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voking enough to be hypercritical, and to reject such or such word, as not strictly consistent with the terms of the promised performance.

This is the Improvisatorial art of Italy; but after all, in what is the talent more extraordinary than that of senatorial rhetoric? I hesitate not to say, that it requires infinitely more genius to elicit the fire of eloquence out of a dry debate, to reply and retort, to be ready with not only an answer, but a reason, and to be prepared upon all occasions in a popular assembly, like our House of Commons, to pour forth a torrent of words which shall silence your hearers when you can no longer persuade i hem, and which shall bear away their suffrages in triumph, even when their conviction is refused.

VIATOR.

A Transcript of a Letter from Mr. Walckenaer

to Mr. B.

Paris, ce 20 Déc. 1823. J'ai vu la Notice qu'on a faite de mes Recherches sur l'intérieur de l'Afrique Septentrionale, et qui est contenue dans le numéro 55. du Classical Journal. Quoiqu'elle ne soit point signée, il me paraît évident qu'elle est de M. James Jackson, ex-consul du Roi d'Angleterre dans l'Etat de Maroc, et qui a publié deux ouvrages sur l’Afrique. En effet ce numéro 55. du Classical Journal est du mois de Septembre dernier; et, dans ce même mois, j'ai reçu dans ma solitude du Bois-de-Boulogne une longue lettre de M. James Jackson, datée de Sceaux, qui contenait les mêmes observations sur mon ouvrage que celles que je viens de lire dans le Classical Journal. J'y répondis; et j'ai satisfait, je l'espère, M. James Jackson sur plusieurs points de sa critique: du moins vous en jugerez vousmême par le début de la réplique qu'il me fit, et que je vous transcrirai fidèlement.

“ Monsieur, je vois avec chagrin par la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de m'écrire, que je n'ai pas bien compris ce que vous avez dit dans votre érudit ouvrage touchant le Merja de M. Brué et son Babao-Sudan. En vous remerciant de la perspicacité de votre explication de cette matière, je vous prie de me pardonner les observations que je vous ai faites làdessus, lesquelles, en me référant à votre ouvrage, j'apperçois n'étaient ni nécessaires ni pertinentes."

Signé James G. Jackson, ce 3 Octobre, 1823.

La critique contenue dans la première lettre de M. Jackson relativement au Merdja, ou Mer de Nigritie, se trouve imprimée verbalement à la page 86 du Classical Journal, No. 55. Seulement il me senible que d'après l'aveu de M. Jackson, l'éditeur du Classical Vournal ferait bien pour l'instruction de ses lecteurs de demander à M. Jackson communication de la longue lettre que j'ai écrite à ce sujet, et de l'imprimer; j'ai tout lieu de penser qu'on serait alors convaincu que les observations critiques renfermées dans la Notice n'étaient ni nécessaires ni pertinentes. Quant à moi je n'ai pas gardé copie de cette lettre, et j'en aurais gardé copie, que je ne l'enverrais pas au Journaliste. Jamais je n'ai répondu ni ne répondrai à aucune critique imprimée d'un de mes ouvrages. J'ai adopté sur ce point sans restriction le principe de Fontenelle. Ma paresse s'en accommode à merveille. Je ne crois pas cependant déroger à la résolution que j'ai prise, en vous priant d'instruire le savant éditeur du Classical Journal que je n'ai eu aucune part ni directe di indirecte à l'ouvrage intitulé : “ Histoire des voyages et des découvertes faites en Afrique depuis les siècles les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours.” 4 vol. in 80. que l'auteur de la Notice m'attribue.— Permis au critique d'affirmer que j'ai omis le pays des Tuat sur ma carte, tandis que ce nom s'y trouve, et quoique la fixation de la Capitale de ce peuple (confirmée par les itinéraires de M. Lyon, publiés depuis) soit une des parties les plus importantes de mon travail. Permis enfin au critique d'avancer beaucoup d'autres choses que la lecture attentive de mon livre suffit pour réfuter: niais me mettre sur le corps quatre volumes in 80. dont je n'ai pas même lu une page, cela est trop fort ! J'ai bien assez de mes péchés, sans qu'on m'attribue ceux des autres. Voulez-vous avoir la bonté d'user de vos relations avec les éditeurs du Classical Journal, pour qu'ils détrompent sur ce point le Public. Recevez, etc., etc.,

WALCKENAER.

