« ZurückWeiter »
after his return from England, there was astic acclamation and cordial greeting. evidently a stronger bias exhibited by He remained during the first act; but findHaydn to grandeur of musical effect. Heing the excitement too great for his enwas in his sixtieth year when he com- feebled frame, he was carried from the menced his Creation ; it occupied him two palace, after having bowed his thankfulyears. Being asked by a friend, during ness to the public, and offering a parting the time he was engaged on it, how much benediction to his old associates in the longer his admirers would have to wait orchestra. for its completion," I shall take a long War was at this time ravaging Austria : time about it,” said he, “ because I intend he still felt a lively interest for his counit to last a long time." It was in 1798 try, although fast approaching the terminathat he finished his now most popular work, tion of his earthly pilgrimage. A biograand it was performed in the Schwartzen pher thus describes some of the closing inberg Palace, in Lent of the same year: in cidents of Haydn's life :-"He sometimes a month or two afterward it was printed exhausted his little strength in inquiries and disseminated all over Europe
after the state of his native land, and in It was two years from this date that he singing, at his feebly-fingered pianoforte, produced the Seasons—from the words of with his thin, trembling voice, . God preThomson. The merits of this oratorio serve the Emperor ! On the 10th of are aptly described by a criticism upon it May, the French army had reached Schönby Haydn himself. “It is not another brunn, and within a short distance of his Creation," said he ; " in that oratorio the house fired fifteen hundred shots and shells actors are angels—in the Seasons they are upon the city he had so much loved—the peasants.” To the labor of composing city of his pride and reputation. Four this work may be ascribed the termination bombs fell close to his little home. His of Haydn's musical career: from his de- faithful servants ran to him in terror. He scription of his feelings at this time, it roused himself, feeble as he was, and deappears that he had “ written himself manded, with a courageous dignity, to out;" formerly his ideas and thoughts know the reason of their alarm, assuring came unsought-“but now," said he, them that they were safe wherever he was, “ I seek them in vain.” He gradually The effort was too much for him : he was grew weaker, confining himself to his seized with a convulsive shivering, and house and garden. The fear (usually at could not proceed. He was carried to tendant upon old age) now began to haunt his bed. On the 26th of May, his strength his mind—that he should come to poverty : | was gone; yet he caused himself to be the visits of his friends and admirers would placed at the pianoforte, and again sung, sometimes console and exhilarate him; but with as much energy as he could, the time and hard work had enfeebled his National Hymn, repeating it thrice. It faculties, and his spirits altogether de- was the song of the dying swan ; for a serted him : he was not a little amused, stupor seized him at the piano, and being nevertheless, at a report of his death which conveyed back to his bed, he departed on prevailed, and which was generally be the morning of the 31st, being then two lieved. The French Institute, indeed, months over his seventy-eighth year. He performed a mass to his memory; upon was privately buried at Grumpendorffhearing this, he remarked, “ If these kind | Vienna being then in the occupation of gentlemen had given me notice of my the French. Yet even in these distressing death, I would have gone myself to beat national circumstances, Mozart's Requiem time for them." He was much gratified, was performed in honor of him in the however, by the premature compliment. Scottish Church in that city, at which the
About this time the Creation, with French attended, appearing deeply touched · Italian words, was performed by a large at the severe loss which the musical world
and complete orchestra : being desirous had sustained by his death. The same again to be present with that public which respect was paid to his memory at Breslau to him had invariably manifested so much and at Paris.” kindness, he requested permission to be Haydn left no posterity ; his heir was present; he was brought to the palace of a blacksmith, to whom he left 30,000 Prince Lobkowitz, the place of rendezvous, florinsgiving 12,000 to each of his faithin an easy chair, in the midst of enthusi- | ful servants.
most as inaccessible as Central America ANTIQUITIES OF CENTRAL AMERICA.
