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Arts and Sciences.

Atmospheric Telegraph-Physiognomy-Steam Fire- from Eastern cities have recently been here to

engine-Electric Telegraph-Chicago River-New- observe its operation, and make investigation as York Farmers' Club-Type-setting Machine-Railroads-The Paper Trade-Pompeii.

to the advantage it combines. It is understood

they have been favorably impressed in regard THE Committee of Congress on the memorial of to it. The opinion here of those most compeMr. Richardson, respecting the atmospheric tele- tent to judge of its utility is, that it is a great graph, reported favorably. The report says: | advance upon the common engines, and will

* The mail between Washington and New-York is soon be in use, particularly in all our larger now carried upon railroads in twelve hours. If your cities. committee do not greatly err, the same mails may be carried between these cities in two hours, by the pro A young man of Bayonne has just invented posed atmospheric telegraph, and the expenditure now | a mode of electric telegraph, by which the disnecessary for the transmission of one set of mails,

patch is printed in ordinary letters, or convenwould enable the post-office department to send six sets of mails every twelve hours. The impulse which tional signs, by the telegraph itself, at the point such a frequent, rapiil, and certain delivery of the of departure, at the end, and at several intermails between distant points would give to all the busi

mediate stations simultaneously. ness of the country is incalculable: operating with as much safety and unerring certainty in night as in day A committee of the Chicago Council have relight; unaffected by changes of seasons or weather; and exempt from liability to those mischances, acci

solved to accept the plan for tunneling Chicago dents and delays, which are retarding the delivery of River, as proposed by the American Submarine the mails throughout the country, the atmospheric Tunnel Company, of New-York. It is to be telegraph seems destined to become the exclusive mail

made of cast-iron ; entrances on a grade not carrier of the age."

exceeding one foot fall in nine. The plan to The editor of the London Athencum, after an | be two wagon tracks, each ten feet wide, and inspection of the Art Sections of the London

two foot-ways, each four feet wide, the former Crystal Palace, remarks :

eleven feet high, and the latter seven feet: the " It is singular to observe that when the Greek strove top of the tunnel to be not less than twelve to convey a low type of humanity, as in the Faun or

et below low water-mark for one hundred and Silenus, its face has European analogies. The Roman heads resemble ours in many respects; and the de

fifty feet in the center of the river. prared women of the Imperial times, as Faustina, Agrippina, &c., have the hard round forehead and small

At a recent meeting of the New-York Farmweak chip, which became the marked feature of the | ers' Club, Mr. Wagoner introduced the model of Louis Quinze age, or may be traced in the sleepy-eyed, a ner reaping-machine, which is calculated to languid beauties of Lely and of Kneller. It is impos

collect the heads and separate the grain from sible to deny that every century seems to have impressed its peculiar crimes and virtues, and its hopes

the chaff, and deliver the grain in bags. He and struggles, on the faces of its great men. The had one machine in operation at Racine, WisElizabetban face is finely oval; the eyes meditative,

consin, this last year, that cut at the rate of the forehead high and arched, and the chin firm and well rounded. The George the Second visage is fleshy

twenty-five acres a day. A machine will weigh and full, the chin small and fat, the lower jaw heavy, about twelve hundred pounds, and cost $150. the neck thick, and the cheeks full and furrowed. The

The cutters can be raised or lowered to suit the fifteenth century forehead is square,--the seventeenth, round,- the thirteenth, flat and wide,-the eighteenth,

height of grain by the operator, the heads being full and swelling over the eyes. We believe that in the carried directly to a thresher and cleaner, and present day a better type of physiognomy is beginning the grain thence to a screen and the bags. The to appear: -- the face grows more oval, the forehead

whole is mounted upon four wheels, with a body higher and fuller, the lips smaller and firmer, the nose nobler and straighter. Napoleon's was a model

capacious enough to contain all the machinery of a head, -Byron, Shelley, Southey, Wordsworth, and and carry the bags and man to fill and tie them Keats, were spiritual and handsome. Most of our liv

up. The inventor says that two horses are sufing authors present much more of the Elizabethan type, Refinement of manners is already perceptible

ficient propelling power, and these are hitched on the national features. Club life may he as selfish as to a shaft behind, so as to push the machine tavern life; but it is purer and healthier. There is into the standing grain. One advantage of this more religion now and more decorum,--more earnest

mode is, that it leaves the straw upon the land, ness and less materialism. A pure school of poetry has arisen, drawing its images direct from nature, and and the heads require less labor to thresh. appealing to the common heart. A school of painting has sprung up side by side, originating from it, and

