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SECT. III. E N T O M () L O GY.
Thoras. Seutelium, or escutercon. pice gerit caud, et mis sub pectore ; adeo ut
in func intits called 127 As there have not 10. o Ferrur, the thigh. ” Tibia, or leg. q Tar- the site withog pats of Her lex, ihes may be sus, or fcot. r Ungus, or ciaw.
confinicias ( 17 Juchs or isitile. II. a The anterior part of the wings. b The pof- We haion of no intance of this kind in any oterior part.
c The exterior part. « The t'er dahi ut animais, nor in vegetalles, Ulet in interior part. The margin. f The dilk, the class Syngencia, w in the Opulus. This or middle. g Oculuis, the cye.
kind of fox is only found among thote imacets 12, 13, 14, 15, Represent the inteit in its c65, 03- which forn theinfelves into foci ie:, üs bees, terpillar, pupâ, and perfect ftatc.
wafpys, and ants; and hope thote ki: .of cunchs SocP. III. Of the Sexes of INSECTS,
are real llaves, as on them lies the whole buliness
of the economy; while those of the oiler tes are The same diference of fex exists in in its as in idk, only employing thenr.telres in the increaie of other animals, and they even appear more diipo- thefnili: Lichimily ci Burs has ont finale only feu io increate their fpicies than other animais; (called the quen', many malts, and an almost isimany of them, when become perfect, seeming to numerable quantity of neuters. See BEE, ” I, 1-- } be created for no other purpote but to propagate The tine economy nearly takes place in Wufisa their species. Thus the fik-worm, when it ar- where the young females, which are iripregnated rives at its perfect or moth state, is incapable of in the autumn, live through the winter, and in eating, and can hardly ily: it endeavours only to the spring propagate their species; but the queci, propagate its species; after which the male im- together with all the males, perith in the winter. mediately dies, and the female ai foon as ihe has See VESPA. Among Ants, the neriters form 2 deposited ber eggs.
hill in the shape of a cone, that the water way The males and females of miny infeas are with run oil it, and place those which are in the pupa difficuky diftinguithed. In fome genera, however, itate on that fide of it which is leatt expofidio they differ so widely, that an uaikilful perfon might the beat of the fun. At a cimliderable distance cally take the male and female of the fame iafect for from theie are found the habitations of the males diferent fpecies ; as, for instance, in the phalana and females, to wlom the molt ready obedierce huruli, piniaria, ruffula ; each sex of which dif- is yielded by the neuters, till a new offspring sucfers in-colour. This unlikenedds is ftill more appa- celuis, and then they oblige thun to quit their rent in fome insects, in which the male has wings habitations But those ants which live entirely and the female none; as in the cocus, lympyris, under ground, provide better for themíulves in phalana antiqua, brumaia, lichenella.
this respect : for a little before their nuptials, they molt infects remain long in copulation, as we may quit their habitation of their own accord, and afsee in the tipula and filk work, the winged males ter iwarming in the manner of bees, they ccpuisto fly with the wingleis females, and carry thrm a. in the air; and each retiring to fonie new habitabout trom one place to another; as in the phalana ţion, founds a new family. See FORMICA. antiqua. It is, however, no certain rulc, thit, No hermaphrodites have as yet been discovered Khen one infect of the same fpccies is found to among inftcis. There is something very singular, have wings, and the other to be without then, however, in the propagation of the aphides. A fethe former must necessarily be the male, and the male aphis once in pregnated, can produce you 5) latter the female. The aphides, for instance, are
which will continue to produce others without an exception; and befides the se, individuals of any fresli impregnation, even to the 5th or oih both texes, and of the fame species, are found progeny; after which a new in pregnation muit without wings, as the carabi meores, tenebriones, take piace. See APHIS, Ø 2. melocs, cimices. The gryllus pedestris is likewise The mole infi cts, like male hawks, are always deftitute of wings; and might have pafed for a smajer than the females. gryllus in its pupa ftate, had it not been teen in In the propagation of their species they are recopulation; for it is well known, that no infect markably careful; fo that it is with the greatest ciu propagate its (pecies till it arrives at its last or difficulty that sies are kepi from di politing their perfed taie.
