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narrow-minded,-his works cannot last. Such | Alexander Von Humboldt.-A writer in Blackis the judgment we have repeatedly given in wood, thus describes this veteran :these columns on his historical volumes. The
“Age sits lightly upon his active head. Still full of last Nero Quarterly Revier, London, (decidedly
unrecorded facts and thoughts, he labors daily in com. the ablest standard of literary criticism among mitting them to the written page,- for the grave, he the British Quarterlies,) slashes him into pieces.
tells you, waits him carly now, and be must finisb wat
he has to do before he dies. And yet he is as full at It says :
the same time of the discoveries and new thonghts of The work is a scandal to modern history. Every others, and as eager as the youngest student of nature successive volume serves only to illustrate the neces in gathering up fresh threads of knowledge, and in folsity of this judgment. A third instalment has just lowing the advances of the various departments of appeared, and, after the labor of reading it over, we lay natural science, And in so doing it is a characteristic it down with still increasing surprise. So much sloy of his generous mind to estimate highly the labors of enly carelessness, gross ignorance, and offensive con others, to encourage the young and aspiring investiceit, were never before allowed to scrawl their auto gator to whatever department of nature be may be dographs, and call them history. Sir Archibald's instinct voted, and to aid him with his counsel, bis influence. for blundering is too potent to be corrected by any in and his sympathy. We found himn congratulating dustry in criticism. We have here all the old faults. himself on the possession of a power with wbich few Sir Archibald is neither industrious nor well-informed. scientitic men are gifted--that of making science popaHe never strays away in search of a classical allusion, lar-of drawing to himsell, and to the knowledge he had but he misconceives it when obtained, and distorts it to diffuse, the regard and attention of the masses of in using it. Although he appears to have mastered the people in his own and other countries, by a clear the rudiments of French since we spoke to him last on method and an attractive style in writing." that subject, his attempts to twist a French idiom into English are as amusing as ever. His geography is There are in New Hampshire 2,294 schools; even worse than that taught by the Irish Education 87,825 scholars; average wages per month of Board; for even that learned body does not, we pre
male teachers, exclusive of board, $16 42; of sume, teach its scholars that Georgia is a part of Asia Minor. His references to history - we mean the great females, $7 18; children from 4 to 14 not atnotorious facts, the bluff cliffs, high mountains, and tending school, 2,669; from 14 to 21 who canglaring light-houses of history--are so shamefully in
not read or write, 428; school-houses built last accurate, that if a man were to talk as Alison writes, he would be hardly thought fit for the society of edu year, 70; incorporate academies, 46; money cated people. His ignorance of historical authorities paid for tuition in academies and private is so dense, that he has actually never heard of the only
schools, $23,494 30; raised for public schools, original native history, and the only authentic collec
$212,324. tion of state papers, that treat of the periods he pretends to chronicle."
The Paris correspondent of The Boston Atlas The critic admits these charges to be ex
says that strange rumors have gone abroad of treme, and scarcely credible ; but proceeds to
late concerning the determination which, after prove them by an overwhelming list of blun
mature reflection, has seized upon George Sand, ders-and pours a hail-storm of critical missiles
of retiring forever from the world and leading upon the knighted historian.
a religious life. For this purpose she is said to From Charles Knight's “Old Printer and be now busy interbuilding and arranging her Modern Press," we learn that, in 1853, there house in Berri for the reception of six ladies, were three times as many books published in whose conduct and government are to be subEngland, as in 1828; that the comparative in- jected to the theory laid down by St. Theresa. crease in the number of volumes was not so
A French correspondent of an English perigreat, showing, that of the new books more single volumes were published; that the total
odical says: cost of one set of the new publications had in "Perhaps nothing in France has received a greater creased by more than one-half of the former shock from its recent revolutions than its literature,
Most of the distinguished writers of the generation cost; that the average price of each new work
which is passing away have been involved in political had been reduced nearly one-half; and that the disasters, and have been prematurely swept from the average price per volume had fallen about 58. stage. Victor Hugo lives a broken exile in the isle of below the price of 1828. A further analysis of
Guernsey. Laniartine is almost forgotten. You some
times meet in Paris a half-negro whose hair has lost its this Annual List shows, that of the 2530 books
color and become white, and who stoops alarmingly in published in 1853, only 287 were published at the shoulders-it is Alexandre Dumas. This popular a guinea and upward ; and that of these only
writer resides with his daughter, at the Maison d'Or,
on the Boulevard, but has lately taken a small "hotel" 206 were books of general information; while
in the Rue d'Amsterdam. I passed one evening on the 28 were law-books, and 53 of the well-accustom Boulevard a gouty old man, bent almost double, who ed dear class of guinea-and-a-half novels. De seemed hardly able to drag himself along: he was re
turning from the Dican, a sort of estaminét, celebrated cidedly the quarto dynasty had died out.