itself. MHE American remains-less superb, 1 The travels and researches of Stephens
1 yet more marvelous, than those of and Catherwood, who opened the way to Assyria-form altogether a modern topic. many followers, have certainly added It is true that a collection of treatises much information on this subject. Neither larger than the library of Don Quixote they nor any others, however, have inhas been compiled to discuss the original structed us in the mystery of those Ameripeopling of America, the pre-Columbian can ruins. They are still the dumb sepdiscoveries, the Canaanite, Phænician, and ulchers of the antique civilization which Scythian immigrations; and the possible reared them. Petra and Pæstum are at arrival of an antediluvian race. But until last intelligible, but Uxmal and Palenque lately, the architectural antiquities of the are still free quarters for antiquarian Western world composed no part of the dogmatism and poetical conjecture. Dubasis of such inquiries. Robertson, for paix believed them to be antediluvian, instance, affirms in his confident way, that because he found some colossal images the ancient inhabitants were utterly rude, buried in the earth! This earth he cleared illiterate, and incapable of constructing away, and in less than thirty years these any buildings better than huts, or raising memorials of Noah's ancestors were buried any monuments nobler than mounds of to a greater depth than before. Again, earth. Since the doctor wrote, a rich and they have been ascribed to a Cyclopean, valuable field of investigation has been to a Greek, to a Roman origin; but these opened.
suppositions have given way because nothThe works of an old race have been dis- | ing of a European type is discoverable covered ; not so massive as the Egyptian, in the conceptions or workmanship of the not so delicate as the Greek, but, never- artists of ancient America. To connect theless, works of beauty and power, with them with colonists from China and Japan a history, still illegible, written on them, is more safe, because these countries are for no decipherer of their hieroglyphics scarcely known; but is it logical to find has been found so learned as Champollion analogies between what is known in one or so bold as Lepsius. The tumuli and part of the world and what is unknown in fortifications in the valleys of the Missis- another? To the Hindú monuments they sippi and the Ohio, the mummies in the have certainly little likeness, because they caverns of Kentucky, the inscriptions at have no excavations, or enlargements of Dighton, the ruined structures in Arkansas natural caverns, and the style and subjects and Wisconsin, the fragments in Texas, of sculpture belong to quite another order. and the wonderful and various groups The pyramidal form has suggested an of monuments in Central America and Egyptian derivation; but in America the Mexico; mountains hewn into ranges of pyramids are mere solid masses of earth terraces, pyramids surmounted by temples, or masonry. They never stand alone gigantic idols and altars covered with they are often natural eminences faced elaborate sculpture, with elegant utensils, with stonemand each one bears a temple for domestic and religious use, have re- on its summit. The vast quarried masses vealed the existence, at a distant period, used in Egyptian architecture are never of a nation not polished or learned, yet found in America, the only specimens ennobled by grandeur of idea and high being the idols and altars, which are alartistic acquirement. Humboldt described most all monolithic. Some vague rea portion of these remains; but the great- semblance may be traced in the basser part eluded his examination. Captain reliefs, but the hieroglyphics are radically Dupaix's work, published in 1834, first at dissimilar. tracted European attention to the subject. Mr. Stephens, indeed, was unwilling to Del Rio and Felix Cabrera had indeed search for the origin of these works in any preceded him; but the announcement of period so remote. He urges several cirtheir discoveries had excited little or no cumstances against the theory of their curiosity. Lord Kingsborough afterward immemorial age. Wooden beams, for published an ambitious book at £80 per example, are found serving as lintels, and copy; but the matter was not original, and perfectly undecayed. Wood, it is true, the book was, to the general public, al- | has been found in Egypt solid and sound