An invention for composing type has long been likely to rival"it in renown. With the peaked beard a “ desideratum," and quite a “forlorn hope;" vanished chivalry,- with the full-bottomed wig, Re-Leneh are the complicated difficulties of the de

such are the complicated difficulties of the denaissance poetry,--and with the revival of a taste for Gothic Art is now coming back all that was worthy of sign. We notice, however, the announcement preservation in the Middle Ages."

of a successful attempt at it. A letter from A Cincinnati correspondent of the Boston

Copenhagen says: Traveler, says, that the steam fire-engine, recently

“By the politeness of the editors, I have now been

able to see the new composing machine as in actual invented and put in operation there, promises to

operation in the office of Frædrelandet. Instead of be a valuable and important improvement upon the usual cases and composing sticks, and the comthe engines in common use. It can, by the positor standing at his work, we see a person sitting use of oil, be at any time got in readiness for

before a machine with keys like a piano, which he

plays on incessantly, and every touch on the tangent full operation in ten minutes, and this while it l is followed by a click: the letter is already in its place is on its way to the fire. It is readily drawn to in the long mahogany channel prepared for it. The any part of the city by horses. It propels six whole is excessively ingenious. In fact it is fairy

work. The most wonderful part is, that it distributes streams of water with greater force, and to a the already used type at the same time that it sets the greater height, than other engines. Committees | new page, and with an exactness perfectly sure. No mistake can ever occur. The compositor by this ma | Apropos of Railroads.-The English papers chine does four times as much work as another work- state that a statue has been erected, in the man; but as he requires an assistant to line and page the set type, this brings it to tucice the amount of type

great hall at Euston-square terminus, Lonset. The whole is so clean and pleasant, that it will don, to George Stevenson, The London Times probably soon be a favorite employment for women.

says: The machine occupies a very small space, not more than a large chair, and is beautifully made of hard "In early life a collier, working for his dayly bread woods, brass, and steel. Its success now is beyond all in the bowels of the earth, he mended watches in bis doubt. The proprietors of Fradrelandet are so grati. leisure hours that his son might have the blessings of fied by the one they now have, that they have ordered education. While his fame as a mechanical and civil another. The price is 2,400 Danish dollars. It will

engineer was still in its infancy, he elaborated experilast apparently for a century or two without repair, mentally the same result as to the safety-lamp which Mr. SORENSON, the inventor, himself a compositor all Sir Ilumphrey Davy reached by the process of philohis life, kindly shows the machine to any visitor. Or sophic induction. The tramways of the coal mines and course, a compositor cannot set with his machine at

the rude forms of the first locomotive engines grew once; it will take a short time, a few days, for him under the strokes of his vigorous intellect into a mighty to become familiar with the details; but he is then system, which has already exercised an incalculable & gentleman, compared to his old comrades."

influenco upon industry and civilization. That one

who, when a boy, was a hurrier' in a coal-pit, should, If this Mr. Sorenson were named " Jonathan" by the force of native genius, rise to a position such as Sorenson, with his whereabouts somewhere

the statue in the hall of Euston Station commemorates,

may well be regarded as a proof that the days of roamong the “Down-Easters,"we should have more

mance are not yet over, nor the giants of an elder world confidence in the report, and more hope of in without their types in modern times. Perhaps it is troducing it into the office of the National. As also to be viewed as a characteristic of the age, that the it is, we wait for confirmation, doubting mcan

fame of such a man is so quietly left to the good keep

ing of tho good works which he has achieved. The while whether anybody but “ brother Jonathan"

traveler hastening on his way should pausa in Euston can ever “ come it over" the difficulties of the Station, to contemplate the masculine form, and mascase; and he, we fear, will have to try his wits

sive, energetic features, of him who, by combining the

blast-pipe with the tubular boiler, first endowed the a long while over them.

