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with Pope Gregory against him, was actually employed in ravaging his territories at the head of a papal army. This intelligence decided his return. As a preliminary step, he made those who had contemned his authority feel, to their sorrow, that he was their master. He then set sail, loaded with the curses of Palestine. And thus ended the seventh Crusade, which, in spite of every obstacle and disadvantage, had been productive of more real service to the Holy Land than any that had gone before ; a result solely attributable to the bravery of Frederic and the generosity of the Sultan Camhel.

Soon after the emperor's departure a new claimant started for the throne of Jerusalem, in the person of Alice, Queen of Cyprus, and

half-sister of the Mary who, by her TEMPLAR AND HOSPITALLER.

marriage, had transferred her right complained bitterly of the privilege of to John of Brienne. The grand military free-worship allowed to their opponents. orders, however, clung to Frederick, and Unmerited good fortune had made them Alice was obliged to withdraw. insolent, and they contested the right of So peaceful a termination to the Cruthe emperor to become a party to any sade did not give unmixed pleasure in treaty, as long as he remained under the Europe. The chivalry of France and ecclesiastical ban. Frederic was disgust- Engiand were unable to rest, and, long ed with his new subjects; but, as the Tem- before the conclusion of the truce, were plars and Hospitallers remained true to collecting their armies for an eighth expehim, he marched to Jerusalem to be crown- dition. In Palestine also the contentment ed. All the churches were shut against was far from universal. Many petty Mohim, and he could not even find a priest to hammedan states in the immediate vicinity officiate at his coronation. He had de-were not parties to the truce, and harassed spised the papal authority too long to quail the frontier towns incessantly. The Temat it now, when it was so unjustifiably plars, ever turbulent, waged bitter war exerted, and, as there was nobody to crown with the sultan of Aleppo, and in the end him, he very wisely crowned himself. He were almost exterminated. So great was took the royal diadem from the altar with the slaughter among them, that Europe his own hands, and boldly and proudly resounded with the sad story of their fate, placed it on his brow. No shouts of an ap- and many a noble knight took arms to plauding populace made the welkin ring ;prevent the total destruction of an order no hymns of praise and triumph resounded associated with so many high and inspiring from the ministers of religion ; but a thou- remembrances. Camhel, seeing the prepsand swords started from their scabbards arations that were making, thought that to testify that their owners would defend his generosity had been sufficiently shown, the new monarch to the death.

and the very day the truce was at an end It was hardly to be expected that he assumed the offensive, and marching forwould renounce for any long period the ward to Jerusalem, took possession of dominion of his native land for the uneasy it, after routing the scanty forces of the crown and barren soil of Palestine. He Christians. Before this intelligence reackhad seen quite enough of his new subjects ed Europe, a large body of Crusaders was before he was six months among them, on the march, headed by the king of Naand more important interests called him varre, the Duke of Burgundy, the Count home. John of Brienne, openly leagued | de Bretagne, and other leaders. On their arrival, they learned that Jerusalem had the interest !-they chose to admit it as a been taken, but that the sultan was dead, principle, that whatever obstructed the and his kingdom torn by rival claimants to prevailing system must be all thrown down, the supreme power.


all laid prostrate; no medium, no conAt this crisis aid arrived from England, ciliatory methods were to be tried, but, commanded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, whatever might follow, destruction must the namesake of Ceur de Lion, and in- precede. heritor of his valor. His army was strong, I remember, that even this garden, so and full of hope. They had confidence in infinitely inferior to those in Italy, had an themselves and in their leader, and looked air of decoration, and of gayety, arising from like men accustomed to victory. Their that decoration ; un air paré, a distinction coming changed the aspect of affairs. The from mere unembellished nature, which, new sultan of Egypt was at war with the whatever the advocates of extreme simsultan of Damascus, and had not forces to plicity may allege, is surely essential to an oppose two enemies so powerful. He ornamental garden. All the beauties of therefore sent messengers to meet the undulating ground, of shrubs, of verdure, English earl, offering an exchange of are to be found in places where no art has prisoners and the complete cession of the ever been employed, and, consequently, Holy Land. Richard, who had not come cannot bestow a distinction which they do to fight for the mere sake of fighting, not possess ; for, as I have elsewhere reagreed at once to terms so advantageous, marked, they must themselves, in some and became the deliverer of Palestine with respects, be considered as unembellished out striking a blow. The sultan of Egypt nature. then turned his whole force against his Among other circumstances, I have a Moslem enemies, and the Earl of Cornwall strong recollection of a raised terrace, returned to Europe. Thus ended the seen sideways from that in front of the eighth Crusade, the most beneficial of all. house, in the middle of which was a flight

of steps with iron rails, and an arched DESCRIPTION OF AN OLD-FASHIONED

recess below it, backed by a wood.

