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after, the paternal mansion is the scene uniform, and those who do not. Besides of new festivities, and the wedding soon the military, which are very numerous, succeeds the betrothal. But this old cus- there is a garrison of sixty thousand men tom is fast losing favor, and will doubtless who are not allowed citizens' dress; inbecome obsolete before the growing re- deed, more than half the civil population finement of the country.
are never seen without the buttons and In autumn, all the numerous statues of epaulettes of their office. Civil functionthe garden are covered with wooden cases aries of every grade, all departments of to protect them from the rain and snow; the police, all professors of the university, all the trees and shrubs are enveloped in teachers and pupils of the public schools, straw till the return of spring, when these even the domestics of rich and noble famiand the great human family again throw lies, wear a uniform. A dress of black off their winter coverings.
or blue is regarded as a desirable distincIn a corner of the garden is the palace tion, though their wearers must yield preof Peter the Great : it is a little low, white cedence to the civil or military epaulettes 1:ouse, covered with tasteless yellow bas- in all public ceremonies. One or more reliefs, nearly concealed from view by the crosses, the brilliancy of which can scarcelarge linden-trees surrounding it; it seems ly be exaggerated, adorn the uniforms of modestly shrinking before the magnifi- those who have been in the service of cent edifices which overshadow it. Yet government for a long time. Some of there was a time when it was the most these are the emblems of a nominal digbeautiful building visible in the midst of nity ; others are granted for a certain numthe fishermen's huts of the desert city. ber of services. Decorations fall like
The population of St. Petersburgh is dew from heaven upon the proud soul of much more varied than is generally sup- the faithful Russian, and are most eagerly posed. The people are divided into two coveted by him. The subaltern's ribbon perfectly distinct classes ; those who wear of Wladimir commands the respect of his
equals and inferiors; and the diamond star / Whatever may be the cause, it is an of the grand officer is exceedingly'agree- unquestionable fact that there are few able to him, most especially from the con- cities where finer men are seen than at sideration it gains for him at the camp St. Petersburgh. Even the lower classes festivals. All stand with outstretched have beautifully regular features, Greek hand eagerly hoping and waiting as the profiles, and forms strikingly supple and cross of Stanislaus, Wladimir, or St. elegant. Another singularity of the city Anne, falls from the imperial chancelry. I is the small proportion of females, which,
unlike other European capitals, is less mark him as belonging to the tshornoi than a third of the population. This narod. Though his filthiness is an unscarcity renders them objects of univer- deniable reality, his rudeness is only in sal attention, though they are less seen in appearance. If you address him kindly public than in other cities of the conti- in simple language, you will soon see that nent; in fact, their lives were formerly he is good-natured, polite, and useful. He spent in the same seclusion as the Asiatic will salute you respectfully, and inquire women. This custom is still traceable in how he can serve you ; or he will perhaps their habits, revealing, as do many other remove the thick glove which protects his particulars, the origin of the people. coarse hand from the cold, and after shak..
