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phænixes, to speak in the plural of that which is essentially singular, and we hold it best to pass over his verses.

We now come to the most curious, and in many respects the most interesting of the relics here preserved, i. e. the Diary of Albert Durer's Netherland journey in the years 1520-1521. This private record of his thoughts and actions deliciously reveals the simplicity, goodness and piety of the writer's character, together with his modest vanity, if we may thus modify a quality by its opposite, and his cordial delight in all that was great, extraordinary, or beautiful: it moreover affords us a glimpse of the state of opinion and of social intercourse in those days; but the minuteness of detail, especially with respect to the journalist's expenses, renders it occasionally tedious. We shall endeavour to exbibit it under every point of view, in the extracts we are about to make, after we have rectified a mistake of Strutt, in his Biographical Dictionary of Engravers. It is there said that Albert Durer's main object in the journey was to escape for a while from his intolerable wife. Had it been so, harsh were the moralist who would have severely blamed him; but this was not the case. His objects were to study more closely the masterpieces of a school more akin to his own than the Italian, when he himself was fitter to appreciate and profit by them than during the wanderschaft of his novice years, and also to make money both as a painter and an engraver. The duration of a journey undertaken for such purposes could not well be calculated, and as Albert Durer seems to have thought that he had taken a wife " for better for worse,” he probably did not hold himself free to leave her behind when his absence might be of long continuance. She and a maid servant, therefore, accompanied bin.

The journal thus begins; we must premise that we shall abridge and omit at our own discretion :

“On Thursday after St. Kilian's day, I, Albert Durer, at my own cost and charges, set out with my wife from Nuremberg for the Netherlands, and the same day we passed Erlang, and lay that night at Baiersdorf, and there we spent three batzen,* less six pfennige. Thence I drove to Bamberg, and gave the bishop a painted Marienbild (or image of the Virgin)t, and copperplates to the value of a gulden, he invited me as his guest, and gave me a zoll-brief, and three fürder-briefe.

Of the four Briefe, or letters with which the prelate repaid the artist's present, the zoll-brief, or toll-letter, seems to have been

We believe the bat: or batzen was worth about three halfpence, and the pfennig balf a farthing ; but we have already confessed our monetary ignorance, and hope a general knowledge that these were aniong the smallest coins current, may satisfy the reader as it does ourselves.

+ We hope this was a picture of the Virgin, but sadly fear it was a painted wooden image. It is a present more than once mentioned.



an exemption from tolls and customs, extending even beyond the jurisdiction of the reverend giver; for at almost every town they pass, Albert Durer says, “ Then I showed my toil-letter, then they let me go :” and even when it does not so promptly answer the desired purpose, he usually escapes with signing a declaration either that he has no merchandize with him, or that he will bring none back. The fürder-briefe, a sort of letter we never before met with, appear to have been some kind of letters of general recommendation; the only use we observe to be made of them, is that they are shown to Margrave Hans, at Brussels.

" Thence we drove to Antwerp; there I came to the inn of Jobst Planckfeldt, and that same evening the Fuggers' factor, by name Bernard Stecher, invited me, and gave us a costly meal. But my wife eat at the inn, and I gave the driver, for bringing us, three persons, three forins in gold. Item, on Saturday, my host took me to the bürgermeister of Antwerp's house, beyond measure large, and very well ordered, and with wonderfully beautiful large rooms, and many of them, a costly ornamented tower, an excessively large garden, in short, so magnificent a bouse, that in all the states of Germany I never saw the like. Item, I gave the messenger three stivers, two pf. for bread, and two for

“Sunday was St. Oswald's day; then did the painters invite me to their roonis* with my wife and maid, and bad every thing of silver, and other costly ornaments, and over costly victuals. And their wives were all there. And when I was led to table, then did the people all stand up on both sides, as though a great lord were a-leading. There were also among them very excellent persons of men, who all with deep bows demeaned themselves most reverently towards me, and they said that they would do every thing, as far as might be possible, that they should know would be agreeable to me. And as I sat so, there came the council-messenger

lords of Antwerp, with two attendants, and bestowed on me, from my lords of Antwerp, four cans of wine; and they sent me word that I should receive it as a present from them, and accept their good will. For this I returned my humble thanks, and offered my humble service. After that came master Peter, the city carpenter, † and bestowed on me two cans of wine, with the offer of his willing service. So, when we had sat long merrily together, and late into the night, then did tbey attend us home with torches, very honourably, and prayed me to accept their good will, and that I should do wbatever I pleased, and they would be belpful to me. So I thanked them, and laid me down to sleep.


of my


“ In Brussels, in the golden chamber of the council-house, I bave seen the four painted matters, done by the great master Rudiger (Roger van der Weyde.)

