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1831.] Syrian Christians of St. Thomas in India.

17 a journey of three months, which in deeply impressed during sickness. ordinary cases took as many years. The rapid acknowledgment of the gosThe merchant presented the apostle to pel by king and people is no more exthe king, who pointed out the site of traordinary than the conversion of our his future palace, outside the town, Ethelbert of Kent. I can imagine, and departed to another city till it also, that St. Thomas exhorted Christshould be finished. Coming one day ian married women to separate from to see it, he found no building what- idolatrous husbands, when there was ever begun; and in his fury he bade no hope of converting them. And the apostle shew it, or prepare for in- this, by exasperating the men, might stant death. It is finished, said the have been the cause of his cruel death. apostle, but you cannot see it now; There is an account of the Syrian you will see it, and inhabit hereafter. Church, by Professor Lee, appended The king in a rage ordered him to be to the Seventeenth Report of the cast into prison.

Church Missionary Society. It apAt this time the king's brother fell pears that John, Bishop of India, ill; some days after, he told the king signed the acts of the Council of Nice, that two men had led him to the pa- in 325. (Query, was he a titular Bilace which the apostle had built, and shop, residing nearer home?) But he was so charmed with it, that he re- Cosmas Indicopleustes, who flourished quested it for himself. This struck in the sixth century, mentions exthe king (the legend says converted pressly a church of the faithful in Ceyhim); he went in person to the prison, Ton, and at Malabar. From this time asked the apostle's pardon, and de- downward, their history is clear. clared his belief in the Deity he Particulars concerning them are to be preached. Seven days after, St. Tho- found in all Histories and Dictionaries mas baptised the king, his brother, and of Religions, in the Asiatic Researches, all his people. After this, he traversed and in various recent works. the whole of India, preaching the gos- The wishes of many pious persons, pel, healing the sick, raising the dead, to promote an union between this and casting out devils. In the terri- church and the English in India, have tory of King Mesdeus, he exhorted his not yet been blest with any permanent female converts to quit their earthly effect. spouses, being now united to a hea.

The name of Menezes, Archbishop venly one. This, and the strict conti. of Goa, is well known as the persecunence he enjoined, raised him invete- tor of these primitive protestants. The rate enemies; they complained to the Dictionnaire Historique, 1827, gives a king, who sent some of his soldiers to short notice of him. Alexis de M. dispatch him, which they did with was born at Lisbon, in 1559; entered their spears.

into the Augustine order; was nomiI have omitted in this abstract some nated Archbishop of Goa, on the union of the legendary tales, which only dis- of the two Crowns of Spain and Porfigure the story. There appears, how. tugal, and Viceroy of the Indies, in ever, to be a vein of truth running 1607. In 1608, he was appointed through it. Tradition leads us to be- Archbishop of Braga, and returned lieve that St. Thomas preached in In- home; in 1614, he was constituted dia. That he should have gone thither Viceroy of Portugal, and in 1616, he with a merchant whom he met at Je- fixed his residence at Madrid, as Prerusalem, is quite probable; he may sident of the Council for Portuguese have preached the gospel to King Affairs. He died at Madrid, in 1617. Gundater by the metaphor of a palace, A journal of his voyage to the Indies as that monarch's thoughts were then (Visitation, I presume), was pubemployed on building one. Such is lished by Antonio de Gouveau, at the language of Rev. xxi. and of many Coimbra, in 1606. The Virorum illuspassages in the prophets; though of trium ex ordine eremitarum div. Auguscourse I do not mean to imply that tini elogia, contains a tribute to his St. Thomas quoted his contemporary memory, far different from the horror John. The king, far from understand- in which his memory is held at Ma. ing the apostle, may have been irritated, labar. and have imprisoned him ; while his Yours, &c. brother's mind may have been more Gent. Mag. January. 1891.


Trial by Combat temp. Richard II.

[Jan. MR. URBAN, Grimsby, Nov. 8. Goaded by the foul and groundless I SEND you a drawing,* taken accusation, Walsh laid himself at the from an illuminated Manuscript, which foot of the throne, and demanded the was made about the latter end of Ri- privilege of Trial by Combat. His chard the Second's reign, and is now suit was granted, the day named, and preserved in the Cotton Collection of “on a Wednesday at St. Andrew's the British Museum, Nero, D. 17. It tide,” accompanied by his sponsor, he has been delineated as the representa- entered the lists completely armed, in tion of a combat which was fought the presence of the King and all his between a gentleman of Grimsby, and Court, at Westminster, and calling for a foreigner of some distinction; of his accuser, declared himself innocent which the following are the parti- of the crime alleged against him, and culars.

ready to prove its falsehood at the peIn the reign of Richard II. (1384), ril of his life. The challenge was acthe King of Navarre was in alliance cepted by his fierce accuser, who imwith England, and a friendly inter- mediately appeared, caparisoned in a community was preserved between the rich suit of armour, to answer the inhabitants of both nations. The town summons, and declared himself preof Great Grimsby, ever distinguished pared to substantiate the charge in the by sentiments of loyalty towards the utmost extremity of battle.

