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[For the National Magazine.]
jury. The Indians filed back precipitately, WYOMING.
and told the strange circumstance to their
tribe, and from that hour the pious MoraITS SCENERY AND INCIDENTS.
vian was to them an angel from heaven. PLEASING melancholy lingers Wyoming was a favorite retreat of the A around those places which are hal-Indians, and at this time, when it first belowed by the dim traditions of the past. came known to the whites, was claimed Few spots in all the wide domain of the by the celebrated Iroquois, or Six Nations. free American states can boast a more From certain mounds which the oldest fascinating loveliness, or a more tragic sachems found existing in the valleys, history, than Wyoming. The Susque- with giant oaks, hundreds of years old, hanna flows into Wyoming at the northgrowing upon them, it is quite certain that through a narrow pass in the mountains, a very ancient people, exhibiting the traces and is soon swelled by the waters of the of a higher civilization, once laid in this Lackawanna, flowing through another pass | region the foundations of empire. So great at the north-east, when, after winding and was the attachment of the Indians to this murmuring through the luxuriant plains, spot, it was not till after repeated solicithe stream bursts its rocky barriers at the tations they could be induced to sell it to south, gliding or plunging on to the sea. | the white man. The valley itself is about twenty miles. The settlement of Wyoming by the long by five miles wide-a little Paradise whites, constitutes an era in its history. guarded by the wild gigantic mountains The people of Connecticut claimed this of Pennsylvania.
region under the grant of an old English Some time in the summer of 1742 Wy- | charter, dated 1662. The Pennsylvania oming was visited by Count Zinzendorf, colony claimed the same land under an supposed to be the first white man who | English charter, dated 1681. The reader penetrated to this lonely spot, the surpass. will perceive that the Connecticut claim ing beauty of which was known to the has the priority of the other by nineteen distant colonial settlements only by In- years. In addition to this, the Connectidian reports.
cut people purchased the land of the InNear “ Toby's Eddy," where, in the dians, at a meeting of the chiefs of the twilight, the traveler looks with rapture Six Nations, held at Albany, July 11, through the foliage upon the broad still 1754. Whatever might be said in favor river, did this pious Moravian pitch his of either of these claims, their collision tent, with the high and holy purpose of caused a most disastrous and protracted bringing the Word of Life to the dwellers civil war. The first Connecticut settlers in the wilderness. A story of thrilling in 1763 were either massacred, or driven danger is told of the good old man. It off by the Indians. The next party that is well authenticated, and illustrates the came on from New England, found that Indian character. The mission of the the Pennsylvanians had fitted up a block stranger seemed so incredible that the house and several huts, left by the first children of the forest could not believe it. settlers, on the east side of the river, at They could not see why, except for gain, Mill Creek, about one mile above the presthis roving pilgrim would brave the ocean, ent town of Wilkesbarre, and had taken and seek out their secluded home. They possession of the valley. The Yankees resolved to destroy him suddenly and se- invested the block house and dispossessed cretly. For this purpose, two Delawares the occupants. They were in turn discrept toward his tent in the twilight, still possessed, with all the formalities of law, and deadly as panthers. No defense was (for the contest was partly legal, partly in their way, but unsuspecting innocence- warlike,) and twice within sixty days were no arm interposed but Providence. With they thrown into Easton jail, from which a blanket for the door of his tent, the count they contrived, without fail, to liberate sat writing, his gray locks being slightly themselves by their wit or their daring. agitated by the night zephyrs ; when, to The leading men among the Yankees were the surprise and terror of the observing | Captain Lazarus Stewart, Major John savages, a rattlesnake, which had been | Durkee, and Colonel Zebulon Butler. warmed into activity by the fire, crept | The principal leader of the Pennymites over one of his legs, but inflicted no in- I was Captain Amos Ogden. A writer for one of the popular magazines, recently where they found their way disputed by characterized this contest as highly ridic. Colonel Butler, who, in a perfectly war. ulous. Either he had never read a cor- like manner, had thrown a breastwork rect account of the facts, or had not suffi- | across the plain, and concealed sharpcient penetration to appreciate them. The shooters along the rocky side of the mounimportance of a conflict is not to be esti- tain. After some vain attempts to cross mated merely by the numbers engaged in this line, with the loss of several lives, the it, but by the principles involved, and by formidable army retreated down the river, the courage, the sufferings, and the ex- and thus 1775 closed the last warlike demploits of the parties.