Also I have seen the things brought to the king from the new gold country (Mexico), a sun, all gold, a whole fathom broad. Also a moun, all silver, equally large ; also two roomsfull of the

• The guildhall of the painters' company.
† A title of municipal dignity, we presume.

like, weapons, armour, artillery,* very strange clothing, bedding, and all sorts of wonderful things for men's use, that are beautiful to look upon. These things are so costly that they are valued at 100,000 gulden. And in all the days of my life I have seen nothing that bas rejoiced my heart like these things; for therein bave I beheld marvellous works of art, and wondered at the subtle ingenuity of the people in the strange country, and I do not know to speak wbat I felt.

"Item, Lady Margaret (governess of the Netherlands), she sent for me in Brussels, and promised that she would be my protectress with King Charles, and showed herself especially virtuously towards me. I gave her my engravings of the Passion, also one to her treasurer, by name Jan Marini, and drew him in charcoal. Item, I was in the house of him of Nassau, and saw in the chapel the good picture made by master Hugo (van der Goes.) * * * Item, drew Master Bernbardt (von Oelay), the lady Margaret's painter, in charcoal. I have again drawn Erasmus of Rotterdam. I have given to Lorenz Stärck a St. Jerome sitting, and the Melancholy, and I have drawn my landlady's gossip. Item, six persons whom I bave drawn at Brussels have given me notbing. I have paid three stivers for two buffalo horns, and one stiver for two Eulenspiegels.” [This may either refer to a rare print by Lucas of Leyden, now scarcely to be bad for money, or to the book so called; Dr. Campe believes Durer's purchase to have been the latter.t] *** “ I presented lady Margaret, the emperor's sister, f with a set of my things, and sketched ber two matters on parchment, with all care and great pains, that I value at thirty A.

"Item, on Friday before Whitsuntide, in the year 1521, came the story to Antwerp bow Martin Luther had been so treacherously taken prisoner ;g for wbereas the Emperor Charles's herald, with an imperial safe-conduct, had been given him, with him he was in trust; but so soon as the herald bad brought bim to an unfriendly spot near Eisenach, be said he durst stay with bim no longer, and rode away. Straight were ten borse there, who treacherously led away the saint, the man enlightened by the Holy Ghost, him wbo was a follower of the true Christian doctrine. And whether he yet live, or they have murdered him, wbich I know not, this bas he suffered for the sake of Christian truth, and because he chastised the uncbristian papacy. And this is especially the heaviest to me, that God will perhaps leave us under their false, blind doctrines, which were invented and set up by men whom they call the Fathers.

Ob Lord Jesus Xpe, pray for thy people, preserve in us the true Christian faith, call together the

It is to be remembered, that in the sixteenth century artillery was not confined to cannon, but seems to have included all missive weapons. + See Foreign Quarterly Review, vol. viii. p. 370, et seq.

Margaret was sister to no emperor. She was daughter to Maximilian, and aunt to his successor, Charles V., then emperor.

The occasion of this alarm was the concerted seizure of Luther by his constant protector, the Elector of Saxony, in order to conceal liim from persecution. Its success depended upon deceiving friends and foes alike ; and this passage has historical interest as exhibiting the effect produced by the measure.

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widely scattered sheep of thy pasture, of whom a part are still to be found in the Roman church, with the Indians, Moscovites, Russians, Greeks, who, through the false conjurations and avarice of the Popes, through false shows of holiness, bave been severed! *** Oh God! if Luther be dead, who shall henceforward so clearly expound the Holy Scriptures to us? Oh God, what might he not have written for us in another ten or twenty years! Oh, all you pious Christians, help me diligently to bewail this God-inspired mortal, and to pray Him that He would send us another enlightened man! Oh, Erasme Roterodame, where wilt thou abide ?