These steps conducted you from the terGARDEN.

race into a lower compartment, where T MAY, perhaps, have spoken more feel there was a mixture of fruit-trees, shrubs, I ingly on this subject, (the defects of and statues, which, though disposed with modern gardening,) from having done my- some formality, yet formed a dressed self what I so condemn in others—destroy | foreground to the woods; and, with a ed an old-fashioned garden. It was not, | little alteration, would have richly and indeed, in the high style of those I have happily blended with the general landdescribed, but it had many circumstances

many circumstances | scape. of a similar kind and effect. As I have It has been justly observed, that the long since perceived the advantage which love of seclusion and safety is not less I could have made of them, and how much natural to man than that of liberty, and I could have added to that effect-how well our ancestors have left strong proofs of I could in parts have mixed the modern the truth of that observation. In many style, and have altered and concealed old places there are almost as many many of the stiff and glaring formalities- walled compartments without, as apartI have long regretted its destruction. I ments within doors; and though there is destroyed it, not from disliking it; on the no defending the beauty of brick walls contrary, it was a sacrifice I made against yet still, that appearance of seclusion and my own sensations to the prevailing safety, when it can be so contrived as not opinion. I doomed it, and all its embellish- to interfere with general beauty, is a point ments, with which I had formed such an well worth obtaining; and no man is more early connection, to sudden and total ready than myself to allow, that the comdestruction, probably much upon the same fortable is a principle which should never idea as many a man of careless, unreflect- be neglected. On that account, all walled ing, unfeeling good nature, thought it his gardens and compartments near a houseduty to vote for demolishing towns, prov- all warm, sheltered, sunny walks, under inces, and their inhabitants in America : walls planted with fruit-trees—are greatly like me-but how different the scale and to be wished for, and should be preserved,

VOL. V.-21

if possible, when once established. I the entrance of a solemn grove ; and they therefore regret extremely, not only the both, in no small degree, added to each compartment I just mentioned, but another other's effect. This gate, and the sumgarden immediately beyond it; and I can-mer-house, and most of the objects I have not forget the sort of curiosity and surprise mentioned, combined to enrich the view that was excited after a short absence, from the windows, and from the home even in me, to whom it was familiar, by terrace. What is there now? grass, trees, the simple and common circumstance of a and shrubs only. Do I feel the same door that led from the first compartment pleasure, the same interest in this ground? to the second, and the pleasure I always Certainly not. Has it now a richer and experienced on entering that inner and more painter-like effect as a foreground? more secluded garden. There was noth | I think not by any means ; for there were ing, however, in the garden itself to formerly many detached pieces of scenery, excite any extraordinary sensation : the which had an air of comfort and seclusion middle part was merely planted with the within themselves, and at the same time lesser fruits, and dwarf trees; but, on the formed a rich foreground to the near and opening of the door, the lofty trees of a more distant woods, and to the remote fine grove appeared immediately over the | distance. opposite wall; the trees are still there, The remark of a French writer may they are more distinctly and openly seen, very justly be applied to some of these old but the striking impression is gone. On gardens :-L'agréable y étoit souvent the right was another raised terrace, level sacrifié a lutile, et en général l'agréable y with the top of the wall that supported it, gagna:” “The agreeable was frequently and overhung with shrubs, which, from sacrificed to the useful, and in general the age, had lost their formality. A flight of | agreeable gained by it." All this, howsteps of a plainer kind, with a mere | ever, was sacrificed to undulation of ground parapet on the sides, led up to this upper only, for shrubs and verdure were not terrace underneath the shrubs and exotics. wanting before. That undulation might

All this gave me emotions in my youth, have been so mixed in parts with decorawhich I long imagined were merely those tions and abruptnesses, that they would of early habit; but I am now convinced have mutually added to each other's that was not all; they also arose from a charms; but I can now only lament what quick succession of varied objects, of it is next to impossible to restore, and can varied forms, tints, lights, and shadows; only reflect how much more difficult it is they arose from the various degrees of to add any of the old decorations to intricacy and suspense that were produced modern improvements, than to soften the by the no less various degrees and kinds old style by blending with it a proper of concealment, all exciting and nourishing portion of the new. My object (as far as curiosity, and all distinct in their character I had any determinate object besides that from the surrounding landscapes. I will of being in the fashion) was, I imagine, to beg my reader's indulgence for going on restore the ground to what might have to trace a few other circumstances which been supposed to be its original state ; I are now no more. These steps, as I probably have, in some degree, succeeded, mentioned before, led to an upper terrace, and, after much difficulty, expense, and and thence, through the little wilderness dirt, I have made it look like many other of exotics, to a summer-house, with a parts of mine, and of all beautiful grounds, luxuriant Virginia creeper growing over with but little to mark the difference beit; this summer-house and the creeper, to tween what is close to the house and my great sorrow at the time, to my regret what is at a distance from it, between the ever since, to my great surprise at this habitation of man and that of sheep. moment, and, probably to that of my read-1 er-I pulled down, for I was told that it A Good WIFE. - A pleasant, cheerful interfered so much with the leveling of wife is as a rainbow set in the sky when the ground, with its flowing line and un- her husband's mind is tossed with storms dulations, in short, with the prevailing and tempests; but a dissatisfied and fretsystem, that it could not stand. Beyond ful wife, in the hour of trouble, is like one this again, as the last boundary of the of those who were appointed to torture garden, was a richly worked iron gate, at lost spirits.