eggs on fresh meat, tie cabbage ivutterily from Pleraque infectorum genitalia sua intra anum laying them on cabbage, and other infeets from habent abfcondita, et penes folitarios, sed nonnulla deporting them in the leveral places peculiar to punem habent bifidum : Cancri autem et Aranei each. The scarabeus pilularius and carnifex, megeminos, quemadmodum nonnulla amphibia, et rit attention, as they afiord a mliile afiftarce iv quod mirandum in loco alieno, ut Cancer, fub bafi each other: for when the female has laid her cars caudz. Araneus mas palpos habet clavatus, qui in a little ball of dung, the males with their feci, penes sunt, juxta os utrinque unicum, quæ claræ which are axiform, ailift the female to roll it to fexuin nec fpeciem diftinguunt; et foemira valvas some fuitable place; as Ariitotle and Pliny formais suas habet in abdomine juxta pectus. Huic vero ly, and Loefling has lately, observed. fi unquam vere dixeris, “ Res plena timoris amor:” It is a fact equally fingular and surprising, that fi enim procus inaufpicato accefferit, fremina ip- in the coccus and oniscus, the female has no roover fum devorat ; quod etiam fit, fi non ftatim se re- brought forth her young, than she is devoured !y traxerit. Libellula fæmina genitale fuum fub a- it; and that the fphex thould be able to kill the
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Sect. IV. V. caterpilior of a moth, then bury it in the earth, are not capable of moving them; as in most of and there deposit her eggs in it. Nor can we the hymenoptera. without admiration behold the fame fpecies of a- Semicompleta, in which they walk or run, but phis, which was viviparous in summer, become have only the rudiments of wings. oviparous in autumn.
Completa, in which they immediately obtain the Almost innumerable examples might be brought perfect form of the intect, without 'undergoing of ihe fingularities in the eggs of intects: we shall, any more change : as in those of the aptera claiš, however, only mention those of the HEMEROBIUS, except only the fea. The bed bug also belongs whien are deposited on a foot talk; those of the ' to this class. PHALÆNA NEUSTRIA, which are placed regularly The spider undergoes frequent transformations, in a ring round the branch of fome tree; and the though only in the colour of its kin. The crufcompound eggs of the Blatta See these articles. taceous infects, as crabs, lobsters, &c. yearly caft Sect. IV. Of the METAMORPHOSES of INSECTS. impeded. The scolopendri
, when young, have
their shells, as their growth would otherwile be All insects, except those of the aptera order, fewer feet than when they are full grown. All are continually undergoing some transformation. insects, as soon as they undergo the third change, Infects change first from the (ovum) egg, into the are arrived at their full growth; nor do we find (larva) caterpillar or maggot; then into the (pupa) any difference in the fize of the same species of inchryllis; and lastly into the (imago)fy, or perfect sect in the same countries, unless, during its caItate. During each of these changes, their ap- terpillar state, it has not had a fufficiency of propearance differs as much as night and day. The infect, as soon as it came out of the egg,
SECT. V. Of the ORDERS OF INSECTS. was by former entomologists called eruca; but as
of this is synonymous with the botanic name frym- The class of INSECTS is divided by Linnæus brium, it'was changed by Linnæus for the term înto y orders.
7 LARVA; a name expreifive of the inícat’s being,
1. The COLEOPTERA (from xw.sos, a feath, in this state,' as it were masked, having its true and wlepov, a wing,) are fuch insects as have cruftaappearance concealed. Under this maik or skin ceous elytera or shells, which shut together, and the entire infect, such as it afterwards appears form a longitudinal future down the back of the when perfeci, lies concealed, inveloped only in its insect; as the beetle, BUPESTRIS IGNITA, Plate tender wings, and putting on a soft and pulpy ap. CXXXVII, fig. 16. pearance; insomuch that Swammerdam was able 2. HEMIPTERA (from sou, half, and wiseer,) to demonstrate the butterfly with its wings to exist have their upper wings ufually half crustaceous in a caterpillar, though it bore but a faint resem- and half membranaceous, not divided by a longiblance to its future perfection. The infect, there. tudinal suture, but incumbent upon each other; fore, in this state, undergoes little other alteration as the CIMEX, fig. 17. but the change of its skin. The larvæ are, for 3. LEPIDOPTERA (from astis, a scale, and wlugav,) the most part, larger than the infect when perfect are insects having four wings, covered with fine and are very voracious. The caterpillar of the scales in the form of powder or meal; as in the cabbage butterfly cats double what it would seem butterfly, PAPILIO ANTIOPA, fig. 18. to require from its fize; but its growth is not a- 4. NEUROPTERA from vsuppo, a nerve, and alepov,) dequate to its voracity.
