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“ When the whole German Bible had joined by strange doctors and other learnbeen published, Dr. Luther began anew to ed men-Dr. Bernhard Ziegler, Dr. Forrevise it with great zeal, industry, and stenius, and others. prayer. . And as the Son of God had “After our doctor had looked through promised, that where two or three were the published Bible, and consulted Jews gathered together in his name, he would and foreign philologists, and had also inbe in the midst of them,' he caused a quired among old German persons for sanhedrim, as it were, of the best people fitting German words, he joined the above then about him to assemble weekly, for a assembly with his Latin and new German few hours before supper, at his house ; Bible ; he had also the Hebrew text namely, Dr. Bugenhagen, Dr. Justus always with him. Melancthon brought Jonas, Dr. Kreuziger, Melancthon, Mat- the Greek text; Dr. Kreuziger, both the theus Aurogallus, and also George Rörer | Hebrew and the Chaldee Bibles. The the corrector. These were frequently professors had several tables beside them;
and Dr. Pomacer had also a Latin text “I hold that the magistrates ought to before him. Every one had previously force parents to send their children to prepared himself by studying the text. school. Can they not force their subjects Then Luther, as president, proposed a to bear pikes and muskets in war-time? passage, and collected the votes, and heard why not much more then to send their what each one had to say on it, according children to school ? for in this instance a to the peculiarity of the language, and the worse war impendeth against the detestinterpretation of the old doctors."
able devil, who seeketh to drain all cities In the picture, Luther stands between and countries dry of all worthy people, Melancthon and Bugenhagen; to the until he have extracted the kernel, so left, looking up at Luther, Jonas ; beside that only the empty useless shell of worthhim, Dr. Forstenius; and to the right, Dr. less people be left standing, whom he may Kreuziger, conversing with the rabbis. play with and deceive as he listeth!
Therefore let all those work who can ! THE IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS : INTRODUCTION OF Well, my beloved Germans, I have told THE CATECHISM.
you enough: ye have heard your prophet." Among the finest fruits of the reform In this spirit he presented to the youth movement was the religious instruction of of his nation that masterpiece of popular youth in the schools of the people; and instruction in the elementary truths of nothing lay more at Luther's heart. | Christianity, his Little Catechism.
“ The wretched miserable want which tion and guidance of the Evangelical I witnessed formerly when I was still a Church. The divine became from this visitor, has urged and driven me to give time forward preëminently a preacher. to this catechism, or Christian teaching, “Therefore mark this, thou parochial such a small simple form. God help me, priest and preacher! Our office has now what wretchedness have I seen! how become another thing than it was under ignorant are the common people, parti | the pope ; it is now real and beneficial. cularly in the villages, of all Christian Therefore has it much more trouble and knowledge! and how many of the parochial labor, danger and temptations, and with priests are unskillful, and unfit, alas! to all that less reward and thanks in this teach them! O ye bishops! how will ye world; but Christ himself will be our answer it unto Christ that ye have deserted reward, so we labor faithfully." the people thus disgracefully ?”
In the picture all the elements of evanIt was his greatest joy and greatest gelical worship are indicated : the sacrarestorative to see the fruits of his labor ments, by the baptismal font and the altar; ripen among the new generation. “Ten- music, by the organ and the hymn-books; der youths and maidens grow up so well the duty of benevolence, by the poor-box. instructed in the catechism and the Scrip. We are at the same time reminded of the tures, that it soothes my heart to see how, fact, that Luther and the renovated Church at present, young boys and maidens pray were entirely free from the heartless and believe more, and can tell more of fanatical endeavor to exclude the arts God and of Christ, than formerly, and from public worship. even now, all foundation-convents and "I am not of opinion that all the arts schools can. Young people like them are are to be rooted out by the gospel, as some truly a paradise, such as the world cannot ultra-divines pretend ; but would wish to show. And all this the Lord buildeth ; as see all the arts employed, and music though he would say: 'Well, my much- | particularly, in the service of Him who beloved Duke Hanns, I confide to thee my has given and created them." noblest treasure, my cheerful paradise ; “O! how I trembled when I had to thou shalt be father over it, as my garden- ascend the pulpit for the first time! But er and fosterer.' As if God himself were I was forced to preach, and to the brothers your daily guest and ward, because his first of all..... Under this very word, and his children who keep his word, pear-tree where we are now standing, I are your daily guests and wards, and eat adduced fifteen arguments to Dr. Staupitz your bread."
