the latter part of the Biblical writings that there were some foreign ones in use among them.
The gradual improvement in this mediuin of commercial iotercourse would furnish an inquiry of no uninteresting character. In the
ages, the mode of traffick was, as most natural, by exchanging one commodity for another. In process of times it was found necessary to have some common standard, according to which all other things should be duly estimated. Then the metals of silver and gold came into use; first of all most probably in rude lumps or portions, and afterwards reduced to a regular forma as well as weight. At length these metallic pieces became stamped, s as authorised coin, either with the figure of some animal, or the king's likeness, accompanied with an inscription.
In respect to mines, the Israelites seem not to have had any gold or silver of their own :—but iron' and brass' are particularly specified and promised, Deut. viii. 9.— Investigator, No. 1. p. 55.
2 Dissertatio vigesima octava, in Philolog. Heb. Leusdeni, p. 187 : de Nummis et Ponder. in S. Scriptura usitatis.
3. The first species of money that was circulated by tale, and not by weight, of which we have any account, consisted of spikes, or small obelisks of brass or iron, which were symbols of great sanctity and high antiquity.-R. P. Knight, in Class. Journ. xlv. p. 7.
4 As to the figure of coin, it is either round, as in England; multangular or irregular, as in Spain; square, as in some parts of the Indies, or nearly globular, as in others.—Money, in Barrow's Universal Dict. of Arts and Sciences.
s No living man's head was ever stamped on a Roman coin till after the fall of the Commonwealth. From that time they bore the emperor's head on one side ; and henceforward the practice of stamping the prince's image on coins has obtained among all nations, except the Mahometans, who, in detestation of images, inscribed only the prince's name, with the year of their prophet's transmigration.-Ibid.
In adverting to the subject of Hebrew and Jewish coins,' it may be suggested, that a complete medallic history of the Easterns would supply some highly valuable illustration of the sacred writings. Some of the ancient shekels have, on one side, the figure of the manna or incense pot, around which are seen, in imperfect characters, the words 2x9mm 2 pou Shekel of Israel; and on the reverse a sprig of a tree (probably the palm of Judea), with lg p 42u9ne Jerusalem the Holy, surrounding it.
Before a particular explanation of these several coins is attempted, it may be necessary to present a general enumeration and corresponding value of
Sect. 1. Of Silver. 1772 was the twentieth part of the Spw, according to Exod. xxx. 12. By Drs. Cumberland and Arbuthnot it is supposed to have been nearly 14d. English ; but Michaelis makes it less than the half of this. A silver penny of George III. weighed nearly seven grains, and consequently the 777 was, according to Michaelis, nearly equal to two-thirds of a silver penny.
nous, a small piece or coin, 1 Sam. ii. 36. It is probably from the former word : both are rendered by the Chald. Paraph. xyo, and by the Greek oßolos ; and they were of the same value.
Apaxuya was, according to Brerewood and Godwyn, the
· Fragments to Calmet's Bib. Encycl. No. coir and ccrit, with Plates also, by the late learned Charles Taylor.
2 So called, says Eustathius, in Il. 111, (whom see in Dam. Lex. col. 261.) because anciently equal in value to six oßonos, or bars of iron, of such a size that six of them were as many as a man could clutch in his hand, οσων επιδεδραχθαι εδυνατο χειρ. Ar.d hence the name being retained after the use of iron money ceased, the Attic drachma of silver was equal to the Roman denarius.- Parkhurst's Greek Lex. p. 175.
,שקל uarter of aף
a , or about 7 d. Luke xv. 8. Apaguas exOUTU dexa, Having ten drachmas : and not indefiriitely, “ pieces of silver."
Anvagrov, a penny among the ancient Romans, equal to 7}d. of our money.
It was so called, because it originally consisted “ denis assibus," of ten asses.
ypa, from the import of the name, was a broken or half-shekel, whose value was about 13d.
41&paxmov, a double drachma, equal to two Roman denarii, or about 16d. English. Matt. xvii. 24. The LXX. frequently use Spw , because, says Grotius, the Alexandrian drachma, by which those translators constantly reckon, was double that of the Attic or common drachma.