Nearly all countries have some term ing yours most heartily, will give you all expressive of the habits and nature of the the information in his power. lower stratum of society, the mass of the The moujiks wear on their heads a cloth people. It is much easier to ridicule the cap of singular form, or a hat expanding coarseness and vulgarity of this class, upward from its narrow brim, and flattenthan to discover the good natural traits ed at the top, with some slight resem
they possess in common with more cul- blance to a lady's turban: it is very be* tivated human nature. France has her coming to young men, who wear the same
canaille ; even the United States has been long beard as their elders ; indeed, nothing obliged to invent a term for the European is so highly prized by this class as the paupers who crowd the cities of the New beard ; the dandy moujik keeps it careWorld ; and politicians occasionally allude, fully combed, but with the greater part it as carefully as may be, however, to the is tangled and filthy. It sometimes quite great unwashed. Now it is not a little covers the breast, though it is occasionally singular, that Russia employs precisely cut below the chin; but whatever its the same phrase for the lowest class of length or quantity, it is of inestimable her population. The Russian tshornoï value to its owner. The hair falls dowr narod, literally signifies, black people; but each side of the face, entirely concealing the first of these terms is also synonymous the ears, but is cut so short behind that with uncleanliness, and the two words ex- | the back of the neck is quite exposed, press something more than what Ameri- , and no cravat is worn. It must be concans call the unwashed, for those to whom fessed that this style of wearing the beard it is applied in Russia are utterly igno- and hair would not at all agree with our rant of the use of soap and water. They notions of elegance; but it harmonizes are also called moujiks. The superior admirably with the floating cafetan, or classes have no character peculiarly their robe of blue, green, or gray cloth. The own, aside from the uniforms which disample folds of the cafetan are confined at tinguish them; but the moujiks, who the waist with a girdle of some striking wear the national costume, are the true color. The large boots of stout leather, type of Russian character. To see one round at the ends, and bearing more reis to see all of them, for they are alike semblance to the shape of the foot than throughout the nation. They have the ours, complete the rude but not ungracesame costume, manners, habits, and tastes; ful costume of the moujik. their food and houses are alike. Their The two besetting sins of this singular ancestors were just what they are, and class are dishonesty and intemperance. their descendants will be the same for A Connecticut Yankee would stand no centuries. The first view of a moujik is chance with them, they would cheat him certainly repulsive. He looks more like out of his eye-teeth; the number of thefts a bandit than an honest man of peaceable dayly committed in the streets is incredemployments. His hair and beard are ible. The brandy consumed in the drinklong and uncombed ; his voice is harsh ; | ing houses of St. Petersburgh alone lie delights in noise ; sometimes he wears amounts to the snug little sum of nearly a coarse brown .coat, sometimes a green fifteen dollars per annum for each of the or blue robe, and sometimes a sheep-skin: inhabitants, including the entire populabut in whatever garb, or wherever found, tion of women and children. When a in city or country, the same insupportable Russian is drunk, however, as too often odor invariably accompanies him, and if | happens, he invariably preserves his good all other signs were wanting, this would humor, and also his reason, in some meas
ure, for it is very difficult to deceive him ; , onward, like a perfectly abstemious man, he becomes exceedingly affectionate to till he falls, flat in the mud, from which every one, even to his enemies, whom he the police officer removes him. His punembraces and salutes with overflowing ishment is as singular as his character. tenderness. The more he drinks, the Every person, without distinction of sex more rose-colored the world appears to or age, who is found drunk, is obliged to him, and the more gayly he carols his sweep the streets a certain number of foolish songs. He does not stagger | hours a day, according to the nature of through the streets, but walks straight | his offense.
LUTHER, AS BACHELOR OF ARTS, LECTURES ON PALOS- of Melrichstadt, physician to the Elector OPHY AND DIVINITY.
Frederick, and afterward also doctor of T UTHER, in his twenty-fifth year, steps divinity. Of him Mathesius says: “ Dr.
from the monk's cell as teacher, into | Pollich, who was at that time a lux mundi, the lecture-room; the worst period of his (light of the world,) that is to say, a docmental troubles is past ; the feeling of in- tor of laws, of medicine, and of monastic ward freedom strives for a first imperfect sophistry, would not forget even at table utterance.
the arguments and conclusions of the monk. Having been called in 1508 to the new · That monk,' he often said, as I have heard university in Wittemberg, he there deliv- | from the mouth of his brother Walter, ered his first course of lectures on philo - will confound all the learned doctors, ophy, (on that of Aristotle,) and afterwar' propound a new doctrine, and reform the another on divinity, (on the Psalms and the whole Roman Church; for he studies the Epistle to the Romans.) “Here Brother prophets and the evangelists ; le relies on Martin begins to study the Scriptures, and the word of Jesus Christ-no one can subbegins, at the High School, to contend vert that, either with philosophy or sophisagainst that sophistry which prevailed try.'” According to Pollich, Luther everywhere at that time." Among his himself said, “ Let the doctors be the dochearers in the first row we see the first tors; we must not hearken to what holy rector of the new university, Dr. Pollich Church says, but to what Scripture says."