against my vocation for the pulpit : at last The picture represents the great reform- | I said, • Dr. Staupitz, you wish to kill me; er in the midst of a number of children; I shall not live three months.' He anto whom, according to the text, “ Let swered me, "Well, our Lord has great little children come unto me," he expounds business on hand above, and wants able his catechism, while Jonas is distributing men.'” “I do not like Philip to be presthe book among them; and in the back- ent at my lectures or sermons; but I ground are seen a circle of attentive place the cross before me and say, ' Philip, schoolmasters, who are preparing them- Jonas, Pomer, and the rest, have nothing selves by listening to his teaching for to do with the matter;' and then I endeavor the duties of their calling.
to fancy that no one has sat in the pulpit abler than myself.” Dr. Jonas said to
him, “ Sir doctor, I cannot at all follow TUE SERMON.
you in your preaching." Luther replied, As Luther had translated the Word of “I cannot myself; for my subject is often God for his people into their mother suggested either by something personal, tongue; as he had intrepreted it in his or some private matter, according to times, elementary work for the understanding of circumstances, and hearers. Were I children ; so did he wish to announce it young, I should like to retrench many to the assembled community in sermons, things in my sermons, for I have been too as an explanation, development, and ap wordy.” “I wish the people to be plication of the word of God, of the revel- | taught the catechism well. I found myation of God in Christ. Preaching became self upon it in all my sermons, and I the principal instrument for the founda- | preach as simply as possible. I want the
common people, and children, and serv- | ones come together; and, then, 'we make ants, to understand me. I do not enter it so curled and finical that God himself the pulpit for the sake of the learned; wondereth at us.'” “ Albert Dürer, the they have my books.”
famous painter of Nuremberg, used to say Dr. Erasmus Alberus, being about to that he took no pleasure in paintings leave for the March, asked Luther how he charged with colors, but in those of a less should preach before the prince. “Your ambitious kind. I say the same of sersermons," said he,“ ought to be addressed, mons.” “O! how happy should I have not to princes, but to the rude and simple been when I was in the monastery of Erpeople. If, in mine, I was thinking of furth, if I could once, but once, have heard Melancthon and the other doctors, I should but one poor little word preached on the do no good; but I preach solely for the Gospel, or on the least of the Psalms." ignorant, and that pleases all. Hebrew, “Nothing is more acceptable or more Greek, and Latin, I spare until we learned / useful to the general run of hearers, than
to preach the law and examples. Ser-struction of men, has dictated to Moses ? mons on grace and on justification are cold But we wish our ears to be purer than the to their ears." Among the qualities mouth of the Holy Ghost." which Luther desiderates in a preacher, is a fine person, and that he be such as to THE SACRAMENT OF THE HOLY COMMUNION IN BOTH make himself loved by good women and
KINDS. maidens. In his Treatise on Monastic “THE WORD AND THE SACRAMENT," was Vows, Luther asks pardon of the reader for Luther the motto and symbol of the for saying many things which are usually true Christian Church. As a pendant to passed over in silence. “Why not dare the preaching, the artist has chosen, to say what the Holy Ghost, for the in- | therefore, the most sacred rite of the
evangelical community—the celebration being either split into a number of sects of the Lord's supper in its original mode unconnected with the great Christian and form. Luther presents the cup to his Church, or driven from its object by the elector, John Frederick, while Dr. Bugen- | arbitrary opinions of the schools. “Whohagen breaks the bread. By retaining and ever doth not require and long for the insisting upon the “real presence" in the sacrament, of him it may be feared that sacrament, Luther strove to save the re- he despises it, and is no Christian ; even formed Church from the double danger of as he is no Christian who doth not hear