Spw is commonly estimated at 2s. 3d. or 2s. 5d.; but some reckon it half of a crown. It was the standard coin, and weighed nearly half of an ounce.
Etamp, Matt. xvii. 27, contained two dopaxua. The tributemoney, to be paid for each person, was õrdgaxuov, Matt. xvii, 24; and this otatup was paid for Christ and Peter; consequently its value was 30 of our pence.
god, while denoting money in general, may commonly be understood to signify shekels, where it stands unconnected with any specified coin. So Matt. xxvii. 3. AtectQEVE TQ tpaxovta apgugia, He returned the thirty shekels. But, if the reference be to Greek coins, then it must be understood of the Attic Spaxual, as in Acts xis. 19.'
2 weighed 60 shekels, Ezek. xlv. 12. Its value was estimated by Josephus and Godwyn at 71. 10s.; by Prideaux, at 91.; by Arbuthnot and Lamy, at 61. 16s. 10 d.; and Horne, only at 5l. 14s.
79, a talent, was, according to Exod. xxxviii. 25, 26, to 3000 shekels in weight, and valued about 3431.
poup occurs only in Gen. xxxiii. 19, Josh. xxiv. 32, and Job xlii. 11; and it is very variously? read and interpreted. By the Chald. Targ., the Sept., and Vulg., it is translated, A lamb
As the Atlic drachma seems to have been more frequently used among the Greeks than any coin equal to the Jewish shekel, I think it more natural to compute by that; which, if with Dr. Prideaux we reckon it at 9d., reduces the sum to 1875l. Doddridge's Fam. Expos. Vol. viii.
2 Becman, de Orig. Lat. Ling. p. 819, Poole's Synops. and Boothroyd's Bibl. Hebr. on the text may be read, as they furnish all the varieties of exposition hitherto attempted.
or sheep; and also by all the ancient versions. Some have imagined that it was a piece of money with the figure of a lamb on it; but this is highly improbable, as coined money is of a much later date. Comparing Gen. xxxiii. 19. with Acts vii. 16, clearly proves it to have been money or coin. Calmet maintained that it was a purse of gold or silver, as they still reckon in the East by purses. Faber and others have supposed that it was a silver or gold vase or platter, which was anciently given in change, in lieu of money. Geddes suggested that the word is of Syriac extraction, and should be written with a D instead of w, and rendered, a belt or girdle—the value of which, in days of old, is well known. The Greek XECTOS and Latin cestus are thence probably derived. Kimchi explains it by nya, which signifies a 177, or obolus. Bochart conceived that the LXX. meant minæ, not lambs ; EXATOV usywv, instead of EXATOV Afvwv.
Sect. 2. Of Gold. Spu, according to the Jewish historian, was not more than 45. 4d.; but Mr. Horne says 1l. 16s. 6d.
Sextula, or solidus aureus, noticed only by the Rev. T. H. Horne, was worth 121. Os. 5d.
13978, a Daric: probably struck by Darius the Mede, and impressed with his image. It was equal to about 25s.; and is mentioned as being of gold in the only two texts wherein it occurs : Ezra viii. 27, 1 Chron. xxix. 7. In the latter passage we may suppose that Ezra, who probably collected, or at least revised the Chronicles, reduces the money used in David's time to that which was well known in his own.
72977, orosz, a Persian coin of gold, in value about 25s. It is always noticed as of gold : Ezra ii. 69. Neh, vii. 70–72.
2171, gold in the general; but unconnected with any particular species of coin. It is to be understood as referring to the spw of gold. Its weight was two Attic drachmas, and valued 158.
17 was, according to the author of “ Moses and Aaron," 75l. in value: but this coin of gold does not appear to have been noticed by other writers.
79, a talent. Its worth, says Josephus, was not more than 6481.; but Godwyn rates it at 45001.; Cumberland, at 50751. 15s. 7d.; Prideaux, at 72001.; and Horne, at 5475l.
Sect. 3. Of Brass. LENTOV, a mite, Mark xii. 42. It was equal to three farthings of our money, and is said to have been the smallest coin in use among the Jews, during the days of the Redeemer on earth.