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renown, and whom as liberators of their country we deem worthy of imperishable memory, and whose venerable and precious statues are admired as monuments of their virtue, and also for their splendour—who of them have adorned their country with so much glory? They indeed in arms, and amidst the hardships of war, and the miseries of mankind, and the blood and destruction of their fellow-citizens, obtained victories: but he, unsolicited, has prepared for our eyes and those of posterity triumphs immortal and safety to the state, by his word alone! Is it not he who, armed with spiritual weapons, warring against the present and future calamities of his country, has relieved the misery of nations made wretched and poor by the weakness of the Roman commonwealth, and has driven away from the despairing people the death which was ready for them, and has done all this by one most holy and triumphant word ?

Let the Roman race, therefore, prefer the venerable memory of this their Father to the memory of all others; let the present people foretel, and let our rising posterity hope for another such! Finally let us honour your most holy city worthy of such great gifts, and strengthened with so great glory from above, and through which, my dearest brethren, it is not permitted for the nations to walk except the sandals of their vices be loosened, and their feet be clean and innocent, for verily the soil on which you stand and live is holy !

Lastly, I announce these glad tidings to you, that if our master the high Pontiff should receive a previous report of your purification by means of the divine grace, he will open the wings of his repeated clemency, and fly to visit his beloved city with the company of his Apostles quicker than the nations do expect.

Nicolas, the son of Laurentius, the Roman Consul, the only Legate of the people, for the Orphans, the Widows, and the Poor, to our master the supreme Pontiff, of his own will, and with his own hand.

Copia literarum, quas misit Tribunus Populo et Universitati

Viterbii de obedientia, ac subsidio requisitis per eum pro republica gubernanda.

Auctore clementissimo Domino nostro Jesu Christo. Nicolaus, Severus et Clemens, Libertatis, pacis, justicieque Tribunus, et sacre Romane rei publice Liberator, nobilibus et prudentibus viris, Potestati, Capitaneo, Bonis Hominibus, Sindico, Consilio, et Communi Civitatis Viterbii in Tuscia constitutis, sacri Romani Populi filiis, et devotis, salutem, et cum reconciliacione Dei pacem et justiciam venerari.

Denunciamus vobis id gaudium Domini sancti Spiritus, quod pius Pater, et Dominus noster Jesus Christus in hac veneranda die festivitatis Pasche Pentecoste per inspiracionem sanctam hujus sancte urbis, et populo ejus, ac et vobis et omnibus fidelibus populis viris, qui nostra membra consistunt, dignatus est miseracorditer elargiri. Sane cum status ipsius alme urbis, et populi, ac tocius Romane Provincie pravorum, et crudelium rectorum et destructorum ipsius esset ex omni parte quassatus, in perdicionem, et miserabilem destrucionem jam deducitur, adeoque intime in eadem alma urbe omnis erat mortificata justicia, pax expulsa, prostrata libertas, ablata securitas, dampnata caritas, misericordia et devocio prophanate, quod nondum extranei et peregrini veri Christi cives Romani carissimi provinciales ad comitatum nostri nullatenus ibidem venire poterant, vel inibi remanere securi, quinmino oppressiones undique, sediciones, hostilitates, et guerre, distruciones animalium, incendia intus et extra, marique, continue effrenatissime penetrabantur, cum magnis ipsius sancte urbis, et totius Romane provincie periculis, jacturis et dampnis animarum, bonorum et corporum, et detrimento non modico totius fidei christiane heu! jam diminute, et quasi totaliter derelicte erant peregrinaciones, et visitaciones indulgenciarum et itinerum Sanctissimorum Apostolorum Petri, et Pauli civium, principumque nostrorum, et aliorum sanctorum Apostolorum quorum octo in eadem urbe corpora requiescunt, et sancto

VOL. II.