| onstration of the Pennsylvanians against The following instance of personal dar- the New England settlers of Wyoming. ing will illustrate the truth of the last! While this war of claims was going on remark. On one occasion Colonel Butler within the very territory in dispute, the had invested the log fort of the Pennsyl- “ Susquehanna Company"-which had vanians, by placing a guard on both sides been organized to sell land and make setof the river. The besieged, thus cut off tlements in Wyoming-endeavored to from the water, were reduced to the lowest enlist the legislature of the state of Constraits, when their leader, the daring Og- necticut in their favor. Colonel Dyer, a den, sought relief by a stratagem. Tying lawyer and statesman of considerable elohis clothes in a bundle, on the top of which | quence and ability, plead the cause of his he placed his hat, he glided at night into oppressed brethren, and painted, with the the river, and floated down on his back, hues of Paradise, the beauties of their valdrawing his clothes gently after him by a ley home. It was after one of these impascord. The attention of the guard was sioned appeals to the legislature that a wit attracted, as he had anticipated, to a dark gave expression to the following rhyme:object in the water, when, in an instant,
“Canaan of old, as we are told, the blaze of many rifles had pierced it
Where it did rain down manna, with bullets ; but as the object floated on Was not half so good for heavenly food, with the same quietness as before, they let As Dyer makes Susquehanna." it pass; and, in three days, Ogden was in
So far was this dispute carried, that the streets of Philadelphia, beating up for both parties sent over to England an apvolunteers. The first Pennymite war
peal to the king, and we may well imagine lasted three years, and was followed by
by that the eloquence of Colonel Dyer, who three years of peace, in which the New
plead his cause before the king's bench, England settlers, left in the undisturbed
was not a little efficacious in creating that possession of the valley, reaped plentiful
popular interest, which induced Coleridge harvests from their fields of inexhaustible
and Southey, in 1794, to form the project fertility, and thanks to their Puritan
of emigrating to habits—founded the school, the church, and the forum ; debated in town-meet
“Where Susquehanna pours his untamed
stream." ing, prayed, and sang, and passed resolutions, to encourage the Continental Con- Probably the same cause turned the atgress in their first stand against British tention of Campbell to the spot he has oppression.
rendered immortal by his beautiful GerThe increasing prosperity of the set-trude. tlers of Wyoming aroused the slumbering The troubles which broke out between jealousy of the state of Pennsylvania, the American colonies and the mother and another expedition was raised against country, drew the attention of the king them, under the command of Major Plun- from this dispute to weightier matters, ket, a man of some little daring, but of and turned the solicitude of the states no prudence, and, above all, of no knowl- from local animosities to the struggle for edge of the danger and cost of his con- national existence. The cannonading of templated enterprise. In the middle of the Revolution rolled into Wyoming from winter, the expedition started up the Sus- distant battle-fields with mysterious and quehanna, the provisions being carried in prophetic thunder. boats on the stream. A mild season left! But danger now threatened Wyoming the current unclogged with ice, and they from another quarter. The ablest men reached the southern pass of the valley, I were drafted from the valley to serve among the troops, to be raised by the | The fort was given up the next day, state of Connecticut, without proper re- and the desolation of the fair fields, lighted gard to the fact that this region, being on up by midnight confiagration, spread unthe frontier, was exposed to constant at- told gloom upon a few defenseless ones, tacks from the war-parties of the Six who preferred to try the perils of a pathNations, who were now in league with less wilderness, in preference to the clemthe British. It was rumored that an ency of their foes. attack was meditated upon Wyoming, to ! The misfortunes of Wyoming at length cut off the defenseless inhabitants with attracted the attention of General Washone fell stroke. A few hours flow of the ington, and Major-General Sullivan was swollen waters of the Susquehanna would sent, in 1779, with an adequate force to bring canoes into their midst from the march through Wyoming, northward, to very heart of the Indian territory. Gen. | the territory of the Six Nations. Strong Schuyler wrote to the board of war on efforts were made by the enemy to divert this subject, and the soldiers enlisted from this expedition, but in vain. Onward it Wyoming prayed to be released, to fly to went, a dread thunderbolt of wrath, crushthe defense of their families; but all in ing all before it. Every philanthropist vain—they were detained; and, by unac must deprecate the horrors of war, whethcountable delays, the portentous cloud was er they are seen in the massacre of Wyopermitted to gather and burst upon the ming, or in the march of Sullivan to the doomed inhabitants of the valley.