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I have reckoned with Jobst, and I owe bim 31 florins, and I have paid him, taking into account and deducting two portraits painted in oil colours, for which he gave me out 5 pfd. (pounds, probably, of something, but of what we know not). In all my painting, boarding, selling and other dealings, I have had disadvantage in the Netberlands, in all my concerns with high and low; and especially has the Lady Margaret, for all that I have presented her and done for her, given me nothing. And this settling with Jobst was on St. Peter and St. Paul's day. I

gave the Rudiger servant 7 stivers to drink.

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" Item, on the Sunday before St. Margaret's day, the king of Denmark gave a grand banquet to the Emperor, the Lady Margaret and the Queen of Spain,* and invited me, and I too ate there. I gave 12 stivers for the king's Futteral, t and I painted the king in oil colours, and be gave me 30 forins."

We would willingly extract more of this journal, but what we have given, as much as we can afford space for, will convey a tolerable idea of its character, and peculiar sort of interest.

Seven years after his return from this, in a pecuniary sense, altogether unsuccessful expedition, on the 6th of April, 1528, Albert Durer, worn out with incessant labour, and the discomforts of his home, died of a decline. Of his character as a man and an artist, we need add nothing to what has been already said, and shall conclude with an extract from a letter upon his death, written by his ever kind friend Pirkheimer to Johann Tscherte of Vienna, imperial architect; which we give for the sake of the picture it presents to us of the artist's domestic persecution, not certainly as a specimen of composition. He says:

“ In Albert I have truly lost one of the best friends I had in the whole world, and nothing grieves me deeper than that be should have

We know not whom our good Nuremberger means by the Queen of Spain. Charles's wife was of course Empress, and the only true Queen of Spain was his mother the insane Joanna, who lived in a kind of confinement in Castile.

+ We leave this word untranslated, conceiving it to be an old technical term for the equally technical, and now we believe, obsolete, vails, at a royal table. Literally, it means case, or sheath; and may have been a case coutaining the spoon, knife and lurk, if such luxuries as forks were then in use, for each guest.


died so painful a death, which, under God's providence, I can ascribe to nobody but bis buswife, who gnawed into bis very heart, and so tormented him, that he departed hence the sooner; for be was dried up to a faggot, and migbt nowhere seek bim a jovial humour, or go to bis friends. *

Besides she so urged him day and night, and so hardly drove him to work, only that he might earn money and leave it to her when he should die; for she would always, as she does still, squander money privately; and Albert must have left her to the value of 6000 gulden. But nothing could satisfy her, and in brief, she alone is the cause of his death. I myself bave often remonstrated with her, and warned her as to her mistrustful and culpable ways, and foretold her bow it would end; but I thereby gained only ill will. (The German word undank, has a peculiar signification, which neither ill will nor ingratitnde express; it is literally the contrary of thanks.) For whoever loved that man, and was m with him, to bim she became an enemy, which in truth grieved Albert most highly, and brought him underground. I have not seen her since bis death, or let her come near me, though I have been helpful to her in many things, but there there is no confidence. Whoever opposes her, and does not always allow her to be in the right, him sbe mistrusts, and forthwith becomes his enemy; therefore I like her better at a distance than about me. She and her sister are not queans; they are, I doubt not, in the number of honest, devout, and altogetber God-fearing women; but a man might better have a quean, who was otherwise kindly, than such a gnawing, suspicious, quarrelsome, good woman, with whom he can have no peace or quiet, neither by day nor by nigbt. But however that be, we must commend the thing to God, who will be gracious and merciful to the pious Albert, for as he lived like a pious honest man, so he died a Christian, and most blessed death, therefore there is nothing to fear for his salvation."

ART. IV.-1. Histoire de France depuis la Restauration. Par

Charles Lacretelle, &c. &c. Paris: Tomes I. & II., 1829.

Tome III., 1830. Svo. 2. Histoire de la Restauration, et des Causes qui ont amené la

chúte de la branche ainée des Bourbons. Par un Homme d'Etat. Paris : Tomes I. & II., 1831. Tomes III. & IV.,

1832. 8vo. The two works which we have placed at the head of this article contain portions of the history of France during the period included between the first restoration and the final expulsion of the elder branch of the Bourbons. It is a period peculiarly interesting and instructive: and it is of great moment that the nature of that government which was overthrown by the Revolution of 1830 should be well understood in this country. It is perhaps somewhat difficult to arrive at this knowledge, in consequence of the erroneous notions which have been spread by the

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