« ZurückWeiter »
from her convent; was twenty-four years I tremely poor. Preoccupied with houseof age, and remarkably beautiful. It ap- hold cares, and anxiety about his future pears that she had been previously at- family, he turned his thoughts to acquiring tached to a young student of Nuremberg, I a handicraft. “If the world will no longer Jerome Baumgartner; and Luther wrote support us in return for preaching the to him, (October 12th, 1524 :)—“ If you word, let us learn to live by the labor of desire to obtain your Catharine von Bora, our own hands." Could he have chosen, make haste before she is given to another, he would no doubt have preferred one of whose she almost is. Still she has not the arts which he loved—the art of Albert yet overcome her love for you. For my | Durer, and of his friend Lucas Cranachpart, I should be delighted to see you or music, which he calls a science inferior united." He writes to Stiefel, a year to theology alone; but he had no master. after his marriage, (August 12th, 1526 :) So he became turner. “Since our bar“ Catharine, my dear rib, salutes you. barians here know nothing ofart or science, She is, thanks to God! in the enjoyment my servant Wolfgang and I have taken to of excellent health. She is gentle, obedi. | turning." He commissioned Wenceslaus ent, and complying in all things, beyond | Link to buy him tools at Nuremberg. He my hopes. I would not exchange my also took to gardening and building. “I poverty for the wealth of Cresus.” have planted a garden,” he writes to SpalaLuther, in truth, was at this time ex- | tin, "and have built a fountain, and have
succeeded tolerably in both. Come, and be Gardening was no great resource, and crowned with lilies and roses.” (December, Luther found himself in a situation equally 1525.) In April, 1527, on being made a strange and distressing. This man, who present of a clock by an abbot of Nurem- | governed kings, saw himself dependent berg, " I must,” he says, in acknowledging on the elector for his daily food. its receipt,—“I must become a student of mathematics in order to comprehend all this mechanism, for I never saw anything THE CONTROVERSY BETWEEN LUTHER AND ZWINGLI like it.” A month afterward he writes :
ON THE SACRAMENT. “ The turning tools are come to hand, and Ten years earlier Luther had stood at the dial with the cylinder and the wooden Leipzic opposed to the principal and dexclock. I have tools enough for the pres- | terous theological champion of the court ent, except you meet with some newly- of Rome ; here, at Marburg, we find him invented ones, which can turn of them- opposing the spiritual head of the Swiss selves, while my servant snores or stares Reformation. Wittemberg and Zurich, at the clouds. I have already taken my Saxony and Switzerland, represented by degree in clockmaking, which is prized by their most distinguished professors, deme as enabling me to tell the hour to my bated in the castle at Marburg, from the drunkards of Saxons, who pay more at- 1st to the 4th of October, 1529, upon the tention to their glasses than the hours, and theological interpretation of the sacrament care not whether sun, or clock, or whoso of the Lord's supper, and upon the words regulates the clock, go wrong. (May employed in instituting it. 19th, 1527.) “You may absolutely see The profound mystery of the sacrament my melons, gourds, and pumpkins grow; of the Lord's supper, in its depth and so I have known how to employ the power entirely beyond the range, and seeds you have sent me.” (July 5th.) ! indeed opposed to the scholastic contro
versy, became nevertheless the watch- his rash and criminal handling of God's word of party.
word.” (October 27th, 1527.) “What Zwingli dreaded a physical interpre- a fellow is that Zwingle, with his rank tation ; Luther, on the contrary, dreaded ignorance of grammar and dialectics, not the evaporation of the spiritual element to speak of other sciences !” (November of the sacrament of the communion. One 28th, 1527.) considered that he defended the corner- To the left of the picture, Melancthon stone of evangelical Protestantism ; the and Ecolampadius are conversing; behind other the foundation of the Christian them, Philip of Hesse and Ulrich of Church. On one side the cry was, " 'The Wurtemberg follow the conversation bespirit quickeneth, the flesh profiteth noth-tween Luther and Zwingli with extreme ing!" the other side maintained the pres- attention; to the right, several other ence of the entire Christ.
theologians belonging to the two contendProfound and insurmountable antitheses ing parties sit under the portrait of the of religious thought and practice, defying peaceable Frederick the Wise. the discriminating power of the human understanding!
ABOVE, LUTHER PRAYING. PRINCIPAL SCENE, THE PREIn vain the Swiss sought to establish BENTATION OF THE AUGSBURG CONFESSION, 1530. a cordial union, notwithstanding these That which had been heard thirteen differences, or rather rising above them. | years before at Wittemberg, on the 31st " There are no people on earth with whom of October, 1517, like the voice of a watchI would more willingly be united than man at midnight, was in full daylight, on those of Wittemberg !" cried Zwingli in the 25th of June, 1530, proclaimed at the tears. “Ye have a different spirit from court of the Bishop of Augsburg, before ours !” was Luther's implacable reply. the emperor and the country, as the stead“ Conscience is a shy thing ; therefore fast conviction of many thousand German we must not act lightly in such great hearts. matters, nor introduce anything new, un- ! Melancthon, transformed at Augsburg less we have the distinct word of God | into a partisan leader, and forced to do, for it. We deem, truly, that our op- | battle dayly with legates, princes, and ponents mean well; but it will be seen emperor, was exceedingly discomposed that their arguments do not satisfy con- with the active life with which he had science, as opposed to the meaning of the been saddled, and often unbosomed his words, This is my body."