locomotive with its tremendous speed-who, during

his busy manhood, superintended the construction of Every poor wight who has had to travel, as

more than two thousand five hundred miles of railwe have, by cars, over thousands of miles during way-who thought out everything connected with our the hot months, will agree with us that a right

first iron highways--and who engineered lines extendmode of ventilating these otherwise very com

ing in unbroken series from London to Edinburgh." fortable carriages, would be one of the greatest

Some leading paper-manufacturers have reinventions of the age.” We shall be as thank

cently called the attention of the British gor. ful to the genius who shuts the dust out of lernment to the consequences likely to arise to them, as Sancho Panza was to the unknown their trade from the present war with Russia. It “men who first invented sleep." An invention

appears that the supply of raw materials for the for the purpose, by Messrs. Toole and Allen, of

manufacture of paper has of late years barely Buffalo, has been announced, and is thus de- met the enormously increasing demand, in spite scribed : _On the top of the car, at the center, of many new substances worked up; and it is are placed sheet-iron bonnets. (one on each side.)

now feared that the short supply and dearness so arranged as to receive the air when the cars of all fibres and textile fabrics will prove very are running in either direction, deflecting it I detrimental to the paper trade and the literary downward through air chambers (placed within

world. In consequence of these representations, and on each side of the car) into a box or tank circulars have been issued by the authorities suspended beneath the floor; from which it is

to the governors of colonies, calling their attenconducted by air tubes opening up into the car

tion to the necessity of finding some substitutes, through grates in several places along the aisle, within the colonial territories, for the materials thence out again through openings in the top.

at present used in paper-making. The tank is of sufficient depth to hold a barrel or more of water-allowing a free passage of Scales and steelyards have been discovered in air above it. In connection with this water, Pompeii, which could only have been meant to are pipes leading to a small rotary pump at- | weigh provisions; but the chains and bars of tached to the truck frame, (which is driven by which are delicately wrought. The weight even a belt passing round the axle of the car wheel) is found made to represent a warrior, with a then back again to the tank and air chambers, helmet most beautifully chiseled; and so genwhere by a simple arrangement of diffusers the uine and true, so really intended for every-day water in its passage is scattered into a fine | use are these commercial implements, that one spray, falling into the tank to be used over again. of them has stamped upon it its verification When the cars are in motion the air rushes in made at the Capitol, declaring it to be just. with great force, passing through the spray of The lamps also, and the candelabra by which water, which washes down all dust, smoke, cin- | they were supported, are most elegant-not made ders, and other impurities, coming up into the upon a pattern, a fashion of the season, but excar as pure as a summer's atmosphere after a hibiting true artistic beauty. This feeling is shower, and very much cooled. The water is carried so far, that even surgical instruments changed dayly when the roads are dusty. The found in those ruins, which could only have amount of air received is easily regulated by a been meant for practical purposes, display equal valve in each air-chamber. During winter, in- | attention to ornament, and delicacy of finish. stead of water, a stove is placed in the tank | There is no end of other vessels, which must below the floor, which heats the air in its pass- have served for domestic pnrposes, such as age, thereby ventilating and warming all parts braziers, for instance, of which the handles, of the car alike, and that too without the loss rims, and other parts, are finished beyond what of any seats, which in other cars are removed the finest bronzes now made in Paris usually to make room for a stove.


