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and a half to two francs a day, the latter in general about two francs. They come chiefly from the mountains of Sabina and the Abruzzi. The rent paid to the Chapter of St. Peters, who are the proprietors, is 120,000 francs.* The whole produce of the farm is valued at 355,000 francs.

“ But the expenses attending this immense establishment swallow up almost the whole of this sum, and the real profits of the farmer consist in his commercial and banking operations, which he is enabled to carry on with the produce of bis farm. In observing attentively the machinery of this vast establishment, the order and regularity of movement of its different parts, I felt a sentiment of sincere esteem for the man who can direct and give life to the whole. Indeed a philosophical stranger cannot grudge himself a few days passed either at Campomorto or at Santa Maria di Galera or Castel di Guido, for he will have to add to his other Roman recollections that of the frank and open hospitality and of the instructive conversation of the wealthy and intelligent farmers, and the kindness and unaffected urbanity of such men as MM. Truzzi, Cleter, Giorgi, Valentini, Vanni, will afford him much useful information, and all the luxuries of social life in the midst of a desert."pp. 325, 326.

The Pomptine marshes, which have been partly recovered from the water, belong to the Apostolic Chamber, but Pius VI. gave thein in enfiteusi, or perpetual leases, to a few families, who do not pay altogether 100,000 francs rent for about 40,000 acres of land. The Duke Braschi, the banker Torlonia, the Duke Fiano, the Marquis Massimi, and the family of Rapini, the engineer who directed the works, are the principal lessees. Had the allotments been smaller, and on common lease terms, the ground would have been better cultivated, the works would have been kept in better preservation, and the government would have derived a much greater benefit. Of the 40,000 acres either totally or partially drained, 7000 are capable of tillage, and the rest is fit for rice, Indian corn, or meadows, besides copse and forest.

M. Tournon, in speaking of the physical state of the present population of the Roman province, distinguishes it into four races. The first, who inhabit the mounts Albani and the country of the Volscians, are tall, their limbs vigorous but flexible, their features regular, large dark eyes, and an expression somewhat haughty yet pleasing. ed. The steep arid mountains of Alatri and Veroli are inbabited by a race not so tall as the former, with strong hardy limbs, features regular, but having a wild expression, which is increased by their eyebrows almost

M. Chateauvieux's calculations are much lower; see Edinburgh Review, No. LV. We consider M. Tournon as the better authority of the two; in fact he gives a complete balance sbeet, on the authority of MM. Truzzi, who rented the farm.

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meeting together. M. Tournon sees in them the descendants of the fierce Hernici. 3d. The inhabitants of the Sabine mountains have a milder expression, and thick curly hair. Lastly, in the neighbourhood of Corneto and north of mount Cimino, a race, tall, elegantly-formed, of regular features, and a pleasing mild expression, reminds our author of the old Hetrusci. This district produces the handsomest men in the whole province. The plains, as well as the city of Rome, exhibit no traces of a distinct population, but appear to be a mixture of all the races in Europe. Even among the Transteverini, fine men as they generally are, M. Tournon bas sought in vain for marks of that ancient descent which has been attributed to them. At Rome the women have a much greater share of beauty than the men, but those of the poorer classes lose their attractions at a comparatively early age.

The following is extracted from the Saggio di Statistica degli Stati Pontificj, a recent work published in numbers by M. Gabriele Calindri.

"Population of the Papal States, the Legations included, 2,592,329. “Classification of this population according to their civil state. Single men, adults

239,177 Single women, ditto

234,145 Married of both sexes

913,586 Widowers

43,616 Widows

34,126 Male children

521,185 Female, ditto

553,012 Monks or regular clergy

10,598 Priests or secular, ditto

34,600 Nuns

8,284 Of the above 1,176,178 are lauded proprietors, farmers, or labourers, with their families ; 691,803 tradespeople or mechanics ; 24,908 follow the liberal professions ; 21,508 are soldiers or seamen ; 53,432 belong to the clergy of both sexes; and 217,638 are infants.

The fourth book of M. Tournon's work treats of the Papal government, and of its judicial and financial administration, subjects curious in themselves, and generally but little known.

The Papal government is perhaps the most complicated in modern times. The Pope unites in his person three different offices; Ist, that of Supreme Pontiff, or Head of the Catholic Church and hierarchy; 2d, that of Bishop of Rome ; 3d, that of temporal sovereign of the Roman or Papal States. Few writers have taken the trouble of distinguishing between these different attributes, and thus the machinery of the Papal govern.

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ment has often been misunderstood. The Consistory, or council of the Cardinals, assists him both in his spiritual and temporal capacities, but the immediate administration of the one is confided to different persons from that of the other, although the agents of one power often come in contact with those of another, so that the line is somewhat difficult to trace.

The ministers of the Pontiff in his spiritual capacity are, 1st, the Cardinal Great Penitentiary, who decides on cases of conscience, with the assistance of several prelates; 2d, the Cardinal Sommista, who presides at the tribunal of the Apostolic Chancery, and wbose business it is to give his opinion on matters of dogma or discipline, and to affix the seals to and expedite the bulls of the Pope; 3d, the Cardinal Pro-Datario, who, with a numerous department of subordinate officers, decides all affairs concerning livings and other temporalities of the clergy, also those concerning dispensations or licenses for marriages between relations, &c. This office has lost much of its importance, since the catholic states have suppressed or secularized most of the church temporalities. In former times the sums paid to the Datario by foreign countries for briefs, bulls, dispensations, licenses, &c. amounted to more than two millions of scudi per annum (nearly half a million sterling); 4th, the Cardinal Segretario de' Brevi has the charge of the correspondence of the Pope concerning ecclesiastical matters; he expedites the briefs ad principes to foreign sovereigns, &c.; 5th, lastly, the Pope's Auditor (Uditor Santissimo,) a prelate, who is the examiner, reviser, and reporter on all matters of importance which are laid before him; he examines the claims of the various candidates for bishoprics, and is the intimate adviser of the Pope, whose full confidence he is supposed to enjoy.