have four membranous trantparent naked wings, Pupa. The inspect in this state was formerly cal. generally like net-work; as in the PANOR PA COA, led chrysalis or aurelia : but as the appearance of fit. 19, gilding is confined to a few butterflies only, the S. HYMENOPTERA (from vieny, a membrane, and term of pupa has been adopted in its tead; be. oliger,) are infects with four membranous wings, cause the lepidoptera, especially, resemble an in- tail furnithed with a fting; as in the TENTHREDO, fint in swaddling clothes; and in this state all, ex. fig. 20. cept thole of the hemiptera class, take no nourish- 6. DIPTERA (from diw, two, and sligou,) are such ment.
as have only two wings, and poisors; as in the fly, IMAGO is the third state. This name is given MUSCA, fig. 21. hy Liunrus to this third change, in which the in- 7. APTER A (from a, without, and morkos,) infe&s fcet appears in its proper shape and colours; and having no wings. This last division contains scoras it undergoes no more transformations, it is pions, spiders, crabs, lobsters, &c. See ARANEA, called perfect. In this state it fiies, is capable of CANCER, &c. propagating its species, and receives true antennæ; which before, in most insects, were scarce apparent.
Sect. VI. Of the GENERA of INSECTS. As the shape of the pupa is different in different To insert here the characters of all the different clailes of infetts, it allumes different names; thus genera which may be found in Linnæus's Spflema it is called
Naturæ, is not necessary, as they will be found in Courctata, when it is round, and as it were their' order in the course of the work. We shall turned, without the least resemblance of the struc- therefore only mention some new genera enumeture of the iniect; as in the diptera.
rated by subsequent systematic writers, that, by Obtecta, when it confifts as it were of two parts, being acquainted with the fubtile distinctions on one of which furrounds the head and thorax, and which they are built, the student may avoid runthe other the abdomen.
ning into confufion. It is among the moderns Incompleta, when they have wings and feet, but only that genera of this kind are to be met with,
and new names given them.
Nưw Genera of authors SYNONYMOUS with those occasion little or no controversy. They are current
se&s, fubjoined to those of their respective genera of LINNÆUS.
like money, and of the same utility as the proper (The names of other authors are distinguished, names of men. Infe&ts living on vegetables should by Italics.)-Lucanus, Platyceros - Hifter, Attela- receive their names from the particular plants on bus-Byrrhus, Anthrenus ciftela-Mylabris, Laria which they mostly feed, as that method is preferScopoli-Attelabus, Clerus-Silpha, Peltis–Bru- able to all others. Thus the names of the coccus chus, Mylabris—Ptinus, Byrrhus Chrysomela, cacti, pbalxna mori, &c. are excellent; and when Galericula-Hifpa, Crioseris-Cantharis, Cicindela' we are able to give such to insects, the old ones Buprestis, Cucujus-Carabus, Buprestis-Myrme- ought to be discarded. But we mus be cautious leon, Formica leo. -Sirex, Uroceros.
of not being too hasty in our judgment in this reNew GENERA of authors.
fpect; as insects, when they cannot get their fa. Copris, Scarabæus absque scutello-Boftricius, vourite food will often eat other plants. Thus Dermestes capcinus--Cijela, Byrrhus pilula -- the filk worm, for want of mulberry leaves, will Rhinomancer, Attelabus roftro producto fere cur- eat those of lettuce, though it will not be so well culionis -- Ant bribus, Silpha-Bruchus, Ptinus Für nourished by them. ob fpinas thoracis-Melolontha, Chryfomela cylin- Various other instances of the invention of tri. drica-- Altica, Chrysomela faltatoria--Diaperis, vial names may be met with in the Systema Natura, Chrysomela lungorum-Pyrochra, Cantharis-Te- particularly among the butterflies and moths. To lephorus, Cantharis-Cantharis, Meloë alta-Cero- prevent confusion from the great number of fpccoma, Meloë Schäfferi-Notaxis, Meloë monoce- cies which constitute the genus of phalana, they ros --- Prionus, Cerambyx thoracis margine denti. are distributed into sections, and distinguished by culato-Stenocoris, Leptura thorace fpinosa- Hy- the terms of bombyces, no&ux, geometræ, tortrices, drophilus, Dytiscus antennis clavatis--Mslibris. pyralides, tinga, and alucitæ. The bombyces, and Necydalis minor-- Acridium, Gryllus muticus noctuæ, which are so much alike, that the females Locufa, Gryllus tettigonia-Tettigonia, Cicada— of the bombyces are with great difficulty distin. Corixa. Notonecta-Naucoceris, Nepa--Perla, guised from the noctuæ, are named promiscuHemerobius cauda bifecta - Libelluloides, Myrme. ously. leon antennis capitatis-Crabro, Tenthredo anten- All the geometræ have their names terminating ais clavatis-Pterophorus, Phaläna alucita- Bibio, in ariaa and ata, according as their antennæ are Tipula thorace fpinofo—Stomoxoides, Afilus bucca setaceous or pectinated : The tortrices, in aria ; inflata-Strationymus, Musca--Nemotelus, Musca the pyralides, in alis; the tinnæ, in ella; and -Volucella, Musca.