troubles to Luther, when all the comfort Even a Christian and brotherly union he got was rough rebuke: “You tell me was rejected. “ To-day,” says Luther, of your labors, dangers, tears; am I on " the Landgrave proposed that we should, roses? Do not I share your burden? although maintaining different opinions, | Ah! would to Heaven my cause were still keep together as brethren and mem- such as to allow me to shed tears !" bers in Christ. But we want not such (June 20th.) “May God reward the brethren or members ; let us, however, tyrant of Saltzburg, who works thee so have peace and good-will!”
much ill, according to his works! He At other times he speaks with great deserves another sort of answer from thee; severity of them. In 1527, he published such as I would have made him, pera work against Zwingle and Ecolam- chance; such as has never struck his ear. padius, in which he styled them New They must, I fear, hear the saying of Wickliffites, and denounced their opinions Julius Cæsar: They would have it.' as sacrilegious and heretical. At length, . ..I write in vain, because, in 1528, he said, “I know enough, and with thy philosophy, thou wishest to set more than enongh, of Bucer's iniquity to all these things right with thy reason, feel no surprise at his perverting against that is, to be unreasoning with reason. me my own published sentiments on the Go on; continue to kill thyself so, withsacrament. . . . . Christ keep you, out seeing that neither thy hand nor thy -you who are living in the midst of these mind can grasp this thing." (30th June, ferocious beasts, these vipers, lionesses, 1530.) “God has placed this cause in a panthers, with almost more danger than certain spot, unknown to thy rhetoric and Daniel in the lions' den.” “I believe thy philosophy—that spot is faith ; there Zwingle to be worthy of a holy hate for all things are inaccessible to the sight;
and whoever would render them visible, “With sighs and prayer,” he writes to apparent, and comprehensible, gets pains | Melancthon, “I am in truth faithfully by and tears as the price of his labor, as thou your side. The cause concerns me also, hast. God has said that his dwelling is indeed more than any of you ; and it has in the clouds and thick darkness. Had not been begun lightly or wickedly, or for Moses sought means of avoiding Pharaoh's the sake of honors or worldly good ; in army, Israel would, perhaps, still be in this the Holy Ghost is my witness, and Egypt. . . . . If we have not faith, the cause itself has shown it until now. why not seek consolation in the faith of | If we fall, Christ falls with us—he, the others, for some must necessarily have it, ruler of the world : and though he should though we have not? Or else, must we | fall, I would rather fall with Christ than say that Christ has abandoned us before stand with the emperor. Christ is the the fulfillment of time? If he be not with conqueror of the world ; that is not false, us, where is he in this world ? If we be not I know! Why then should we fear the the Church, or part of the Church, where conquered world, as if it were the conis the Church ? Is Ferdinand the Church, queror ?' or the Duke of Bavaria, or the pope, or the The artist has grouped the Reformers Turk, or their fellows? If we have not to the left, and the Catholics to the right God's word, who has? These things are of the spectator. There stands Melancbeyond thee, for Satan torments and weak-thon, with his careworn, thoughtful counens thee. That Christ may heal thee is tenance, full of grief over the impending my sincere and constant prayer!” (June separation of the Churches; beside him, 29th.) “ I am in poor health. . . . . with hands folded in prayer, the elector, But I despise the angel of Satan, that is John the Constant; behind him, the marbuffeting my flesh. If I cannot read or grave, George of Brandenburg; and, write, I can at least think and pray, and leaning on his sword, Philip of Hesse. even wrestle with the devil; and then | Before the emperor stands the chancellor, sleep, idle, play, sing. Fret not thyself Christian Baier, reading with a loud voice away, dear Philip, about a matter which the evangelical confession. On the stairs is not in thy hand, but in that of One in the background, the people are seen mightier than thou, and from whom no one pushing in, and listening with attention. can snatch it."
Above, in the Gothic arch, Luther is seen “Great is my joy," says Luther,“ to have in prayer. In the lower compartment lived till this hour, when Christ is pro- appear Luther's and Melancthon's coatclaimed by such confessors, before such of-arms, connected by a band, on which an assembly, through so glorious a con- we read Luther's motto of those days, fession! Now the word is fulfilled : I taken from his favorite Psalm : Non will speak of thy testimony also before moriar, sed vivam, “I shall not die, but kings.' The other also will be fulfilled : live, and declare the works of the Lord.” • Thou hast not let me be put to shame;' Such was the presentiment of his soul for 'whosoever shall confess me before regarding himself and his mission. men, him will I confess also before my Father who is in heaven.'" In this spirit he comforted his friends
THE TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE with the most joyful confidence: “Ye have The members of the Evangelical Church confessed Jesus Christ; ye have offered had published their General Confession at peace, rendered obedience to the emperor, Augsburg. It is true the source of this borne evil, have been covered with con- Confession could only be found in the tumely, and have not returned evil for Bible; and the Bible became their propevil. To sum all, ye have worthily car. | erty only through Luther's translation. ried on the sacred work as it becometh “ This is one of the greatest miracles," his saints. Look up, and lift up your says Mathesius, “which our Lord has heads, for your deliverance is nigh!” caused to be performed, by Dr. Martin
Being in the castle at Coburg—which, Luther, before the end of the world, that froin a Sinai, he intended to make his he giveth us Germans a very beautiful Sion-Luther could only in the spirit and version of the Bible, and explaineth to us in prayer be present with his friends during his eternal divine nature, and his merciful the decisive hours at Augsburg.
| will, in good intelligible German words.