Indian towns on the shores of the beautiIt is not necessary to follow out the ful lakes of New York, burning the homes heart-sickening particulars of the massa- and harvests of the Iroquois, and turning cre. Let it suffice to say, that the battle their Paradise into a desert. was fought on the western bank of the We might notice here, if space would Susquehanna, July 3, 1778. Three or permit, the many adventures of the brave four hundred ill-armed soldiers, under the inhabitants, both before and after the batcommand of Colonel Zebulon Butler, tle—how captives rose upon their captors, marched out from “ Forty Fort,” and and struggling against fearful odds, slew after proceeding perhaps a mile, came up their foes and escaped-how from the with the enemy, about six hundred com-caves, and gorges, and thickets of the oined British, Tories, and Indians. The mountains that overhung the valleys, the British were led by Butler, who, it is Indians descended like hungry eagles, and said, came out with a silk handkerchief then disappeared in those wild fastnesses, around his head, which was shot off dur- | baffling all pursuit. Thus Frances Sloing the battle. The Indians were com- cum, a little girl of five summers, was manded by Brandt,* and were placed in snatched from the very shadow of a fort, ambush, so as to outflank the little band, and borne to the banks of the Miami, around whom the yells of these grim war- where she became an Indian queen, and riors rang from rank to rank at regular was found by her brothers and sisters intervals. An order from Colonel Deni- after their parents were dead, but could son to turn and face the Indians was mis- not be persuaded to leave her barbaric taken for a signal of retreat. In vain solitude. All these strange adventures, Colonel Butler rode through the scattered in which truth surpasses fiction, will linremnant of his band, exclaiming, “ Do ger in the history and traditions of Wyonot leave me, my children ; let us rally, ming with a melancholy pathos, deepenand victory may yet be ours!” But few ing with time. escaped, some by swimming across the | Last of all, let us glance at Wyoming river, and others by concealing themselves of the present. The valley is quiet, in the bushes until night enabled them to soothing, and beautitul. To study its filee unobserved.
beauty, one must not be in haste. He
must not leave his impressions to be It has been denied by Colonel Stone and
marred by a rainy day, or the moodiness others, that Brandt was present at the massa- of a fatigued traveler. He must sail upon cre of Wyoming, or had any part in the outrages the bright Susquehanna, or bathe in its perpetrated upon her inhabitants. But Charles
crystal waters, or stroll along its banks in Miner, by far the best historian of the valley, in accordance with the oldest and most reliable
the twilight, or watch in the enchanting traditions, maintains that Brandt was there. I moonlight the broad luxuriant meadows, with here and there an orchard. Yet students, are three in number, forty-eight Wyoming, with her Susquehanna, does by sixty feet each, built of brick, and at not rival Niagara with her thunders, nor a distance of thirty-five feet from each the gorgeous Hudson, agitated with ships other. of commerce. The scene is every way All this is done, and still our dear Wyomore tranquil. It speaks of the past, of ming is unchanged, or changed only for the mournful memory of the once restless the better. But I am fearing, lest the hearts that now repose in its bosom. fiery car, whirling at the base of her There yet remains the pleasing stillness mountains, and bearing away the black of old Forty Fort, where a careless boy anthracite diamonds treasured in her boonce raced over the green, or watched som, may bring the strife, the affectation, the wild ducks on the river, or heard the the falsity of wealth. Should this be the evening owl in the orchard, or the whip- case, one of the sweetest visions of napoorwill's note sounding clearer and clear- ture's loveliness the writer of this sketch er over the moonlight mountains, or list- ever enjoyed will be marred; but still shall ened with wonder, in the corner of the the memory of Wyoming blend with the broad fire-place, to the stories of the dear dreams of his childhood, and throw a old woman, the loving, faithful, mysterious mournful, yet hallowed light around the woman, who had lived in the olden time. / remaining steps of his earthly pilgrimage. Alas! she lives no more on earth, but lives, I trust, in heaven. Changes are taking place. A monument has been
(For the National Magazine.) erected over the bones of the patriots, 0, WEAVE ME A CHAPLET. near where they fell in battle. But how devoid that sacred inclosure of trees and
BY A. MORRELL CORY. shrubbery, nature's ornaments, which in
O, BRING me some flowers ! Wyoming are so abundant! This should
I'm dying, -yes,-now,—
And weave me a chaplet not be. Wilkesbarre, a large and beauti
To hang on my brow! ful town, of about three thousand inhabit
I'll wear it to heaven; ants, stands on the eastern side of the
And then as I go river, near the ancient site of Fort Dur
Along the bright pathway, kee. Pittston, a flourishing village at the
The angels will know
That earth's fairest flowers head of the valley, has sprung up as by
Bloom but to decay; magic, from the great coal interest which
And yearning with pity is fast developing. At Kingston, a retired
For man, they 'll away
To scatter more freely rural village, about one mile from Wilkes
The blessings they may. barre, is a flourishing seminary, under the
0, make me a garland! patronage of the Methodist Episcopal
And hang it, when made, Church. The Catalogue for 1854 is a
Upon my brow loosely;
And as it shall fade, sufficient index to its success. The
'T will brighten by contrast number of students in attendance is 691.