the alucitæ, in dadyla: so that it is evident from These genera appear to be in a great measure the termination, to what section the infect is to like those which were introduced into botany by be referred. It were to be wished that similar in. the followers of Rivinus. Paying too little regard ftitutions could be formed throughout the whole to nature, they disunited natural genera, on ac- science, as here the name itself serves to distinguish count of the most trifling distinctions. This made the insect. their continuance in the science of very short du. Butterflies are divided into sections, by the names ration; our business here is not to suppose, but to of Equites, Heliconii, Danai, Nymphales, and Plebeii. examine, what mature will allow of, and what she In the vaft multitude of butterflies, the greatest will not. Koowledge of this kind, built on opi. part of which are foreign and extra European, nion only, will not stand. We are therefore to and to whose food and manner of life we are utlook into the science with great accuracy; and ter strangers, it was impoffible to give significant the larva of the infect, its manner of changing, trivial names. Linnæus, therefore, by way of and other things of moment, are to be known, fimile, has taken the names of the Equites from before we presume to form a new genus.
the Trojan hiftory, These consist, as it were, of Great confusion has arisen from the coining of two troops or bodies; of which one contains the new pames, and changing of one old one for ano. sable, and as is were mourning nobles, having red ther. Thus, to reduce the cicindela and carabus or bloody spots at the basis of their wings. These to the fane genus, buprestis has been adopted for receive names from the Trojan nobles ; and as the generic name; but as that genus had long ago Priam was king of Troy, the most splendid among received a very different application, it was chan. these bear his bame. The other body, omamentged for that of cucujus. Again, that the officinal ed with a variety of gay colours, are distinguished cantharides might be ranged among the ceram. by the names of the Grecian heroes; and as in byces, the cantharides have been removed from both armies there were kings as well as offi. the genus of meloë (to which they naturally be- cers of an inferior rank, those elegant butterlong, and referred to the genus of cicindela, ob- Aies, whose hirder wings resembled tails, were taining thus a new name. And so of many others. distinguished by some royal name. Thus, when Thus also, to mention no more, how needlefs and Paris is mentioned (knowing from bistory that he rash was it to separate the acridium and locufia was a Trojan, and of royal blood), we find him from the genus of gryllus, the crabro from that of among those of the first section ; i. e. those of a tentbredo, and the mylabris from the necydalis ! sable colour, spotted in the breast with red, and SECT. VII. Of the Trivial Names of the various baving their hinder wings resembling tails. When SPECIES of INSECTS.
Agamemnon is named, we remember him to be a
noble Greek, and find him among those nobles The trivial names of the various species of in- which have variegated and swallow-tailed, wings.
T But when Nereus is spoken of, we readily know iofects; the le, idoptera and hymenoptera may be bu to belong to the last fećtion, having wings but ealliy killed by Nickig a pin t'ipt in aquafortia 10 tils.
through thein. After the infucts are killed, tbey The 2d clafs, which contains the Heliconnii, de Mould be transfixed with pir 3, their wings, anten. rive their nams from the Muies, as Uronia. The and itci spread out and kep: displayed. Two names of the fons and daughters of Dilnous are specimens of some of the lepidoptera ought to be beloved on the zd fećtion. And as these fpecies preserved; the one with the wins displayed, and are subdivided into two other fections, viz. the the other as much as pctible kept in tveir natural white and parti-coloured, the metaphor is to con- position. Another method of collecting infects is ducter, that the white ones preferve the names of by breeding them from their larvae and when this the daughters of Dans, and the parti-coloured can lit conveniently followed, much finer speci. ones twofe of the tons of _4. syp!us: lo that it is e- meos may be procured. This is chielly pracuted vident from the name ittelf to what lection the with the lepidopierous kinds, The caterpillars, buiterfly is to be referred.