rum infinitorum Martyrum, atque virginum, in quorum sanguine ipsa sancta civitas est fundata ; nec mirandum erat, quin ipsa sancta civitas, que ad consolacionem animarum constructa fuit, et que fidelium omnium debet esse refugium, facta erat offensionis silva, et spelunca latronum pocius quam civitas apparebat; vos etiam, et alii devoti populi nostri nullum ab ipsa urbe poteratis percipere consilium, auxilium, vel favorem, qui primo sub specie senatus, sub nomine capitaneatus, sub colore milicie eratis oppressi, et injuste sepius lacerati. Igitur prefatus Pater et Dominus noster Jesus Christus ad preces, ut credimus, Beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum, civium principum et custodum nostrorum, misericorditer excitatus, ad consolacionem non solum Romanorum civium, verum tocius nostre provincie comitatum, peregrinorum, et aliorum omnium fidelium Christianorum, ipsum Romanum populum inspiracione spiritus sancti ad veritatem, et concordiam revocavit, ad desiderium libertatis, justicie, inflammavit, et ad salutem, et defensionem suam, et nostram mirabiliter illustravit, et ad observacionem perpetuam bone voluntatis, sancte, et juste deliberacionis eorum : idem populus, nobis, licet indigno, plenam, et liberam potestatem, et auctoritatem reformandi, et conservandi statum pacificum dicte urbis, et tocius Romane provincie, ac liberum professus arbitrium commisit, et concessit in suo publico, et solempnissimo Parlamento, ac plena concordia tocius populi prelibati. Nos autem, licet ad supportacionem tanti oneris humeros nostros insufficientes, et debiles cognoscamus; tamen, apertissime cognoscentes, quod a Domino factum est istud, et est mirabilius in oculis nostris, et de gratia Dei, et beatorum Petri, et Pauli, ejus gratia, et favore confisi, ac de Romani populi nostris, et tocius Romane provincie sequelis, et suffragiis spem habentes, auctoritatem, et potestatem predictas devoto corde, et animo virili suscepimus, et ad reformacionem, et renovacionem justicie, libertatis, et securitatis, statusque pacifici prefate Romane urbis, ac totius provincie, oculos nostre mentis direximus, et prosequi intendimus viriliter, et potenter, secundum ordinem antique justicie, per virtutem juste, fortisque milicie moderacione : Quapropter nobilitatem, prudenciam et devocionem vestram presentibus exhortamur, gratias reddatis altissimo salvatori, ac sanctissimis apostolis suis, quoniam in tempus afflictionis, et desperacionis propinaverunt Romano populo, ac nobis consolacionis remedium, ac salutis; suscipientes et participantes nobiscum hoc donum Dei cum magna leticia, gestis et gaudiis manifestis; necnon ad domandum protinus, et proterendum superbiam, et tirampnidem quoumcunque rebellium ; credentes hunc vobis a Christo concessum impedire quomodolibet, vel turbare statum, propulsata campana communis, et preconibus destinatis sollicitatis populum, et commune ad preparandum se armis, equis, et ceteris opportunis ad exercitum, et destrucionem eorum, et exterminium manifestum, et sub protecione Dei, et vexillo sancte justicie cum manibus nostris, superbie et tirampnides confundentur, et libertas, pax, et justitia per totam Romanam provinciam reformetur. Nihilominus vobis tenore presentium, sub fide, legalitate, et pena arbitraria precipimus, et mandamus, quatenus infra tres dies post asignacionem presentium, mictatis ad nos duos syndicos, et ambaxiatores ydoneos vestra terre ad consilium, et Parlamentum, que intendimus in eis diebus in Romanoriim commodo ad salutem, et pacem tocius nostre provincie cel 3brare: volumusque, et in signum caritatis et amoris presentibus postulamus, quatenus unum sapientum juris peritum, quem vos duxeritis eligendum, ad nos particulariter destinetis, quem ex nunc in numero judicum consistorii nostri cum salario, gagiis, et muneribus conjunctis pro sex mensibus deputamus. Datum in Capitolio, vigesimo quarto mensis Maii decima quinta indicione. *

* This is marked fol. 166 in the Turin MSS., and was printed for the first time in the Historical Illustrations of the 4th canto of Childe Harold.' It has not been thought worth while to make any attempt at emendations : the style and historical notices, not the language, being the principal object of publishing these letters. The absence of the diphthong is observable throughout the whole of the manuscript.

TRANSLATION.

Copy of the Letters which the Tribune sent to the People and

University of Viterbo, concerning the Obedience and Assistance required from them in the Government of the Republic.

Under the authority of our most mericiful Lord Jesus Christ. Nicolas, the Severe and Merciful, of liberty, peace, and justice, the Tribune, and the Liberator of the sacred Roman republic, to the Noble and Prudent Men, to the Podestà, to the Captain, to the Good Men, to the Sindic, to the Council, and to the constituted authorities of the Tuscan city of Viterbo, the devoted children of the Roman people, health, and, through the reconciliation of God, the love of peace and justice.

We announce to you the joy of the Lord the Holy Spirit, which, on the venerable day of the festival of the passover, our pious father and Lord, Jesus Christ, has vouchsafed in his mercy to bestow upon his people, and upon you and all the faithful who compose our members, through the holy inspirations of this sacred city. Verily, when the state of the cherished city itself, of the people, and the whole Roman province, was convulsed on every side, and reduced to perdition and wretched ruin by its depraved, and cruel, and destroying rulers — and justice was so inwardly deathstricken in the same city, tranquillity so expelled, liberty so prostrate, security so taken away, charity so injured, and piety and devotion so profaned, that the foreign pilgrims, the true citizens of Christendom, and our very dear Roman provincials, could not reach our convocations, or remain in them securely. But owing to the oppressions on every side, the seditions, hostilities, and wars, the ravage of living beings, the conflagrations which, within and without, upon the land and on the waters were continually raging, with great danger to the sacred city itself and of the whole Roman province, with the loss and destruction of soul, and body, and property, and with no small detriment to the whole

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