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MANNERS IN THE OLDEN TIMES.

speakest, and to that end approach not too

nigh him. O recently even as 1662 the manners

22. Spit not far off thee, nor behind thee,

but aside, a little distance, and not right before D of our English ancestors were so un thy companion. Bespit not the windows in the polished as to require the publication of streets. the following “General and Mixed Pre

23. Turn not thy back to others, especially

in speaking ; jog not the table, or desk, on which cepts as touching Civility among Men,"

another doth read or write; lean not upon any for the edification of the young "gentry" one; pull not him by his cloak to speak to him; of England :

put him not with thine elbow.

24. Set not in order at every hand-while thy 5. Sing not with thy mouth, humming to beard or thy stockings.... thyself, unless thou be alone, in such sort as 25. Puff not up thy cheeks; loll not out thy thou canst not be heard by others. Strike not tongue; rub not thy beard or thy hands; thrust up a drum with thy fingers or thy feet.

not out thy lips, or bite them, and keep them 6. Rub not thy teeth nor crash them, nor neither too open nor too shut.... make anything crack in such a manner that thou disquiet anybody. 7. It is uncivil to stretch out thine arms at

MARRIAGE. length, and writhe them hither and thither. 8. In coughing and sneezing, make not great

BY SCHILLER. noise, if it be possible, and send not forth any sign, in such wise that others observe thee, WHERE gentleness with strength we find, without great occasion.

The tender with the stern combined, In yawning howl not, and thou shouldst ab The harmony is sweet and strong. stain, as much as thou canst, to yawn, espe Then prove, ere wedlock's wreath be twined, cially when thou speakest, for that showeth If heart to heart its fetters bind ! thee to be weary, and that one little accounted Illusion 's brief-repentance long. of the company....

Sweetly in the bridal locks 9. When thou blowest thy nose, make not Smiles the virgin wreath of green, thy nose sound like a trumpet. ...

When the mellow church-bell rocks, 11. To sleep when others speak, to sit when Bidding to the festive scene. others stand, to walk on when others stay, to Ah, life's sweetest festival speak when one should hold his peace or hear Ends the May of life anon; others, are all things of ill manners : but it is With the girdle, with the vail, permitted to a superior to walk in certain places, Is the fond illusion gone. as a master in his school. ...

The passions soon fly, 14. Hearing thy master, or likewise the But love must remain; preacher, wriggle not thyself, as seeming un The blossoms soon die, able to contain thyself within thy skin, making Fruit comes in their train. show thyself to be the knowing and sufficient

The husband must fight, person to the misprice of others. ...

'Mid struggles and strife, 17. It is not decent to spit upon the fire, The battle of life; much less to lay hands upon the embers, or to Must plant and create, put them into the flame to warm oneself, nor is Watch, snare, and debate, it beseeming to stoop so low as even to crouch Must venture and stake ing, and, as it were, one sate on the ground. His fortune to make. If there be any meat on the fire, thou oughtest Then boundless in torrents comes pouring not to set thy foot thereon to heat it. In the

the gift, presence of a well-bred company, it is uncomely The garners o'erflow with the costliest thrift, to turn one's back to the fire, or to approach The store-rooms increase and the mansion nigher than others, for one and the other savor

expands. eth of preeminence. It is not permitted but Within it reigns to the chief in quality, or to him who hath The prudent wife, charge of the fire, to stir up the fire with the The tender mother: fire-fork, or to kindle it, take it away, or put

In wisdom's ways fuel on it.

Her house she sways, 18. When thou sittest, put not undecently Instructeth the girls, one leg upon the other, but keep them firm and Controlleth the boys, settled ; and join thy feet even, cross them not With diligent hands one upon the other.

She works and commands, 19. Gnaw not thy nails in the presence of Increases the gains others, nor bite them with thy teeth.

And order maintains; 20. Spit not on thy fingers, and draw them With treasures the sweet-smelling wardrobe not as if it were to make them longer; also

she stores, sniffle not in the sight of others.