when taken, must be fed on the leaves of the plant The names of the 4th section, Aympholes are or tree on which they were found, placed in a box take from various nyınphs of antiquity; and with some moist earth at the bottom. Here they those vi Cmsth, Fľubrii, from diferent men among will turn into a chrysalis, either by going into the the ancients whose names are worthy of remem. caitli, by spinning a web and encloting theintelees brince: fo that a knowledge of ihe ancients inay in it, or by changing into a pupa oblecta, accord. thus ieinteriperted, and this agreeable fciener he ing to the Darurai procetics of indir kinds. Wien made doubly pleafing. There, therciore, who they have continued in this itate their appointed may find new lepidoptera, and give them new time, the purest infect comes forth, which muit naines, will do well to follow this method, unless be killed before it has injured its wings by flying. it be ipparent what food the intech cietly prefers Lepidopterous intests are sometimes also coiledird for its fubiiftence.
in their pupa ftati, from under the projections of
garden walls, paies, out-houfes, funimer.bouts, OF COLLECTING and PRESERVING INSECTS.
år, or in the win ·r months, irom under the roots Those who would colled insects for the cabin of the trees they feed on. 'Thote collected or dug nei, ought to procure, it pollible, both male and up in this itate, bouid be put into a box witů female; and to retain none as specimens whose noilt earth, and kept till to y perieci themselves. wings or antennæ are injured: they should allo To preferve the infects thus collected aid prepanote the time of the year when the inficis are ta- red, they are to be placed in the cabinet, irhich ken. A kind of forceps the extremities of which may contit of boxes or draws deep enough to are covered with guaze, are generally used for cold hold a long pin, and lined on the bottom with lecting iníccts in their perfect state ; and the ento. cork, or with wax; the infects of each oder in mologist should allo carry along with him, in bis drawers by ther delves; and the differert genera walks, an assortment of pins or various fizes, and close together. Lach infećt should have its generic a tin box lined with cork, of such a lize as he may and trivial name written on a piece of paper, and judge convenient for the pocket, in which the in- fixed to the boitom by the fame pin which sup. I ets are to be fafily placed as they are caught. ports the specimen. The boxes or drawers thouid Bofore the lepidopterous inkees are fixed in the be made to thut quite clore, fo that no duit or mibox they should be carefully killed by Iqucczing nyte infect may get in; fome entomologiita cover the thorax, because their fluttering would injure them with glais: a little camphor in each drawer, their wings. The most expeditious way of killing is also of fervice. The best way of preferving incoleopterous insects is by immersing them in boil- fects of the aptera order, such as fpiders, Scoloing water; and where this method can be fol. pendræ, juli, &c. is in fome kind of spirits. The lowed they may be carried home in common onisci and cwcri may be preserved in the fame pillbixes without the smallett injury. A few drops manner as beetles. of fpirit of turpentine will kill the gencrality of
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N T ENTON, a town of England, in Surrey, SE, Ilis pricking arms entrail'd with roses red. of Gidalinin.
Fairy Queen. ENTRACQUE, a towa of Piedmont, on the * ENTRAILS. 7. f. without a fingular, [enGefio; 5 miles SSE. of Demont.
trailles, Fr. s>tipa.] 1. Tlie intestines; the inENTRAIGUES, two towns of France: 1. iq ward parts; the guts. --The entrails are all withithe dept. of Aveiron; 18 miles N. n Rodez: 2. out bones; save that a bone is fometimes found in the dept. of the fierc, 20 miles SE. of Crenoble. in the heart of a stag. Bacon,
* To ENTRAIL. v. a. lintralciare, Italian.] I tear that hardcn'd heart from out her breast To mingle; to interweave; to diversity.-
Which with her entrails makes my hungry Over him, art striving to compare
hounds a feast.
Dreden. With nature, did au arbor green dispred, 2. The internal parts. - He had brought to light but
Framed of wanton ivy, Aw'ring fair, i'ttle of that treasure, that lay so long bid in the ?h:o' which the fragrant oglantine did fpread, Cerk entruils of America. Locke.