The beautiful one From the opening of the institution in
That He will bestow me 1844, to the destruction of its buildings,
When life has begun. in March last, (of 1853,) it had been
And friends will assemble
To welcome me there; favored with constantly increasing patron
The crowns growing richer age and unparalleled prosperity. Encour
They joyously wear, aged thereby, and relying for means upon
When seen near one faded, the liberality of the friends of education,
More sweetly shall roll
The notes of soft rapture the trustees, while the ruins were yet
That gladden the soul. smoking, resolved to commence the work
Then bring me some flowers of rcbuilding the seminary edifices on an
Of loveliest hueimproved and much more extensive plan.
Put buds in the chaplet,
For they wither too! The work was immediately begun, and has progressed so rapidly that the buildings are now all finished and furnished. CHRISTIANITY, which is always true to the Those in which are the chapel, recitation, heart, knows no abstract virtues, but virand other public rooms, together with tues resulting from our wants, and useful apartments to be occupied by the male to all --Châteaubriand.
BEHIND THE LOUVRE-TRICKS OF
lic, I too must become a charlatan. And TRADE.
here I am—a charlatan from the tips
of my hair to the heel of my boot, selling 66 DEOPLE may wish to know why I excellent pencils for forty centimes each,
I pull up here, and begin to play the as you shall presently see.” fool. I am a pencil-manufacturer : noth This second speech concluded in the ing more. I know that my pencils are most serious manner, the gentleman progood : look here! (Exhibits a medal.) | duces from the carriage-seat a splendid This medal was given to me, as the manu- coat embroidered with gold : this he puts facturer of these superlative pencils, by on with the utmost gravity—then turns to the promoters of the Great Exhibition in the crowd to watch its effect upon them, London."
Then he takes his hat off, picks up a huge With this preliminary address, a very brass helmet from the bottom of the carfashionable-looking gentleman, who has riage, and tries it on. Again he looks drawn up his carriage at the roadside be- gravely at the crowd, suddenly removes hind the Louvre in Paris, opens an address the helmet, and places, singly, three plumes to a number of persons who begin to representing the national tricolor, watchgather about him. His equipage is hand- ing the effect upon the spectators, as he some ; and people wonder what he means adds each feather. Having surveyed the by this curious proceeding. Presently general effect of the helmet thus decothey perceive that in the buggy there is rated, he again puts it on; and, turning an organ, and that the individual perched now fully upon the crowd, folds his arms henind the gentleman fulfills the double and looks steadfastly before him. After functions of footman and organ-grinder. / a pause, he rings his little bell, and the They perceive also that the servant wears plumed organist behind him plays a soft a magnificent livery, part of it consisting and soothing air. To this tune he again of a huge brass helmet, from the summit speaks :of which immense tricolor feathers flutter “Well, here I am : as you see, a charconspicuously in the breeze. The gentle- latan. I have done this to please you : man suddenly rings a bell; and forthwith you must n't blame me. As I told you, I the footman in the buggy grinds a lively am the well-known manufacturer of penair. The crowd rapidly increases. The cils. They are cheap and they are good, gentleman is very grave:-he looks quietly as I shall presently show you. Look at the people about him, and then addresses here, I have a portfolio !" them a second time, having rung the little The gentleman then lifts a large portbell again to stop his footman's organ:- folio or book-opens it, and exhibits to the “ Now I dare say you wonder what I am crowd three or four rough caricatures. going to do. Well, I will begin with the He presently pretends to perceive doubts story which led me to this charlatan life floating about as to the capability of his for I am a charlatan-there's no denying pencils to produce such splendid pictures. it. I was, as you all know, an ordinary Suddenly he snatches up one of them, pencil-merchant; and although I sold my brandishes it in the air—turns over the pencils in the street from my carriage-seat, leaves of the book-finds a blank pageI was dressed like any of you. Well, one then places himself in an attitude to indi. day, when I was selling my pencils at a cate intense thought. He frowns; he rapid rate, a low fellow set up his puppet- throws up his eyes; he taps the pencil show close by me—and all my customers impatiently against his chin; he traces rushed away from me. This occurred to imaginary lines in the air ; he stands for ine many times. Wherever I drew up my some seconds with upturned face, raptcarriage to sell my pencils in a quiet way waiting, in fact, to be inspired. Suddenly some charlatan came, and drew all my he is struck by an irresistible and overcustomers from me. I found that my trade powering thought, and begins to draw the was tapering away to a point as fine as the rough outlines of a sketch. He proceeds finest point of my finest pencil ;-and, as with his work in the most earnest manner. you may imagine, I was not very well No spectator can detect a smile upon that pleased. But suddenly I thought that if | serious face. Now he holds the book far the public taste encourages charlatans, and away from him, to catch the general efif I am to secure the patronage of that pub- | fect, marks little errors here and there ;