And busily over the spinning wheel pores; 21. Neither shake thy head, feet, or legs ; She hoards in the bright polished presses till roll not thine eyes. Lift not one of thine

full eye-brows higher than the other. Wry not The snowy white linen, the sparkling wool; thy mouth. Take heed that with thy spittle The bright and the showy to good she disposes, thou bedew not his face with whom thou | And never reposes.

| another direction, and turned back to reTHE CRUSADES.

gain their homes. Nearly the whole of W HEN the eighth Crusade was brought them were massacred, and the streets of

W to an end, to all appearances the holy Jerusalem ran with blood. war had closed. The Christians had en- The Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutire possession of Jerusalem, Tripoli, An- tonic knights forgot their long and bitter tioch, Edessa, Acre, Jaffa, and, in fact, of animosities, and joined hand in hand to nearly all Judea ; and, could they have rout out this desolating foe. They inbeen at peace among themselves, they trenched themselves in Jaffa with all the might have overcome, without great dif- chivalry of Palestine that yet remained, ficulty, the jealousy and hostility of their and endeavored to engage the sultans of neighbors. A circumstance, as unfore- | Emissa and Damascus to assist them seen as it was disastrous, blasted this fair against the common enemy. The aid prospect, and reillumed, for the last time, obtained from the Moslems amounted at the fervor and fury of the Crusades. first to only four thousand men, but with

Gengis Khan and his successors had these reinforcements Walter of Brienne, swept over Asia like a tropical storm, the lord of Jaffa, resolved to give battle overturning in their progress the land- to the Korasmins. The conflict was as marks of ages. Kingdom after kingdom deadly as despair on the one side, and unwas cast down as they issued, innumerably, | mitigated ferocity on the other, could from the far recesses of the North and make it. It lasted with varying fortune East; and, among others, the empire of for two days, when the sultan of Emissa Korasmin was overrun by these all-con- | fled to his fortifications, and Walter of quering hordes. The Korasmins, a fierce, Brienne fell into the enemy's hands. The uncivilized race, thus driven from their brave knight was suspended by the arms homes, spread themselves, in their turn, to a cross in sight of the walls of Jaffa, over the south of Asia with fire and sword, and the Korasminian leader declared that in search of a resting-place. In their im- he should remain in that position until the petuous course they directed themselves city surrendered. Walter raised his feetoward Egypt, whose sultan, unable to ble voice, not to advise surrender, but to withstand the swarm that had cast their command his soldiers to hold out to the longing eyes on the fertile valleys of the last. But his gallantry was unavailing. Nile, endeavored to turn them from their So great had been the slaughter, that out course. For this purpose, he sent emis- / of the grand array of knights, there now saries to Barbaquan, their leader, inviting remained but sixteen Hospitallers, thirtythem to settle in Palestine ; and the offer three Templars, and three Teutonic car. being accepted by the wild horde, they en- aliers. These, with the sad remnant of tered the country before the Christians the army, fled to Acre, and the Korasmins received the slightest intimation of their were masters of Palestine. coming. It was as sudden as it was over The sultans of Syria preferred the Chriswhelming. Onward, like the simoom, tians to this fierce horde for their neighthey came, burning and slaying, and were bors. Even the sultan of Egypt began to at the walls of Jerusalem before the in- regret the aid he had given to such barhabitants had time to look around them. | barous foes, and united with those of They spared neither life nor property ; | Emissa and Damascus to root them from they slew women and children, and priests | the land. The Korasmins amounted to at the altar, and profaned even the graves but twenty thousand men, and were onof those who had slept for ages. They able to resist the determined hostility tore down every vestige of the Christian which encompassed them on every side. faith, and committed horrors unparalleled The sultans defeated them in several enin the history of warfare. About seven gagements, and the peasantry rose up in thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, masses to take vengeance upon them. sought safety in retreat ; but before they Gradually their numbers were diminished. were out of sight, the banner of the cross No mercy was shown them in defeat. was hoisted upon the walls by the savage | Barbaquan their leader was slain ; and foe to decoy them back. The artifice after five years of desperate struggles, was but too successful. The poor fugi- | they were extirpated, and Palestine became tives imagined that help had arrived from / again the territory of the Mussulmans.