The authority of the Pope as Bishop of Rome is exercised by the Cardinal Vicar, who visits the churches, superintends the clergy, &c. of his diocese, and has his own tribunal and officers. There is also a congregation called Della Visita Apostolica, which administers legacies and trusts belonging to this jurisdiction.

Lastly, the power of the Pope as temporal sovereign of the Roman States, is that with which we are now more particularly concerned. The Papal monarchy is elective; the power of the sovereign is most unlimited, and resides entirely in his own person; for although he consults the cardinals, either in special congregation assembled, or, in cases of high importance, in consistory or general assembly, yet he is not bound by their opinion. The two principal ministers of the Pope as temporal sovereign, are the Cardinal Secretary of State, and the Cardinal Camerlengo. The former unites in his person the departments of foreign affairs and of the home department; he is the prime minister and representative of his sovereign, both with foreign courts and towards his own subjects. He is appointed by the reigning sovereign, and leaves office when the latter dies. The Camerlengo is the finance minister, and is appointed for life. When a pope dies, the Camerlengo takes possession of the pontifical palace in the name of the Apostolic Chamber,* coins money in his own name, and is, in short, the acting sovereign until the cardinals are assembled in conclave. Afterwards the state is administered, till the election of a new pope, by three cardinals, who assume office by turns one day each! The Camerlengo presides at the court of the Apostolic Chamber, which constitutes a board of treasury. He has under him, more nominally, however, than really, the Treasurer-General, who is a prelate, and who has in fact the management of the budget, the administration of the state property and establishment. This office is generally filled by men of abilities. Cardinal Braschi, afterwards Pius VI., Cardinals Ruffo and Lante were treasurers before they received the cardinal's hat.

The Governor of Rome is also a prelate of the first rank, and, like the preceding, quits his office by being made a cardinal. He is under the authority of the secretary of state, but is vested with great discretionary powers concerning the police of the city and its district; he is summary judge of misdemeanors and of. fences not capital, and can condemn to imprisonment and hard labour. He goes out accompanied by a guard.

The Council, called Sacra Consulta, established by Sixtus V. is charged with the administrative power of the Roman States, Rome and its comarca or district excepted; it appoints the delegates and governors of towns, and corresponds with them. The armed force, the prisons, &c. are under its orders. It also superintends the health offices, and quarantine regulations. It is composed of cardinals and prelates, and presided by the secretary of state. The Roman states are divided into twelve delegations, namely, Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, Forli, Pesaro and Urbino, Macerata, Fermo and Ascoli, Spoleto and Rieti, Ancona, Perugia, Viterbo and Civita Vecchia, Frosinone. Each delegatiou is subdivided into governments. The delegates must be prelates; if cardinals, they are styled Legates.

Dependent on the Apostolic Chamber are several departments administered by prelates and also by lay Roman noblemen, such as that of the Ripe ed Acque, which has the superintendence of

The Apostolic Chamber, in its abstract or general sense, is a fictitious denomination implying the state or fisc. The tribunal, however, of the Apostolic Chamber, is a real active hody, and is generally designated in writing by the initials A. C.

canals and aqueducts—that delle Strade, or streets and roads that of archives and registry, of the mint, &c.

There is also another congregation called del Buon Governo, which is independent of ministers; it is presided by a Cardinal Prefect, and composed of cardinals and prelates; it superintends the communal administrations, watches the interests of the communes, and often takes their part against the pretensions of government—"a very remarkable institution,” says Tournon, "under an absolute government.”—vol. ii. p. 56. The secretary communicates directly with the Pope, and receives his orders from him. This leads our autlior to examine the structure of the municipal or communal organization of the Roman state, which ought to form a most important feature of every administration, but which is commonly lost sight of in the sweeping views of general politics. The towns and villages of the Roman States have each a municipal council composed of 48, 36, or 24 members, according to the size of the town, and of 18 in villages having less than one thousand inhabitants. The members are taken in equal proportions from the nobles or notables, and from the citizens and farmers. They are appointed for life, and the council fills up vacancies as they occur. The council discusses the wants and the means of the commune, and makes out the yearly budget, which is sent to the delegate of the province for approbation. The council then fixes the rates to be paid, superintends the expenditure, and audits the accounts. It appoints the servants of the commune, pays the local police, the schoolmaster, and the apothecary and surgeon, who receive a fixed remuneration, and are obliged to attend gratis all the poor inhabitants. The council makes out every year a triple list of candidates among residents, of which list the delegate of the province chooses a Gonfaloniere and six elders, who constitute the magistracy of the town or commune. The Gonfaloniere is under the authority of the governor of the province. The former baronial jurisdictions, privileges, and immunities have been abolished.

“ This system of municipal administration," observes Tournon, "will surprise those who imagine that in the Papal States every thing is left to the will or caprice of the government. Abuses of power are common, no doubt, but the written law is more favourable to the liberties of the people than is commonly supposed."-vol. ii. p. 41.

And he observes elsewhere, that the authority of the municipal councils is more extensive in the Papal States than it is in France.

The judicial administration is very complicated and dilatory in its proceedings. The civil courts are, Ist. That of Monte Citorio, presided by an auditor of the apostolic chamber, and three judges who are prelates; it judges in the first instance all

VOL, XI, NO. XXI.

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