REMARKS ON OBSCURE PASSAGES IN THE ANCIENT CLASSICAL WRITERS.

1.-Her

EROD. 1. 60. μηχανώνται επί τη κατόδω πρήγμα ευηθέστατον, ως εγω ευρίσκω, μακρά έπει γε απεκρίθη εκ παλαιτέρου του βαρ

βάρου έθνεος το Ελληνικόν, έoν και δεξιώτερον, και ευηθίης ηλιθίου απηλλαγμένον μάλλον εί και τότε γε ούτοι εν 'Αθηναίοισι, τοϊσι πρώτοισι λεγομένοισι είναι Ελλήνων σοφίην, μηχανώνται τoίαδε. In this passage του β. έθν. depends on απεκρίθη, and is rendered at first sight difficult by the insertion of ex mahaitépou between itself and the verb. Nevertheless, the article before Bapßápou may protect it sufficiently from ambiguity.-By the word εi Herodotus does not seem to doubt the truth of this story, though it is perhaps a little too unguardedly employed, and is not very intelligible. It seems to depend on πρήγμα ευηθέστατον. Ηerodotus clearly expresses his surprise that this stupid trick succeeded, not among the barbarians, but among the Greeks, who had been for centuries past much more noted for their wit and good sense than the barbarians :

nd not among

the Greeks in general, but among the Atheniaus, who were superior in wisdom to the rest of Greece. This, certainly, he has expressed with much obscurity. I believe the following translation will be as faithful as the words will allow : “ They invent by far the most simple thing that I am acquainted with : for the Greeks have from ages past been reckoned more clever than the barbarians. It was the most simple thing, I say, for, or since, they plan this at that time of day even, and that too among the Athenians, who are said to be the first of the Greeks for wisdom.” Or thus : “ They invent, &c.” as before, as far as barbarians.” “ That then at that time of day and that too among the Athenians, who, &c. is a most simple measure.”

2.-There has been a great deal of dispute about the 462d verse of the first Æneid : "Sunt lacrymæ rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt.' The following appears to me to be a plain and intelligible sense of the first words : • Tears are a property of human affairs :' tears enter into the composition of human affairs, and form a part of them.

3.--Sallust. Jugurth. S1. “Nihil vi, nihil secessione opus : necesse est, suomet ipsi more præcipites eant. Occiso T. Graccho, quem regnum parare aiebant, in plebem Romanam quæstiones habitæ sunt. Post C. Gracchi et M. Fulvii cædem, item multi vestri ordinis in carcere necati sunt: utriusque cladis non lex, verum lubido eorum finem fecit. Sed sane fuerit regui paratio plebi sua restituere. Quicquid sine sanguine civium ulcisci nequitur jure factuni sit.” These last words are extremely obscure. i

say nothing of the use of ulcisci' for the passive, and of nequitur' for the active. This is certainly pedantic, but is not difficult. The Delphin annotator shall give the meaning of the sentence in his own words“ Conclusio est,

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quam Memmius ex iis, quæ adversariis concessit, pro causa sua deducit. Vult nimirum bene fecisse nobiles, qui commentitios regni reparatores interfecerint, ut, potiori jure, plebi in flagitiosissimos nobiles liceat inquirere." The translation will run thus : Let us grant that the punishment of crimes, though it involved the death of some, nevertheless was proper. If quicquid' agrees with crimnen' understood, 'factum sit will not correspond with 'crimen. Or, if ulcisci' is taken in the sense of vindication, and jus,' or some such word, be supposed to agree with 'quicquid,' still that word thus understood will not correspond with 'factum sit.' Let us translate it thus : If the object, whatever it be, of our vindication cannot be attained without blood, still let it be proper so to attain it. Still • factum sit will not answer to the object to be attained, but to the attainment of the object.' I cannot help thinking that the construction of this sentence is faulty, and that the fault of it is to be charged on its author.