The arSovereign, amidst every fluctuation of mour of both these champions is deits fortunes, was, at this period, agi- scribed, in reference to the illumination tated with consternation and terror by before-mentioned, as being “of silver, a formal charge of High Treason, and the plates at their elbows and which had been preferred against one their girdles gilt. The first figure to of its principal inhabitants. John the right is the same. The King is in Walsh, descended from the noble fa- light pink, with a blue robe lined with mily of St. Walerie, a man of honour- ermine. The figure next to the King able principles and unblemished repu- is in silver armour, the body of which tation, was the individual thus charged is purple. The back ground is red, with infamy by Martileto de Vilenos, fowered, the ground of the lists is a gentleman of Navarre. This dis- green, and the rails are red. The figraceful imputation was urged with gure of the King much resembles his all the inveteracy that attends a dis- portrait.”+ Before the commencement jointed friendship; for Vilenos con- of the battle, the usual oaths were adceived himself dishonoured, and hoped ministered to the combatants, that to dismiss his suspicions, and satiate their cause was just, and that they his vengeance, by subjecting his oppo- did not bear about them any secret nent to an ignominious death. Walsh spell or charm which might interfere had been appointed to the office of with the righteous decision of heaven, Captain or Vice-Governor of Cher- and interrupt the course of equal fight. I burg, where the Navarrois resided ; And now the trumpets sounded to and they lived for some time in perfect the charge, and the battle began with harmony and friendship; but at length great fury on both sides; but the his brain was fired with jealousy, and Grimsby champion, having truth and he suspected the English officer of an justice on his side, pressed his antagoimproper familiarity with his wife. nist so closely, that he soon gave way; Destitute of proof, however, he was and as he lay at length fainting under incapable of charging Walsh with the the conqueror's sword, he confessed fact, and adopted other means less that the charge was groundless, and honourable to remove his former emanated solely from feelings of jeafriend.

lousy. The King, indignant at his

This illumination has been engraved in Struts's “ Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities,” pl. lviii.; and also in Dr. Meyrick's “Critical Inquiry into Antient Armour," p. 56 ; and described by Dr. Meyrick, in p. 81.

+ Strutt's Regal and Eccies. Antiq. p. 115.

I The Words of this Oath were as follows :-" This heare, you Justices, that I have this day neither eate, drunke, nor have upon me either bone, stone, nor glasse, or any enchantment, sorcerie, or witchcraft, where through the power of the Word of God might be ipleased, or diminished, and the devil's power increased : and that my appeale is true, so helpe me God, and his saintes, and by this booke."-Antiq. Repert, vol. i. p. 118.

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1831.) Organic Remains at Blackdown Hills, Devon.

19 baseness, commanded that the van- of the earth, strewed over with countquished Frenchman should be de- less coloured flints of various hues, spoiled of his armour, and conveyed in many of them magnificent, and of the disgrace to Tyburn, where he termin brightest colours ; I selected some of nated his career by a death of infamy. the choicest to deposit in my cabinet The victor returned to Grimsby full of collection, as a precious addition, far honour, amidst the universal acclama- surpassing any I possessed before; tions of his townsmen, and having se- among them were some singularly fine, cured the esteem of King Richard, viz. one that the greater part had passed equally by his valour and loyalty, he into a light transparent crystallization, was appointed High Sheriff of 'Lin- bordered with a rich ruby-red; ancolnshire; and the execution of vari- other that had turned into an orangeous confidential trusts was committed red carnelian, but more diaphanous ; to him in 1396. Geo. OLIVER. one into a deep crimson jasper, and

another of a light amber complexion, MR. URBAN,

Upper Southernhay, speckled with flowery golden spots,

Exeter, Jan. 11. &c. These flints, which are so difHAVING frequently received seve- fusely scattered over the Blackdown ral interesting specimens of organic and Halsdown Hills, seemed to perremains from the caves of Blackdown plex Deluc how they could come there. Hills, (Devon), I had long contem- I consider that they were an immense plated to visit them, more especially shower of large and small pebbles having also another object in view, of which were thrown from the coast at examining the curious variegated flints the deluge, and in process of time oband siliceous substances, with which tained their present siliceous quality; I knew the surface of those eminences for the loose fossil shells found here was overspread; and lately, in a mi- near the surface are often of the same neralogical excursion in that neigh- substance; as I have met with large bourhood, I accomplished my design, fossilbivalve shells become black flints and beg leave to submit to your notice also clumps of fossil univalves and a few cursory sketches and observa- bivalves from the same hills, that have tions on the subject connected with passed into red jasper of a very fine my ramble.