after three thousand years ; but it was ject often of a martial kind. Religion never exposed to the air, or employed in and loyalty appear to be the sentiments building, except in clamps, connecting displayed. The carving is usually fine, two stones. The climate in America, both in the masonry and sculpture, and damp and destructive to timber, encour- looks as if iron instruments had been emaging rank vegetation and the rapid ployed, though none have been found. growth of trees, which in many places Arrow-headed chisels of very hard greenhave burst through the masonry, render it stone were the only implements discovered improbable that the wooden lintels could by Mr. Stephens. The altars and idols last so long. Mr. Stephens, in fact, are nearly all on a gigantic scale, most points out the monuments as the work of intricately wrought in bass-reliefs of endthe people whom the Spaniards found, or less variety, but seldom with an attempt of their not very remote progenitors. to represent the whole human figure. That Many accounts describe them as then great riches must have been possessed by being erect and entire; and it is thought the founders of these structures, and that that the barbarous havoc of the conquerors, great numbers of laborers were employed in their search for treasure, produced their in their erection, are shown by their exoverthrow. The discovery of one or two tent; one collection of ruins, combining images of pure gold incited them to this to complete a single plan, being spread devastation. One striking contrast be- over an area nearly equal to that of the tween the American and the Egyptian great Pyramid of Ghizeh. The form of ruins has been sternly insisted on ; but it the arch is never found, corridors as well was a contrast inevitable from the nature as chambers being roofed with overlapping of the two countries, and supplies no stones, smoothed to a surface with cement argument to either side of the discussion. as hard and durable as the Roman. The On the banks of the Nile the bright ruins same material was also used for floors. stand, near no shadows but their own, Very fine stucco, laid somewhat thickly glowing in every tint of the sky, visible on the walls, is painted in colors so good afar, reared like visions on the “lone and as to remain vivid after centuries of exlevel waste.” In Mexico, Chiapas and posure in a moist climate. Red earthenYucatan they are buried in forests! their ware of baked clay, highly polished, and walls are saddened by stains of damp, terra-cottas of graceful and classical outvegetation chokes their passages, and the line-among which the favorite tripod wayfarer may stand one hundred feet from form often occurs—were discovered conthe ruins of a great city without perceiving taining human bones, perhaps relics of where one stone stands upon another. sacrifices. An immense command of meA screen, entangled and fantastic, droopschanical power must also have been posalong the colonnade of trees; leaves and sessed by the builders, since the quarries brilliant flowers, with birds as bright, which supplied stone for these erections clinging and fluttering among them, are were often at a considerable distance, and trained into an impervious network, so enormous monoliths were raised to tho that the traveler, if the way is known to tops of lofty hills. him, must break through these luxuriant It would not be more interesting to defenses before he can see the tall solemn discover in what way the nation that has idols, the quaintly-wrought altars, the left these monuments was cultivated to the walls high but broken, the confusion of use of such arts, than to ascertain how beauty and ruin that lies within the echo it was that their works were suddenly of his voice.
checked — their civilization paralyzed. The figures of animals—monkeys, croco- | Evidently they were stopped in full career; diles, elephants, and birds-are frequently for the chiseled blocks are lying at the distinguishable in the American sculptures, bottom or on the edges of quarries, or besides those of men and women, ap- half-way to their destination ; some of the parently of different ranks, and exhibiting | sculptures are unfinished, and there are a great variety of costumes. Death's many other signs that the race was laborheads are common, with crowds of ein- ing when its hour of ruin arrived. blematical forms; but these are seldom We have thus given, in outline, the grotesque, and never abominable, as in important results of Mr. Stephens's explo. New Zealand and India, nor is the sub- | rations.
EVENING. po a large number of our readers, whose behold the surrounding landscapes, as the
I early days were spent "remote from glorious sun, receding from your sight, towns,” the above illustration will recall wends his way to other climes, to shed his many pleasing scenes in their happy child - smiles on other homes. hood, when, over the green fields, up the "T is evening! clear a-down the dale mountain slopes, through the woods, on
The vesper bell is pealing, the bosom of the sparkling lake, or at the
While softly on the list’ning ear cottage door, they whiled away their hours
Its silv'ry notes are stealing.
The dying sunset's latest ray of rustic leisure. There is a beauty about
Gilds with a parting glory the summer evening, with its invigorating The limbs of old ancestral trees, breeze, its refreshing fragrance, and medi
Shaded with lichens hoary. tative quiet, which makes it ever welcome.