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W E propose to present in the pages its commencement have been sown as

W of the NATIONAL MAGAZINE correct good seed, preparatory for the universal portraits of the eminent men who have harvest. Who can estimate the temsuccessively presided over the operations poral and eternal benefits that must result of the American Bible Society. All of to this country and to the world from this them were good, some of them were vast circulation of the sacred Scriptures ? great men, and the portraits by our art In our own favored land every state, ist, if not those by ourself, can hardly every territory, and in some instances fail to be acceptable to the friends of every county and township, has been put that noble institution.

under the care of distributors. This great national society has now When De Tocqueville, the French phibeen in existence thirty-eight years, losopher, passed through our country printing and circulating the “ Book of some years since, he visited a SunBooks." To spread the Bible is to day school. To his great surprise he spread essential truth, “ the knowledge found in the hands of every scholar a of the Lord," of which the earth shall yet New Testament, and all eager in its pe“ be filled.” The religion of the Bible is rusal. He immediately inquired whether the only religion that can become universal. this practice was common through the The millions of Bibles and Testaments country, and when answered in the affirmwhich this society has distributed since lative, he remarked with emotion, “What

Vol. V.-22

a mighty effect it must have on the char- the interests of religion; and being satisfied of acter of the nation.!" It is even and the care and accuracy of the execution of the truly so. This book, more than anything

anothing work, recommend this edition to the inhabit

ants of the United States." else, has made us what we are, and lighted up elsewhere the few bright spots which | These are notable pages in our national appear on our earth's otherwise benighted records—fair as unshaded light, and bright and dreary outlines. There is no solid as the morning sun. Who dare deny that hope for our race here or hereafter, from this is a Bible nation, or affirm that the any volume, policy, or effort of man, precious volume should be excluded from except in close alliance with this sacred the schools of our land ? volume. A population equal to that which The proposition of forming a national is required for the admission of ten new | Bible Society had been often discussed, states into the Union is added to the until 1815, when a plan for such an inAmerican people every year; and to stitution originated with the New Jersey keep this vast multitude supplied with Bible Society, of which Mr. Boudinot was the Scriptures is a work of infinite in- president. He published a notice for a terest, and one which the American general meeting, to be convened at New. Bible Society endeavours to accomplish. York, in May, 1816. This convention Through these devout efforts we hope presented a sublime spectacle, as almost the time is not far distant when every every Christian denomination in the land man in our land may read for himself the was represented. Great, indeed, was revelations of God.

their object, and great and worthy were On the 11th of May, 1816, the Ameri- the men who composed it. It was the can Bible Society was organized, and first time in our country when the differit is a most interesting fact in our na- ent religious denominations were brought tional history that the very first Congress together for concerted action. They asof the United States performed the du- sembled upon the broad platform of the ties of a Bible Society long before such Biblean institution had an existence in the

“Where names, and sects, and parties fall." world. One year after the Declaration of American Independence, 1777, Con- |

This convention appointed a committee gress appointed a committee on the sub

to prepare a constitution, consisting of ject of printing an edition of thirty thou Messrs. Nott, Mason, Morse, Blythe, sand Bibles for the use of the people—our Beecher, Bayard, Wilmer, Wright, Rice, entire population then amounting to only Jones and Jay. On the 11th of May three millions. Finding it difficult to pro

they presented the constitution, which cure the necessary material, paper, type, was unanimously adopted, and thirty-six &c., this committee recommended the im

managers were elected, with the Hon. portation of twenty thousand Bibles; to Elias Boudinot for president. An elocopy their own language, “the use of the quent and powerful address to the people Bible being so universal, and its import of the United States, written by the ance so great." Congress was advised celebrated Dr. Mason, was adopted and “to direct the Committee on Commerce to

published. import, at its expense, twenty thousand

Of all the officers first appointed, nineEnglish Bibles from Holland, Scotland, teen in number—the president, fourteen or elsewhere, into the different ports of the

vice presidents, three secretaries and a states of the Union.” This report was

treasurer-not one survives. The same, adopted, and the importation ordered.

I believe, may be said of the earliest manIn 1781, when an English Bible could agers. “They rest from their labors," not be imported, in consequence of the

| and, emphatically, “ their works do follow war with Great Britain, the subject of them." printing the Bible again was considered In accepting the office of president, Mr. by Congress. Robert Aitken, of Phila- | Boudinot wrote: delphia, had published an edition, and that body passed the following resolution :

“I am not ashamed to confess that I accept

of the appointment of President of the American “That the United States, in Congress as- Bible Society, as the greatest honor that could sembled, highly approve the pious and laudable have been conferred on me this side of the undertaking of Mr. Aitken, as subservient to i grave."