texture. The north-east side of Blackdown Proceeding on my route easterly, 1 is situate within twenty miles of this stretched at too great a distance becity, and is plainly observed at no yond the caves; I then turned to the great distance on the road from Cul- left to a steep declivity, and with diffilumpton to Wellington. I was in- culty descended, it being almost performed that the estate where the pendicular, and about half way down greater number of these caves are si- the hill alighted on a compact sandtuated, consist of three hundred acres bank terrace, which extended the of land, the property of a gentleman whole length and range of the enof Honiton, but that the strata con

trances to the different caves, which taining the caves were let separately, were of a western aspect, and nearly for the purpose of excavating a sand- similar to each other at the openings, stone of a peculiar quality for sharp- from five to six feet in height, and four ening iron; these whetstones are ma- broad, but wider and higher internufactured on the spot, and considered nally, extending horizontally more or the best of the kind in England ; and less from 200 to 300 feet, and some a small trade is carried on of them at ancient ones, which are now closed, Cullumpton, and sent to different were 400 feet and upwards ; but the parts of the kingdom. On my arrival length of time it required in conveyat a short distance from Blackdown, I ing the sand-stones to the mouth of ascended to the summit of the hill, the the cave, rendered it more convenient prospect from which is very extensive, to cut new apertures, as it would be grand, and imposing; towards the liable to imminent danger to widen S.W. about sixteen miles distant, part the caves too near each other; for of the English channel is seen; though should the mass give way, the workthis delightful picturesque scenery was men must inevitably be crushed to so animating, I was still more grati. death. The fine ruby complexion of fied on looking beneath my feet, to the youths employed in excavating the behold the chequered, mossy coating earth excited my surprise, as it ex


Geology of Blackdown Hills and Dartmoor. [Jan ceeded the usual flush of nature; also deposits of earth brought on a regular as I stood at the mouth of the cavern, surface, but not of a sufficient thickI saw a tall, slender old man, coming ness to cover all the fragments and out of the gloomy recesses, whose detached pieces of rocks, so that the visage was a light carmine, the colour uppermost that remained are left in probably the effect of some peculiar view at this present day; and some essence arising from the bowels of the bulky pieces have been replaced by the earth. The men behaved well, ra- ancient inhabitants into tors, illtionally replied to my interrogatories, shaped, rude temples, pagan idols, and and assisted me in procuring fossils, one of the most conspicuous is Bowwhich consisted of several clumps and man's Nose Tor. Deluc seemed quite groups of univalves and bivalves, small puzzled respecting these rocks, and white nodules of different sizes, round declared he could assign no other as marbles ; trigonia aliformis, fig- cause than that they were catastroformed alcyonite, poppi-formed alcyo. phes of the strata," whereas it is plain nite, and lemon-shaped alcyonite ; this they were never stratified. Deluc last so exactly resembled the lemon, passed rapidly by them, with little that some fine specimens I possess, time for investigation"; though he was would, at a short distance, be mis assisted by the clergy, having a letter taken for them. The sand-stone con- of recommendation from the Bishop taining the fossils was so damp, that of Exeter to all the rectors, vicars, with little exertion I could break it and curates of his diocese, who reasunder with my hands to sort out ceived him courteously, and escorted the shells, and applying them to my him from place to place, and he exmouth, by the taste appeared to retain pressed much delight that they all actheir original sea-salt quality. This quiesced in his opinions ; he taught vast mass and beds of marine sub- them geology in half an hour, and stances were thrown up from the sea left them all philosophers. With rein the progress of the delugo, and is a ference to the above, it will be seen totally distinct sea-deposit from that that I do not coincide with the modern at Halsdown, at only a comparative philosophy, that the land which now short distance, the fossil species and appears was ever the bottom of the variety are manifestly different; the


for I reckon that, were the present spacious and lofty Woodbury Common

watery ocean to recede and the botlies between them, in which are no tom be left exposed, the shell animals marine fossils, and clearly evinces was would soon expire, and all be found never the bottom of the sea, as I have on or near the surface, and not hunexamined more than ten times over, dreds of feet below; and posterity the greatest depths that have been pe- would not receive from the parts denetrated in this common, and could serted by the sea any complete and never discover a relict of them. The perfect bivalves ; for all bivalves sepaBlackdown sand-stone deposit is very rate their valves immediately, or a abrupt, and appears of greater length very short time after the fish dies; than breadth, and was lifted up from whereas being thrown up alive inthe ocean from a north-eastern di- closed in their shells, and deposited in rection.