A short time previous to this devastating tilential disease made its appearance, to eruption, Louis IX. fell sick in Paris, and which many hundreds fell victims. It was dreamed, in the delirium of his fever, that in consequence found necessary to remain he saw the Christian and Moslem host in Cyprus until the spring. Louis then fighting before Jerusalem, and the Chris- embarked for Egypt with his whole host; tians defeated with great slaughter. The but a violent tempest separated his fleet, dream made a great impression on his and he arrived before Damietta with only superstitious mind, and he made a solemn a few thousand men. They were, howvow, that if ever he recovered his health, ever, impetuous and full of hope ; and alhe would make a pilgrimage to the Holy though the Sultan Melick Shah was drawn Land. When the news of the misfortunes up on the shore with a force infinitely of Palestine, and the awful massacres at superior, it was resolved to attempt a Jerusalem and Jaffa, arrived in Europe, landing without waiting the arrival of the St. Louis remembered him of his dream. / rest of the army. Louis himself, in wild More persuaded than ever that it was an impatience, sprung from his boat, and intimation direct from Heaven, he prepared waded on shore ; while his army, inspired to take the cross at the head of his ar- | by his enthusiastic bravery, followed, mies, and march to the deliverance of the shouting the old war-cry of the first CruHoly Sepulcher. From that moment he saders, Dieu le veut! Dieu le veut ! A doffed the royal mantle of purple and er-panic seized the Turks. A body of their mine, and dressed in the sober serge be- cavalry attempted to bear down upon the coming a pilgrim. All his thoughts were Crusaders, but the knights fixed their directed to the fulfillment of his design; large shields deep in the sands of the and although his kingdom could but ill shore, and rested their lances upon them, spare him, he made every preparation to so that they projected above, and formed leave it. Pope Innocent IV, applauded a barrier so imposing, that the Turks, his zeal, and afforded him every assist- afraid to breast it, turned round and fairly ance. He wrote to Henry III. of En- took to fight. At the moment of this gland, to forward the cause in his domin- panic, a false report was spread in the ions, and called upon the clergy and laity Saracen host, that the sultan had been all over Europe to contribute toward it. slain. The confusion immediately became William Longsword, the celebrated Earl general—the déroute was complete: Damiof Salisbury, took the cross at the head etta itself was abandoned, and the same of a great number of valiant knights and night the victorious Crusaders fixed their soldiers. But the fanaticism of the peo | head-quarters in that city. The soldiers ple was not to be awakened either in who had been separated from their chief France or England. Great armies were by the tempest, arrived shortly afterward ; raised, but the masses no longer sympa- and Louis was in a position to justify the thized. Taxation had been the great hope, not only of the conquest of Palescooler of zeal. It was no longer a dis- tine, but of Egypt itself. grace even to a knight if he refused to But too much confidence proved the take the cross.

