Researches on the solar spectrum, and the spectra of the chemical elements, tr. by H.E. Roscoe

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Seite 12 - ... one line being less bright, although broader, than a second, is less visible when the mass of incandescent gas is small, but becomes more distinctly seen than the second line when the thickness of the vapour is increased. Indeed, if the luminosity of the whole...
Seite 20 - Fraunhofer's lines explained, it seemed reasonable to suppose that other terrestrial bodies occur there, and that, by exerting their absorptive power, they may cause the production of other Fraunhofer's lines. For it is very probable that elementary bodies which occur in large quantities on the earth, and are likewise distinguished by special bright lines in their spectra, will, like iron, be visible in the solar atmosphere. This is found to be the case with calcium, magnesium, and sodium.
Seite 11 - It seems to me to be a question of great interest to determine, whether these and other similar coincidences are real or only apparent ; whether the lines in question actually fall one upon the other, or whether they lie very close together. I believe that my method of observation does not possess the requisite accuracy for the purpose of answering this question with any degree of probability, and I think that a large number of prisms and an increased intensity of light will prove necessary.
Seite 14 - ... through a suitable flame coloured by common salt, dark lines were seen in the spectrum in the position of the sodium lines. " The same phenomenon was observed if, instead of the incandescent lime, a platinum wire was used, which being heated in a flame was brought to a temperature near its melting point by passing an electric current through it.
Seite 13 - I obtained a tolerably bright solar spectrum, and brought a flame coloured by sodium vapour in front of the slit. I then saw the dark lines D change into bright ones. The flame of a Bunsen's lamp threw the bright sodium lines upon the solar spectrum with unexpected brilliancy. In order to find out the extent to which the intensity of. the solar spectrum could be increased without impairing the distinctness of the sodium lines, I allowed the full sunlight to shine through the sodium flame, and to...
Seite 20 - ... great accuracy. In addition to this, the circumstance that these lines occur in groups, renders the observation of the coincidence of these spectra more exact than is the case with those composed of single lines. The lines produced by chromium also form a very characteristic group, which likewise...
Seite 19 - ... be produced by some cause, and a cause can be assigned which affords a perfect explanation of the phenomenon. The observed phenomenon may be explained by the supposition that the rays of light which form the solar spectrum have passed through the vapour of iron, and have thus suffered the absorption which the vapour of iron must exert.
Seite 19 - ... which we see in the solar spectrum ; and this supposition is rendered still less probable by the fact that these lines do not appreciably alter when the sun approaches the horizon. It does not, on the other hand, seem at all unlikely, owing to the high temperature which we must suppose the sun's atmosphere to possess, that such vapours should be present in it. Hence the observations of the solar spectrum appear to me to prove the presence of iron vapour in the solar atmosphere with as great a...
Seite 23 - ... which can be made respecting the sun's constitution is, that it consists of a solid or liquid nucleus, heated to a temperature of the brightest whiteness, surrounded by an atmosphere of somewhat lower temperature. This supposition is in accordance with Laplace's celebrated nebular theory respecting the formation of our planetary system. If the matter, now concentrated in the several heavenly bodies, existed in former times as an extended and continuous mass of...
Seite 19 - Hence this coincidence must be produced by some cause, and a cause can be assigned which affords a perfect explanation of the phenomenon.

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