their native sea-sand, they are conOn the Dartmoor mountainous fined in their natural state, and the country to the west of Blackdown, I congealed substance hardening, the passed several days amidst the rocks shells are fixed and endure for ages. and the tors, which display a grand Mineral conchologists well know there representation of the wreck of the are plenty of perfect bivalves, petrified Antediluvian world, exhibiting num- with the fish in them, of which I berless rocks of all sizes scattered for possess many. The fossil gryphite, many miles round, and the natural that singular animal of the old world, effects of causes produced by the would soon have lost its operculum, Noachim deluge. This wild spot, had it not been thrown up and incomposed of huge primitive granite stantly deposited in earthy matter; rocks, the mighty diluvian storms pow. whereas they are now met with in erfully assailed, shattered, and dis- plenty, with the operculum and fish persed in every direction as the flood inclosed, perfect and in high preservaprevailed ; and the returning waters tion. Besides, the cructaceous tribe passing over them, the sediments and would have been entirely annihilated ;

Geological Effects of the Deluge.

21 for even among the marine fossils we quity is assigned by some than they now collect, they are comparatively are entitled to. The foundations of few to the testaceous, which are of a the earth were shaken, and in this harder substance.

universal earthquake, stupendous The operations of the mosaical de- masses of earth must have fallen on luge and its effects produced, were and squashed forests of vast extent, adequate to cause the formation and and the torrents of water pouring in present appearance of all the strata at the same time caused an additional and organic remains on every part of humidity to the vegetable quality; and the globe, for the whole world remains perhaps also attended by internal esas permanent now, and unaltered, as sences, would ultimately be converted it was at that period, except the shift- to coal, and be covered by successive ing of a few acres of land by earth- deposits of earth. The Bradley coal quakes, or volcanic motions and erup- mine in Staffordshire, presents, I betions. If the rivers run a hogshead lieve, upwards of twenty varieties of of water into the ocean in one place, strata above the coal, which were certhe clouds give another for it; or if tainly contemporary, and not the the tempestuous surges remove a small effect of eternal ages. The innumeportion of ground in one part, it rable animals of all descriptions being equally accumulates in another part. dead, (those in the Ark excepted,) The waters at the deluge, in coming floating and tossing about with a proon and retreating over deep valleys, fusion of marine creatures and subwould be repeatedly filled with earthy stances, portions fell into cavities and matter, shells, stones, &c.; these fissures of the most elevated rocks and layers formed several distinct strata, loftiest mountains; also on the plains, one over the other, and in process of valleys, and deepest abysses, which time internal essences and other causes are now perpetually discovered, and would have produced different appear

become objects of extravagant specuances between the higher strata and lations to many who assume to ascribe the lower; also the returning waters preposterous and ancient periods from of the flood would have occasioned the strata and organic remains, which deposits of a various character from is not in the least to be depended that which occurred at the first over

on ; for of th

nature and principles flowing of the sea. The flux and re- of petrifaction we know little ; on flux also of overwhelming tides would this subject philosophy is in the dark. have brought large portions of marine Some fossils come before us that we substances, and produce various strata. suppose have been four thousand As the waters increased the land gra- years in arriving to a silex quality; dually disappeared ; at length so nar- whilst we observe substances that rowed, that herds and focks of beasts, have been petrified to an adamantine savage and tame, affrighted and pur- stone in less than twelve months. sued by the rolling element, fled, as a Alonso Barba records instances of last retreat, into the inmost recesses waters that have produced petrifacof solitary caverns, unconscious of tions in a few days. I have examined their approaching and fatal destiny, fossils of the lizard species, that were with only a transient respite from the perfect and not shrivelled by petrifacdashing waves which choaked them, tion; these must have been instantaleaving their bones in heaps, entombed neously excluded from the atmospheriin rocky sepulchres ; which unrecorded cal air, fixed, and induration followed. ancient monuments of quadruped me- I have in my possession a fossil tormory, remained silent and untouched toise; the outside shell has passed into from age to age, till recently explored an agate flint, and the internal part and disturbed, they have afforded mat- beautiful translucent chalcedony of a ter for curious investigation. With the rose colour; this was found in a chalk mud and sand, pieces of rocks of va- and limestone stratum at Beer (Devon). rious sizes were thrown up in masses It is nothing surprising that we from the sea, with the fossil shells have found such quantities of organic attached to them. I have often met remains, and are daily finding more, with, and now have by me, fiat pieces when it is considered that the occurof rocks with a number of fossil shells rence of a few days destroyed such of the same family arranged on them, incalculable multitudes of living creaand to which a much higher anti- tures, and enveloped them, together

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