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parasites liked to remind him of. The weight of his armor. It was soon evident pope, of course, encouraged his design, to his sorrowing soldiers that their beloved and once more the chivalry of Europe monarch could not long survive. He linbegan to bestir themselves. In 1268, gered for some days, and died in Carthage Edward, the heir of the English monarchy, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, deeply announced his determination to join the regretted by his army and his subjects, Crusade ; and the pope (Clement IV.) and leaving behind him one of the most wrote to the prelates and clergy to aid the singular reputations in history. He is the cause by their persuasions and their reve- | model-king of ecclesiastical writers, in nues. In England, they agreed to con- whose eyes his very defects became virtribute the tenth of their possessions ; and tues, because they were manifested in by a parliamentary order, a twentieth was furtherance of their cause. More ontaken from the corn and movables of all prejudiced historians, while they condemn the laity at Michaelmas.

his fanaticism, admit that he was endowed In spite of the remonstrances of the few with many high and rare qualities; that clear-headed statesmen who surrounded he was in no one point behind his age, him, urging the ruin that might in conse- and in many in advance of it. quence fall upon his then prosperous king- His brother, Charles of Anjou, in con. dom, Louis made every preparation for sequence of a revolution in Sicily, had his departure. The warlike nobility were become king of that country. Before he nothing loath; and in the spring of 1270 heard of the death of Louis, he had sailed the king set sail with an army of sixty from Messina with large reinforcements. thousand men. He was driven by stress On his landing near Carthage, he advanced of weather into Sardinia, and while there at the head of his army, amid the martial a change in his plans took place. Instead, music of drums and trumpets. He was of proceeding to Acre, as he originally in- soon informed how inopportune was his tended, he shaped his course for Tunis, on rejoicing, and shed tears before his whole the African coast. The king of Tunis had army, such as no warrior would have been some time previously expressed himself ashamed to shed. A peace was speedily favorably disposed toward the Christians agreed upon with the king of Tunis, and and their religion, and Louis, it appears, the armies of France and Sicily returned had hopes of converting him, and securing to their homes. his aid against the sultan of Egypt. “What So little favor had the Crusade found in honor would be mine," he used to say, England, that even the exertions of the “ if I could become godfather to this Mus- heir to the throne had only collected a sulman king !" Filled with this idea he small force of fifteen hundred men. With landed in Africa, near the site of the city these few Prince Edward sailed from of Carthage, but he found that he had reck- / Dover to Bourdeaux, in the expectation oned without his host. The king of Tunis that he would find the French king in that had no thoughts of renouncing his religion, city. St. Louis, however, had left a few nor intention of aiding the Crusaders in weeks previously ; upon which Edward any way. On the contrary, he opposed followed him to Sardinia, and afterward to their landing with all the forces that could Tunis. Before his arrival in Africa, St. be collected on so sudden an emergency. Louis was no more, and peace had been The French, however, made good their concluded between France and Tunis. first position, and defeated the Moslems He determined, however, not to relinquish with considerable loss. They also gained the Crusade. Returning to Sicily, he some advantage over the reinforcements passed the winter in that country, and enthat were sent to oppose them ; but an in- deavored to augment his little army. In fectious flux appeared in the army, and put the spring he set sail for Palestine, and a stop to all future victories. The soldiers arrived in safety at Acre. The Chrisdied at the rate of a hundred in a day. tians were torn, as usual, by mutual jeal. The enemy, at the same time, made as ousies and animosities. The two great great havoc as the plague. St. Louis military orders were as virulent and as himself was one of the first attacked by intractable as ever; opposed to each other, the disease. His constitution had been and to all the world. The arrival of Edweakened by fatigues, and even before he ward had the effect of causing them to lay left France he was unable to bear the full aside their unworthy contention, and of