4.- Euripides, Hec. 241. 01c6 nvíx' iades 'Taiou xatárXOTOS, Δυσχλαινίαις άμορφος, όμμάτων τ’ άπο Φόνου σταλαγμοί στην κατέσtačov yévuv; · Videtur,' says Porson, 'legendum poßou. Musgrav. aózou. Illud si probas, ad supplicem refer : si hoc, ad speculatorem.' Porson therefore disliked Þóvou. Yet it is clearly sustained by the 4th book of the Odyssey, 1. 241. where the bard introduces Helen as addressing Menelaus thus concerning Ulysses, to whom the words of Euripides are addressed : AjtóY MIY πληγώσιν αεικελίησι δαμάσσας, Σπείρα κάκαμφ' ώμοισι βαλων, οικηι εοικως, 'Ανδρών δυσμενέων κατέδυ πόλιν ευρυάγυιαν. Pope has translated the first line in a manner which is still nearer Póvou : “ Seam'd o'er with wounds, which his own sabre gave.” Φόνου is amply confirmed in this sense by many passages. Take the following from Dr. Jones's Lexicon: “Poivos, for povos, blood fresh streaming from a wound, H. Apoll. 562: Povodißns, dripping with blood, Eumen. 164: Povopputos, streaming with blood, Septem. 947."- Before I conclude this, I shall just remark that the English annotator on the above translation made a mistake, when he said : “ The poet here shows his judgment in passing over many instances of the sufferings of Ulysses, and relating this piece of conduct, NOT MENTIONED OTHER AUTHOR." Now, it appears clear that the piece of conduct mentioned by Homer is mentioned in this identical dialogue of the Hecuba of Euripides.

5.- In 1. 246. of the same tragedy, we meet with another difficulty. "Hψω δε γονάτων των εμών ταπεινός ών ;-"Ωστενθανείν γε σοίς πέπλοισι χείρ έμήν. What is ενθανείν? « Pro ενθανείν γε,” says

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Porson, “ conjicit tytaxñves Brunckius.” No niore is said: but perhaps enough is said to show us that the Professor was 'not extremely well satisfied with the passage as it stands. For he is not apt to be superfluous in his mention of emendations. Indeed on one occasion, on l. 150, he has given Gilbert Wakefield a very sly thrust, by omitting an emendation made by the latter on the word xpuropógou, and yet introducing the very pas

which Wakefield had quoted, and which so manifestly defended the above word.--However, evtaxñue is perhaps not at all less strong than $v@aveīv. This latter word will be synonymous with either to be buried,' or 'to die away,' i. e. with pallor and fear. The last of these two interpretations seems to be correct.

6.-In l. 607. the common edition has Eù so daßoüoce TEŪXOS, agxaia dátp. Can any of your readers give me information from what source the reading in the Leipsic edition of Richard Porson's four plays, printed in the year 1807, is derived: Συ δ' αυ λαβούσαγγείον, α. λάτρι?

7.-In Thucydides, book 1. chap. 41. is a passage, which might be easily shown to have puzzled the critics and commentators, were we to transcribe the notes of Reiske, Baver, Gottleber, and Haack. The note of the Scholiast on étoxpño ban is : πολλάκις χρήσθαι. And perhaps there is little difference between this and the interpretation of later commentators, “abuti.' The following translation will give some meaning to words, which are certainly not among the easiest in the writings of our historian, and are a specimen of that cramp style, which clothes the meaning of a speaker in such an obscure dress, as gives every one an opportunity of exerting his wit, and of drawing from it a meaning which perhaps never occurred to any one else: we all wonder what the writer could mean, and are sorry that his meaning is left naked to so much uncertainty : We ask you to return us a favor, and you need not refuse it. For on the one band we are not enemies, and so shall not injure you for your kindness by turning it against you: nor on the other hand are we on such terms of friendship as that we shall make too familiar and frequent a use of it.'piros may at first sight have an appearance of irony : but, as exigoi so immediately precedes in a direct antithetical manner, bearing no such ironical sense, it is hardly likely that dos can be taken in any other than its common proper meaning.

8.- There is a difficult sentence in the 40th chapter of the same book of Thucydides: and it has been subjected to as rough 2 tractation as auy passage in this writer. Ως δε ουκ αν δικαίως

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