The weary lab'rer homeward wends,
While, his return to greet, Look up into the peaceful heavens ; mark
The merry laugh of childhood lends the varying beauties of the horizon; and ]
Its joyous tones and sweet. Vol. V.-20
whether the time were well or ill chosen,
or whether men and money could be proMHE fourth Crusade, as connected with cured in sufficient abundance. Pope In
I popular feeling, requires little or no nocent III. would have been proud if he notice. At the death of Saladin, which could have bent the refractory monarchs happened a year after the conclusion of of England and France into so much subhis truce with Richard of England, his vast mission. But John and Philip Augustus empire fell to pieces. His brother Saif were both engaged. Both had deeply ofEddin, or Saphaddin, seized upon Syria, fended the Church, and had been laid in the possession of which he was troubled under her ban, and both were occupied in by the sons of Saladin. When this intel- important reforms at home; Philip in beligence reached Europe, the Pope, Celes- stowing immunities upon his subjects, and tine III., judged the moment favorable for John in having them forced from him. preaching a new Crusade. But every The emissaries of the pope therefore plied nation in Europe was unwilling and cold them in vain ; but as in the first and sectoward it. The people had no ardor, and ond Crusades, the eloquence of a powerful kings were occupied with more weighty preacher incited the nobility, and through matters at home. The only monarch of them a certain portion of the people; Europe who encouraged it was the Em- Foulque, Bishop of Neuilly, an ambitious peror Henry of Germany, under whose and enterprising prelate, entered fully into auspices the Dukes of Saxony and Bavaria the views of the court of Rome, and took the field at the head of a considerable preached the Crusade wherever he could force. They landed in Palestine, and find an audience. Chance favored him to found anything but a welcome from the a degree he did not himself expect, for he Christian inhabitants. Under the mild had in general found but few proselytes, sway of Saladin, they had enjoyed repose and those few but cold in the cause. Theand toleration, and both were endangered obald, Count of Champagne, had instituted by the arrival of the Germans. They a grand tournament, to which he had in. looked upon them in consequence as over- vited all the nobles from far and near. officious intruders, and gave them no Upward of two thousand knights were encouragement in the warfare against present with their retainers, besides a vast Saphaddin. The result of this Crusade concourse of people to witness the sports. was even more disastrous than the last ; | In the midst of the festivities Foulque arfor the Germans contrived not only to rived upon the spot, and conceiving the imbitter the Saracens against the Chris- | opportunity to be a favorable one, he adtians of Judea, but to lose the strong city dressed the multitude in eloquent language, of Jaffa, and cause the destruction of nine- and passionately called upon them to enrol tenths of the army with which they had themselves for the new Crusade, The quitted Europe. And so ended the fourth Count de Champagne, young, ardent, and Crusade.
easily excited, received the cross at his The fifth was more important, and had hands. The enthusiasm spread rapidly. a result which its projectors never dreamed Charles, Count of Blois, followed the exof-no less than the sacking of Constan- ample; and of the two thousand knights tinople, and the placing of a French present, scarcely one hundred and fifty dynasty upon the imperial throne of the refused. The popular phrensy seemed on eastern Cæsars. Each succeeding pope, the point of breaking out as in the days however much he may have differed from of yore. The Count of Flanders, the his predecessors on other points, zealously Count of Bar, the Duke of Burgundy, and agreed in one, that of maintaining by every | the Marquis of Montferrat, brought all possible means the papal ascendency. No their vassals to swell the train, and in a scheme was so likely to aid in this en- very short space of time an effective army deavor as the Crusades. As long as they was on foot, and ready to march to Palescould persuade the kings and nobles of tine. Europe to fight and die in Syria, their The dangers of an overland journey own sway was secured over the minds of | were too well understood, and the Crumen at home. Such being their object, saders endeavored to make a contract with they never inquired whether a Crusade some of the Italian states to convey them was or was not likely to be successful, | over in their vessels. Dandolo, the aged