uniting heart to heart in one last effort for amounted to suspicion only; and by the the deliverance of their adopted country. sudden death of the assassin the principal A force of six thousand effective warriors clew to the discovery of the truth was lost was soon formed to join those of the En forever. Edward, on his recovery, preglish prince, and preparations were made pared to resume the offensive; but the for the renewal of hostilities. The Sultan sultan, embarrassed by the defense of inBibars or Bendocdar, * a fierce Mameluke, terests which, for the time being, he conwho had been placed on the throne by a | sidered of more importance, made offers bloody revolution, was at war with all his of peace to the Crusaders. This proof neighbors, and unable, for that reason, to of weakness on the part of the enemy was concentrate his whole strength against calculated to render a man of Edward's them. Edward took advantage of this, temperament more anxious to prosecute and marching boldly forward to Nazareth, the war ; but he had also other interests defeated the Turks and gained possession to defend. News arrived in Palestine of of that city. This was the whole amount the death of his father, King Henry III.; of his successes. The hot weather en and his presence being necessary in Engendered disease among his troops, and gland, he agreed to the terms of the sultan. he himself, the life and soul of the expe- These were, that the Christians should be dition, fell sick among the first. He had allowed to retain their possessions in the been ill for some time, and was slowly Holy Land, and that a truce of ten years recovering, when a messenger desired to should be proclaimed. Edward then set speak with him on important matters, and sail for England ; and thus ended the last to deliver some dispatches into his own Crusade. hand. While the prince was occupied in The after-fate of the Holy Land may examining them, the traitorous messenger be told in a few words. The Christians, drew a dagger from his belt and stabbed unmindful of their past sufferings and of him in the breast. The wound fortunately the jealous neighbors they had to deal was not deep, and Edward had regained with, first broke the truce by plundering a portion of his strength. He struggled some Egyptian traders near Margat. The with the assassin, and put him to death sultan immediately revenged the outrage with his own dagger, at the same time by taking possession of Margat, and war calling loudly for assistance. His attend- once more raged between the nations. ants came at his call, and found him bleed- | Margat made a gallant defense, but no ing profusely, and ascertained on inspec- reinforcements arrived from Europe to tion that the dagger was poisoned. Means prevent its fall. Tripoli was the next, were instantly taken to purify the wound, and other cities in succession, until at last and an antidote was sent by the Grand Acre was the only city of Palestine that Master of the Templars which removed remained in possession of the Christians. all danger from the effects of the poison. The Grand Master of the Templars col

Camden, in his history, has adopted the lected together his small and devoted more popular, and certainly more beautiful band, and, with the trifling aid afforded by version of this story, which says that the the king of Cyprus, prepared to defend to Princess Eleonora, in her love for her the death the last possession of his order. gallant husband, sucked the poison from Europe was deaf to his cry for aid, the his wound at the risk of her own life : to | numbers of the foe were overwhelming, use the words of old Fuller," it is a pity and devoted bravery was of no avail. In so pretty a story should not be true; and that disastrous siege the Christians were that so sovereign a remedy as a woman's all but exterminated. The king of Cyprus tongue, anointed with the virtue of loving Aled when he saw that resistance was vain, affection," should not have performed a and the Grand Master fell at the head of his good deed.

knights, pierced with a hundred wounds. Edward suspected, and doubtless not Seven Templars, and as many Hospitalwithout reason, that the assassin was em- lers, alone escaped from the dreadful ployed by the sultan of Egypt. But it carnage. The victorious Moslems then

set fire to the city, and the rule of the

Christians in Palestine was brought to a Mills, in his history, gives the name of this chief as “Al Malek al Dhaker Rok neddin


close forever. Abulfeth Bibars al Ali al Bundokdari al Salehi.” | This intelligence spread alarm and sor

close forever.

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row among the clergy of Europe, who had time to pass some good laws; the endeavored to rouse once more the energy human mind learned some little wisdom and enthusiasm of the nations in the cause from hard experience, and, casting off the of the Holy Land. But the popular mania slough of superstition in which the Roman had run its career; the spark of zeal had clergy had so long enveloped it, became burned its appointed time, and was never prepared to receive the seeds of the apagain to be re-illumined. Here and there proaching Reformation. Thus did the a solitary knight announced his determina- | all-wise Disposer of events bring good out tion to take up arms, and now and then a of evil, and advance the civilization and king gave cold encouragement to the ultimate happiness of the nations of the scheme; but it dropped almost as soon as West by means of the very fanaticism spoken of, to be renewed again, still more that had led them against the East. feebly, at some longer interval.

Now what was the grand result of all these struggles ? Europe expended mil

. (For the National Magazine.] lions of her treasures, and the blood of two

FAITH. millions of her children ; and a handful of quarrelsome knights retained possession Faith mounts her ladder to the throne of of Palestine for about one hundred years ! |


Fix'd deep in truth, and firmly held on high Even had Christendom retained it to this

| By hopes that cling to every promise given day, the advantage, if confined to that, By God to mortals, struggling for the sky. would have been too dearly purchased. More faith we find when Arabs eat their salt, But notwithstanding the fanaticism that

Than in the Christian Jesuit's prayer;

The savage Indians in their vengeance balt, originated, and the folly that conducted

And for their faith their deadliest foe will them, the Crusades were not productive

spare. of unmitigated evil. The feudal chiefs Faith has the warrior in his trusty sword, became better members of society by com

Faith has the mother in her loving lord, ing in contact, in Asia, with a civilization Faith has the miser in his glittering board,

Faith has the child in its good father's word, superior to their own ; the people secured But 0, to me let heavenly faith be given, some small installments of their rights ; By hopes, nor fears, nor earthly changes riven. kings, no longer at war with their nobility, I


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A TRIP FROM ST. PETERSBURGH TO CONSTANTINOPLE. T HURRIED from Moscow to Jassi, of the first lessons learned by a good I the capital of Moldavia, with as little traveler is to sacrifice his wishes to his delay as possible, in order to escape the necessities. I crossed the Dniester at rigors of a Russian winter. The cold was Mohilef, and the Pruth at Skouleni, a litsufficiently piercing at the time of my tle village separated into two nearly equal departure to make my anticipated sojourn parts by the river which is the boundary in warmer regions appear not a little de- between Moldavia and the Russian empire. lightful to me. Bucharest is my next : Any idea of my journey from these stopping-place, and thence I shall depart, jottings will be a very different thing from as soon as may be, down the Danube and the reality. That which I have so comby the Black Sea to “the city of the plimentarily termed a road, is merely the Sultan," where thickening events are con- space over which travelers have induscentrating the attention of the world. triously endeavored to trace their way.