When the American Bible Society was ities of very advanced age, and acute organized there was not a dollar in its bodily pain. It required great exertion treasury. Soon, however, funds began to to attend the anniversaries; but he was accumulate, and, among others, a donation always faithful at his post on these occaof £500 (nearly $2,500) was received sions. from the British and Foreign Bible So. He was born in Philadelphia, in the year ciety, and the munificent sum of $10,000 1740. His grandfather was one of the from Mr. Boudinot.

persecuted Huguenots who were comJohn E. Caldwell, Esq., was the first pelled to leave France on the revocation agent, and kept the depository for a short of the Edict of Nantz. Mr. Boudinot time at his office, in an upper room, at the received a classical education-such at corner of Cedar and Nassau streets. The least as was so called during our colonial books were next removed to the building period—after which he studied law under of Mr. Fanshaw, in Cliff-street, who exe- Richard Stockton, a signer of the Deccuted the Society's printing. This depos- | laration of Independence. He soon beitory was a room only nine feet by twelve. came distinguished at the bar of NewFrom this place the Scriptures were issued, Jersey. until a four-story building was hired in . When the war of the American RevoSloat-lane, now Hanover-street, adjoining lution commenced, he advocated the cause the Merchants' Exchange. On the first of his struggling country, taking a defloor, the agent ocupied the front room for cided part in favor of the colonies. In his office, and the depository was the rear | 1777 Congress appointed him Commisone, only twenty feet square. He express- sioner-General of prisoners, and the same ed his belief that he should see that room year his fellow-citizens elected him a entirely filled with Bibles! The second member of that body. In November, story was used by the binder; and the / 1782, he was chosen President of Conthird appropriated to the printer. Here gress, and in that capacity, soon after, the Society began its earliest operations, signed the Treaty of Peace, which seand its success was no longer doubtful, as cured American Independence. will be seen by the following tabular | Mr. Boudinot resumed the practice view :

of law, and, upon the adoption of the Receipts. Bibles Printed, Bibles Issued. Federal Constitution in 1789, was again 1817 ... ... $37,779 35 11,550 6,410 honored with a seat in Congress, and 1818...... 40,221 23 24,400 17,594

occupied the important post for six suc1819...... 42,723 94 71,320 31,118

cessive years. General Washington ap1820...... 41,361 97 64,482 41,513 1821...... 49,578 34 59,800 68,177

pointed him Director of the Mint in

1796, and he continued to discharge its In addition to these there were issued duties until 1805, when he retired from about fifty-eight thousand copies in Gaelic, all public life, settling in Burlington, Welch, German, Spanish, and several In- | New Jersey. In 1794 the United States dian languages.

Mint began its regular operations at PhilThese results Mr. Boudinot was per- | adelphia. Mr. Boudinot's portrait, among mitted to behold during the few years he others, adorns the walls of the Cabinet was President of the American Bible So- of the Mint. In this splendid collection ciety. That a life so nearly exhausted, there are about five thousand specimen when he was elected to that honorable coins, ancient and modern, and nearly post, should have been lengthened out to four thousand of them belong to United witness its fifth anniversary, was a re- | States money. markable circumstance, and grateful to After his retirement from the Mint, Mr. the friends of the institution. Thus Boudinot devoted his leisure to the study blessed, they had no tears to shed at his of Biblical literature—a department of inremoval but tcars of joy.

quiry which had always been one of his His useful life was prolonged beyond | favorite pursuits and to the exercise of the ordinary limit, and he lived to see the a munificent public and private charity. rapid growth of this cherished object of He was a trustee of Princeton College, his affections. He displayed an unre- and founded its cabinet of natural history Initting interest in the Society, retaining in 1805, at a cost of $3,000. In 1812 he it even while suffering under the infirm was elected a member of the Board of

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