Zadoo Walees (dealers in magic) from the baMAGIC IN INDIA.

zaar, and gave them four pice apiece, (about two

pence each,) and they cured me.' CORRESPONDENT in India tells

“* But how-what did they do? Al us that a military friend of his, on “They put me on a charpaee, (a low bed,) and returning to England, and finding all astir one sat at each side of me, and both passed there about mesmerism, writes to him that

their hands over my body so, (describing long

mesmeric passes,) and thus they set me to he had often had much cause to regret

sleep, and I slept soundly: when I awoke, I was chat, during his long residence of more free from rheumatism, and am now perfectly than twenty-eight years in India, he was well.” ignorant of the very name or existence of The master made no investigation of mesmerism ; as he could recall to mind the matter; the man was laughed at, and many instances of what he then deemed to told to return to his duties, which he conbe native superstitions, on which he now tinued thenceforth to perform with all his looked very differently, believing them to former zeal. Now, this was not regarded be the direct effects of mesmeric influence. | by the patient or the other servants as a These instances are dayly and hourly ex- strange thing, for they took it quite as a hibited in Indian dwellings, though either matter of course ; and there is indeed no passing without notice, or ascribed to reason to doubt, that the natives of India other causes. Children in India, espe- frequently have recourse to jhar phoonk, cially European children, seldom go to or mesmerism, for the cure of rheumasleep without being subjected to some tism; but many interesting things are such influence, either by the ayahs or the carefully concealed from the English, beattendant bearers; and our military friend cause we invariably ridicule or sneer at says, that he has himself repeatedly, in native customs—a mode of treatment pea few seconds, been the means of tran- | culiarly distasteful to the inhabitants of quillizing a fractious, teething child, and the East. throwing it into a profound sleep, by the But though willing to make use of these mere exercise of the will, quite ignorant mysterious powers in their beneficent and that he was thus using, though in one of curative forms, there exist all over Hinits simplest forms, a power at which he dostan abundant proofs of the dread of laughed heartily when displayed around“ zadoo,” or witchcraft, among all classes, him in some of its more hidden ramifica | Moslems as well as Hindoos, when it aptions. We give the following in his own pears to threaten them with evil. If a words :

cultivator has transplanted his tobacco or “I shall now relate a circumstance, proving

other valuable plant, he collects old crackthat the natives of India apply mesmeric power

ed earthen cooking-pots, and places a spot to the removal of diseases with the utmost suc of limestone whiting on the well-blackened cess. I had in my establishment at Lucknow bottom of each. They are then fixed on a chuprassie, who was a martyr to the most

stakes driven into the ground, so that the deplorable chronic rheumatism. His hands, wrists, knees, and all his joints, were so greatly

white spots may be seen by all passers-by. enlarged, and in a state so painful, that his This ingenious process is meant to neuduties had gradually become merely nominal. tralize the influence of the “evil eye” of One day, he hobbled up, and begged my per the envious. The talismans worn by the mission to remain at home for a few days, for the purpose of being cured of his agonizing

natives, said to be always the same, condisease. I said : Certainly; get cured of your sist of an oblong cylinder, with a co complaint, and let me see you when you re- of rings for a string to pass through to turn. In a very few days, perhaps in four or

fasten them, and would appear to have five, to my great astonishment he returned, smiling and joyous, with his limbs as pliant

been originally impregnated with the elecand supple as my own.

tric fluid. Children are invariably pro"• What!' said I, “are you come back already?' vided with such amulets to avert the “ evil "* Yes, sir, by your favor, I am perfectly cured.' eye ;" and should any one praise their • • What! entirely cured ? “Yes, sir ; perfectly cured.'

beauty, the parent spits on the ground, “Well, then, tell me what medicine you

and declares them to be perfect frights.

and declares them to be periect is took.'