My route to this place may be described As far as Odessa an attempt has been in a few words; for there was little to be made to indicate the most direct distance, seen, of any interest to the traveler. by stakes some eight or ten feet in height, From Moscow I proceeded to Orsha, a firmly planted in the soil; but the ground small city upon the Dnieper, at the between them has never been leveled, mouth of the Orchitza, and thence taking and consequently it is precisely in the a southerly direction to Odessa, upon the same state as nature created it-somegrand road from St. Petersburgh, which I times smooth, but oftener rough as the left at Brazlaf. I consequently failed of waves of a furious sea. The animals and seeing Kief, which was the only Russian vehicles which have passed over it have city at all likely to interest me; but one only increased the irregularities of the

surface, and it requires a tough traveler | traveler in the sleigh, serves for their to endure the jolts and bruises which are supper, and the open air is their only the results of a rapid gallop over these stable. If the snow falls during the night, execrable routes—besides the sea-sickness in the morning you will frequently see a (by an Hibernianism) consequent upon this white mass suddenly start into motion; horrible state of the land. A good supply it proves to be the faithful beast starting of provisions is very essential, or the upon his day's journey of forty-five miles, traveler would die of hunger; for at the though but a night's repose has succeeded stations you are only provided with warm a similar distance. water for making tea, and a bench upon The steppes of Southern Russia extend which to repose. The wealthier classes from the borders of Hungary to the understand this so well, that they never boundaries of China. They form an imtravel without a well-furnished bed, cook mense plain, which is covered in spring ing utensils, and an ample supply of pro- and autumn with the most luxuriart vervisions. All the sufferings and privations dure; in winter huge drifts of snow to which I allude are unrelieved by any alternate with the naked soil ; while in interesting scenery--steppes, marshes, and summer clouds of dust remain suspended pine forests, these three words, comprise in the air, even in the calmest weather, the whole variety embraced in the long | more resembling vapors exhaled from the distance between the banks of the Mos- earth than solid particles of matter, moved kova and the shores of the Pruth.

by the atmosphere alone. This plain, The faithful Russian horses alone ex- which is very high, terminates at the Black cited my interest and admiration, for the Sea, in a perpendicular terrace nearly two speed and safety with which they con- hundred feet above the level of the water. ducted me through this unvarying dreari. From its summit, slight natural eminences, ness. In this tribute of gratitude to the scarcely of sufficient size to deserve the rapidity and faithfulness of these invaluable name of hills, may be discovered in the animals, I must conscientiously abstain remote distance; but artificial eminences from the slightest compliment to their ap- are frequently seen, ranging from six to a pearance. A more miserable-looking set hundred and fifty feet in height, which, of quadrupeds it was never my lot to see; according to some authorities, were originyet one of these nags, scarcely fit, apparent- ally designed for tombs, telegraphic points, ly, to drag cabbages to market, will per- and monuments. This high table-land is form daily a journey of between forty and deeply furrowed with the streams formed fifty miles, upon an unbroken track, through by the melting snows, which are very meadows and woods, leaping inclosures, rapid and powerful in their wandering ditches, and streams, and plunging into course. The most marked peculiarity of ravines from which the only escape is over the scenery, however, is the entire abirregular rocks. The spirit and indomi- sence of trees from a soil so noted for its table perseverance displayed by these fertility and the abundance of its pasturage. grotesque figures would excite the envy | You may travel hundreds of miles in a of the owners of many a stately steed; straight line without seeing even a shrub. they were the only enlivenment of my The climate of the steppes is always ex. dreary journey, and in my debt of gratitude treme. The cold is severe in winter, and to them must be included many a hearty the heat is excessive in summer. The laugh at their expense. They are not only winds sweep over them with such violence indefatigable, but it is said that they seem that the snow has no time to solidify, and perfectly resigned to the severest storms sledding can never be used to such advanof winter, and show a wonderful sagacity tage as in Northern Russia. It generally in discerning the road when its traces are begins to melt in April, but sometimes almost obliterated by the snows. Not- passes away before the waters are absorbed withstanding all these invaluable qual. by the earth. During such seasons, the ities, the poor beasts are mercilessly surface of the prairies is a sea of mud, treated, and sustained upon an incredibly where neither men nor animals can venture small quantity of food. When their without danger. The change from one tedious day's journey is finished, they season to another is unmarked by great refresh themselves with a little snow; the variations of temperature. In no country hay, which has protected the feet of the perhaps does winter offer a more deter

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