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do violence to the Edomites; which we find in Deut. ii, 2...6.
Verse 21. “ Thus Edom refused." A similar message was sent to the king of Moab, who
gave the like answer. (Judges xi, 17.) It should seem, however, that both the Edomites and Moabites were divided at this time into several distinct states, governed each by itself, and pursuing their separate schemes of politics. For while these kings of Edom and Moab refused the Israelites a passage through their respective territories upon terms of friendship, the Edomites that dwelt iņ Seir, and the Moabites that dwelt in Ar, acceded to the terms proposed. See Deut. ii, 29.
CHAP. xxi, 1. _" by the way of the spies;” rather, with LXX,
of Atharim.” Verse 3. See Josh. xii, 14. The vow was made now; but the execution of it is told in this place proleptically. For it took place when the Israelites, under Joshua, possessed themselves of the promised land.
Verse 4. “ by the way of the Red Sea.” The route of the Israelites from Mount Hor was certainly not towards the Erythræan Sea, but rather in the contrary direction. The preposition in 12 influ.
" by the
ences the word 777, as it were repeated before it. “ And they departed from Mount Hor, turning out of the road of the Red Sea, to go round the land of Edom.” -“turning out of”- This I take to be a just use of the preposition 2. The Israelites had come straight from Eziongeber to Cadesh; and had they proceeded in the same direction, they would have passed through the heart of the territory of the Edomites to the south of Palestine. This road, lead. ing straight from the ascent of Acrabbim to Ezion. geber, on the Arabian Gulf, is called the way to the Red Sea. And, in Deut. ii, 8, it is called the road from Elath and Eziongeber. The Israelites having kept this road as far as Mount Hor, turned out of it at that place, the king of Edom not consenting that they should cross his territory. Their turning out of this road is expressed in the parallel passage, Deut. ii, 8, by the preposition prefixed to 777.
Verse 11. " toward the sun-rising.” The Samaritan adds, “ And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou shalt not distress Moab,” &c. Deut. ii, 9. Verse 12.
.“ Zared. The Samaritan adds, “ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Thou art this day to pass the border of Moab," namely, Ar,
and thou wilt, come nigh unto the children of
Ammon: thou shalt not distress them," &c. Deut. ii, 19.
Verse 13. " on the other side of Arnon." “ The other side” is to be understood with respect to the situation of the Israelites removing from their encampment near the brook Zared.
It signifies, therefore, the western side; and so the LXX understand it. -« εις το περαν Αρνων.
The Iraelites marched round the territory of Moab, to the east of it, (Judges xi, 18), till they came up to the northeast corner of it, near Ar, where it joined the territory of Ammon; there they crossed the Arnon, that they might not trespass either upon the Moabites or Ammonites, into the country west of Arnon possessa ed by the Amorites; and from Kedemoth, a place unquestionably on the western side of that river, (see Joshua xiii, 18), they sent messengers to Sihon. See Deut. ii, 13—26.
Verse 13. " that cometh out of the coasts,” i. e. “ which joins to the border,” or “begins at the border."
Verse 14. -“ of the Lord, what he did,” &c. Kennicott would read the original thus :
יהוה אתו חבב סופה
ואתה נחלים ארנון :
Son Arabicè profectus est.
Jehovah went with him to Suph,*
And he came to the rivers of Arnon.
Even to the branch of the rivers which bendeth towards
the seat of Ar,
the border of Moab.
'_“ Rivers of Arnon.” Rivers, in the plural, because
the river was composed of several branches : one of which, taken by itself, is called 70X.
_" which bendeth,” &c. Near Ar, the main stream of the river Arnon makes an angle with its first direction, which is from north to south, and runs almost due west to the Jordan, or the Dead Sea. If Ar was situate on this lower reach of the river, somewhat below the angle, the stream might properly be said to bend towards that place : and it was, I suppose, from this angle westward, that it formed the boundary between the Moabites and the Amorites. Verse 18.. * by the direction of the Lawgiver,
The two words ,כמחקק במשענתם "
.with their staves are both under the government of משענת and מחקק
the same preposition 5. The one as well as the
* See Deut. i, 1.
other properly signifies a sceptre, or staff of authority. It is probable, therefore, that the first as well as the second is the name of some thing which was used as a tool in digging the well. The Samaritan has the copulative 'prefixed to the latter of the two words; and in the copies used by the LXX, the first as well as the second had the pronoun of the third person plural suffixed. Read, therefore, DnFPODS MIyun; “ with their sceptres, and with their staves."
-" and from the wilderness;” for 13790, read, with LXX, 78391, “ and from the well.”
Verse 20. -“ Jeshimon.” The Samaritan adds, “ Then Jehovah said unto Moses, Arise,” &c. Deut. ii, 24, 25.
Verse 23. -" his border.", The Samaritan adds, “ Then Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold,” &c. Deut. ii, 31.
Verse 24. _“ unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon.” For y after pa!, read 10), “unto Jabbok, and unto,” &c.
-“ for the border of the children of Ammon was strong.” Perhaps the LXX may be right, for Jarer was the border of the children of Ammon.