bane of his army. They thought, as they This being the general feeling, it is had accomplished so much, that nothing not to be wondered at that Louis IX. was more remained to be done, and gave themoccupied fully three years in organizing selves up to ease and luxury. When, by his forces, and in making the necessary the command of Louis, they marched topreparations for his departure. When ward Cairo, they were no longer the same all was ready he set sail for Cyprus, ac-men; success, instead of inspiring, had companied by his queen, his two brothers, unnerved them ; debauchery had brought the Counts d'Anjou and d’Artois, and a on disease, and disease was aggravated by long train of the noblest chivalry of the heat of a climate to which none of France. His third brother, the Count de them were accustomed. Their progress Poitiers, remained behind to collect another toward Massoura, on the road to Cairo, corps of Crusaders, and followed him in / was checked by the Thanisian canal, on a few months afterward. The army united the banks of which the Saracens were at Cyprus, and amounted to fifty thousand drawn up to dispute the passage. Louis men, exclusive of the English Crusaders gave orders that a bridge should be thrown under William Longsword. Again, a pes. across : and the operations commenced under cover of two cat-castles, or high dition. His army at once refused, and movable towers. The Saracens soon de- the negotiations were broken off. It was stroyed them by throwing quantities of now resolved to attempt a retreat ; but the Greek fire, the artillery of that day, upon agile Saracens, now in the front and now them, and Louis was forced to think of in the rear, rendered it a matter of exsome other means of effecting his design. treme difficulty, and cut off the stragglers A peasant agreed, for a considerable bribe, in great numbers. Hundreds of them were to point out a ford where the army might drowned in the Nile; and sickness and wade across, and the Count d'Artois was famine worked sad ravages upon those who dispatched with fourteen hundred men to escaped all other casualties. Louis himattempt it, while Louis remained to face self was so weakened by disease, fatigue, the Saracens with the main body of the and discouragement, that he was hardly army. The Count d'Artois got safely able to sit upon his horse. In the conover, and defeated the detachment that had fusion of the flight he was separated from been sent to oppose his landing. Flushed his attendants, and left a total stranger with the victory, the brave count forgot upon the sands of Egypt, sick, weary, and the inferiority of his numbers, and pursued almost friendless. One knight, Geffry de the panic-stricken enemy into Massoura. Sergines, alone attended him, and led him He was now completely cut off from the to a miserable hut in a small village, where aid of his brother Crusaders, which the for several days he lay in the hourly exMoslems perceiving, took courage and re- pectation of death. He was at last disturned upon him, with a force swollen by covered and taken prisoner by the Sarathe garrison of Massoura, and by rein cens, who treated him with all the honor forcements from the surrounding districts. | due to his rank and all the pity due to his The battle now became hand to hand. misfortunes. Under their care his health The Christians fought with the energy of rapidly improved, and the next consideradesperate men; but the continually in- tion was that of his ransom. creasing numbers of the foe surrounded | The Saracens demanded, beside money, them completely, and cut off all hope, | the cession of Acre, Tripoli, and other either of victory or escape. The Count cities of Palestine. Louis unhesitatingly d'Artois was among the foremost of the refused, and conducted himself with so slain ; and when Louis arrived to the much pride and courage, that the sultan rescue, the brave advanced-guard was declared he was the proudest infidel he nearly cut to pieces. Of the fourteen had ever beheld. After a good deal of hundred but three hundred remained. The haggling, the sultan agreed to wave these fury of the battle was now increased three- conditions, and a treaty was finally confold. The French king and his troops cluded. The city of Damietta was reperformed prodigies of valor, and the Sara- stored ; a truce of ten years agreed upon; cens, under the command of the Emir and ten thousand golden bezants paid for Ceccidun, fought as if they were deter- | the release of Louis and the liberation of mined to exterminate, in one last decisive all the captives. Louis then withdrew to effort, the new European swarm that had Jaffa, and spent two years in putting that settled upon their coast. At the fall of city, and Cesarea, with the other possesthe evening dews the Christians were sions of the Christians in Palestine, in a masters of the field of Massoura, and flat- | proper state of defense. He then returned tered themselves that they were the vic | to his own country, with great reputation tors. Self-love would not suffer them to as a saint, but very little as a soldier. confess that the Saracens had withdrawn, Matthew Paris informs us that, in the and not retreated; but their leaders were year 1250, while Louis was in Egypt, too woefully convinced that that fatal field " thousands of the English were resolved had completed the disorganization of the to go to the holy war, had not the king Christian army, and that all hopes of future strictly guarded his ports and kept his conquest were at an end.

people from running out of doors.” When Impressed with this truth, the Crusaders the news arrived of the reverses and capsued for peace. The sultan insisted upon tivity of the French king, their ardor the immediate evacuation of Damietta, cooled; and the Crusade was sung of only, and that Louis himself should be delivered but not spoken of. as hostage for the fulfillment of the con- In France, a very different feeling was

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the result. The news of the king's cap- | The ten years' truce concluded in 1264, ture spread consternation through the and St. Louis was urged by two powerful country. A fanatic monk of Citeaux sud- motives to undertake a second expedition denly appeared in the villages, preaching for the relief of Palestine. These were, to the people, and announcing that the fanaticism on the one hand, and a desire Holy Virgin, accompanied by a whole of retrieving his military fame on the army of saints and martyrs, had appeared other, which had suffered more than his to him, and commanded him to stir up the shepherds and farm-laborers to the defense of the cross. To them only was his discourse addressed; and his eloquence was such, that thousands flocked around him, ready to follow wherever he should lead.

The pastures and the corn-fields were deserted, and the shepherds, or pastoureaux, as they were termed, became at last so numerous as to amount to upward of fifty thousand,

-Millot says one hundred thousand men. The Queen Blanche, who governed as regent during the absence of the king, encouraged at first the armies of the pastoureaux; but they soon gave way to such vile excesses that the peaceably disposed were driven to resistance. Robbery, murder, and violation, marked their path; and all good men, assisted by the government, united in putting them down. They were finally dispersed, but not before three thousand of them had been massacred. Many authors say that the slaughter was still greater.

Vol. V.-27

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WILLIAM LONGSWORD.

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