The inhabitants of the mountainous re“I took no medicine ; I called in two women, gions east of Bengal—the Bhooteeas and

others-accuse all those of Bengal of be• Running-footmen, who attend the carriage or palan ing great sorcerers; and when seized with quin, go on messages, carry books or letters, or any fever in the low malarious tracts, which light thing they can take in their hands.

they must pass through on descending from surgeon ; but after the lapse of some time, he the mountains and entering that province,

was sent back, with the intimation that the

surgeon could not discover any specific disease, for the purpose of bathing in the holy

and that he, therefore, could make nothing of Ganges, or visiting one of the numerous

his case. On bringing back this information, shrines in the plains, the disease is inva my friend began to cross-question bis servant, riably imputed to the incantations of the

who would not at first acknowledge the cause

of his disease; but at last, after much persuaBengalees.

sion, he candidly avowed to his master, in con“Nor tree, nor plant,

fidence, that he was laboring under the effect Grows here, but what is fed with magic juice, of witchcraft. • And do you know,' said my All full of human souls.”

friend, that the fellow actually believed it

himself! And we both laughed most heartily. Our military friend gives two other in His master continued his examination, until the stances in which the effects produced were

kulashee confessed that a certain Brahmin,

officiating at a large tank close to the fortress really and truly mesmeric, though of

of Bombay, had threatened him with his recourse ascribed to magic. He vouches

venge, and was now actually eating up his liver, for the facts, but leaves every one to form by which process he would shortly be destroyed. his own opinion :

I will tell you what I did : I no sooner got the

Brahmin's name, than I ordered my buggy, and “The wife of one of my grooms, a robust quickly drove down to the tank. On reaching woman, and the mother of a large family, all it, I inquired for the magician; and on his arriliving within my grounds, was bitten by a poi- | val, I leaped down, seized him by the arm, and sonous serpent, most probably a cobra, or colu- | horsewhipped him within an inch of his life, ber maja, and quickly felt the deadly effects of now and then roaring out: I'll teach you to its venom. When the woman's powers were bewitch my kulashee, you villain! How rapidly sinking, the servants came to my wife, dare you injure my servant, you rascal ?' and to request that the civil surgeon of the station so forth. In a very few minutes, the liver-eatmight be called in to save her life. He imme ing Brahmin declared that he would instantly diately attended, and exerted his utmost skill, release the kulashee from the spell; that on but in vain. In the usual time, the woman ap reaching home, I would find him recovered ; and peared to be lifeless, and he therefore left ultimately he was perfectly released. And, her, acknowledging that he could not be of any believe me,' said my friend, laughing, that the further service. On his reaching my bungalow, fellow mended from that hour, and is now a some of my servants stated, that in the neigh- capital servant.'” borhood a fakir, or wandering mendicant, resided, who could charm away the bites of That this power, which we call mes snakes; and begged, if the doctor had no ob merism, was also known to the priests of jection, that they might be permitted to send

ancient Egypt, is supposed to be proved for him. He answered : 'Yes, of course ; if the poor people would feel any consolation by his by carvings on the temples of priests coming, they could bring him ; but the woman making the passes with their hands, oppois dead.'

site other figures, to produce the sleep; “ After a considerable lapse of time, the magi

a circumstance which has been recounted cian arrived, and began his magical incantations. I was not present at the scene, but it

as proving a connection between the anoccurred in my park, within a couple of hun

cient religion in Egypt and some undred yards of my bungalow; and I am quite known faith formerly prevalent in India, confident that any attempt to use medicines at the time the temples of Elephanta, would have been quite useless, as the woman's powers were utterly exhausted, though her

Kennery, and others, were built. We body was still warm. The fakir sat down at greatly admire the philanthropic Major her side, and began to wave his arm over her Ludlow, who devoted his energies to the body, at the same time muttering a charm;

abolishing of the suttee ; but whose labors and he continued this process until she awoke from her insensibility, which was within a quar

met with very partial success, until, by ter of an hour.”

searching their own Shasters, he discov

ered that there was a time at which the The last instance we shall give occur rite did not exist. A greater than he, red at Bombay. The writer says : however, must arise before the other still

“On visiting Bombay in 1822, I was greatly more ancient and wide-spread faith can diverted by a circumstance told to me by an either be explained or abolished. old friend in the artillery there. He stated that he had had a kulashee, or tent-pitcher, in his service for many years; that he was a most MONTESQUIEU says: “I never listen to faithful and active man; but that he had all of calumnies, because, if they are untrue, I a sudden, and without any visible cause, be

run the risk of being deceived, and, if they come very greatly emaciated, feeble and ghastly. His master had sent him to the hospital, to

be true, of hating persons not worth thinkhave the benefit of the skill of the regimental / ing about.

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