as a place of reunion for men of letters, and was pointed The London Alhengum says that the fact " of out to me as the celebrated critic Gustave Planch, but
he looks now like a critic of the past. Alfred de Vigny, 175,000 Leaves of Fanny Fern having been sold
the author of St. Mars, is a tolerably constant attendin the United States, is the saddest satire it has ant at the Acadernie Française, and still holds up his ever read on America and Americans."
head comme un Saint Sicrement, to use a French
phrase: his locks hang long, like those of the Franks The following Professors were appointed at described by Thierry; but, alas! they are no longer the last commencement of Asbury University, In black. Emile Deschamps has retired to Versailles,
where he cultivates his garden more than the muses. diana :-Rev. Daniel Curry, D. D., President,
Sainte-Beuve has thrown himself into the Moniteur and Professor of Mental and Moral Science. Universel, where he has turned a prophet of evil, and Rev. B. H. Nadal, A. M., Professor of English appears in wearisome articles, which are read only in Literature and Normal Instruction. Rev. E. E.
the provinces. The bibliophile Jacob (Paul Lacrois)
must also be classed among tbe forgotten ones, as well E. Bragdon, A. M., Professor of Latin Language
as his brother, who once enjoyed a reputation 28 and Literature. Rev. S. E. Ferris, A. M., Ad writer of romances and dramatic pieces, and who has junct Professor of Law, and Principal of Prepar
married the sister-in-law of Balzac. Some of the
writers of a higher class of literature remain, such as atory Department. Hon. A. C. Downey, A, M.,
Guizot, Villemain, Augustin Thierry, and Victor ConProfessor of Law.
sin; but of these Guizot alone is active."
Arts and Sciences.
Important Railroad Inventions and Improvements horizontal rollers. The chief advantage accom
American Artists at Florence-The Microscope plished by this new machine is the ability to
roll flanged bars of great width, and such as -Leutze's Statue of Washington-Dr. Elster. cannot be made by the ordinary means in use.
It is proposed to make wrought-iron beams in A TRULY great reform has been introduced in
these rolls, and they are well adapted for this London, which promises to let the sun shine
purpose. The triumphant success of the exinto its streets, and which ought to be adopted
periment created a sensation of joy throughout by all our railroad and steamboat companies.
the company present. The foreman of the gang By an ordinance of the government, the smoke
of men in charge of the new mill, Mr. David nuisance” is abolished; furnaces are to con
James, mounted the rolls and proposed three sume their own smoke. Steam-vessels on the
cheers for the victory they had just accomThames between London-bridge and Richmond
plished. These were given with great enthubridge are to consume their own smoke. Con
siasm by the whole crowd. This invention is stables may be empowered to enter and inspect
an important one to the Company, and gives a furnaces and steam-engines. Soot is the great
degree of success in the manufacture of railest nuisance in our own railroad travel, though
road iron not enjoyed in any other establishthe dust is bad enough; for the former, at least,
ment in this or any other country. there is no apology.
American Artists at Florence.-A correspondent As steam conveyance is the great power of
of The Richmond Inquirer writes from Leghorn the age, all its improvements are preëminently
as follows:important. To the above we are happy to add an item, apparently well authenticated, respect
“At Florence I saw Powers at his studio, having
just completed a statue of Washington for the state of ing Miller's invention for breaking cars. For
Louisiana. He has taken Houdon's statue in our capisome time past this invention has been in tol as his model, changing the column from his left operation upon the Pontiac road. The appa
side to the right, and giving to him rather a meditative
air. The workmanship is excellent. Hart has finished ratus consists simply of a steam-pipe extend
a bust of J. J. Crittenden of Kentucky. No man can ing from the locomotive to a cylinder attached execute a better one. And now let me tell the ladies to each car of the train, and in which there is of Virginia that Hart thinks, in about two years more,
he will send home the statue of Henry Clay. I saw & piston that operates upon the brake by means
our friend Barbee, who, with Hart, dined with me, of an iron rod. This apparatus is extremely and seemed to be just getting to work. All seemed simple, and is under the absolute control of the pleased that young Galt was to execute the statue of engineer. The power can be applied to the
Mr. Jefferson." brakes almost instantaneously upon the first in Was the microscope known to the ancients ? dication of danger. In a late trip upon the 1 is a question among antiquarians. We notice, Pontiac road for the purpose of giving the in in foreign papers, that a glass has been disvention a practical test, the brake was first ap covered at Pompeii, about the size of a crown plied while the train was going at the rate of piece, with a convexity, which leads one to suptwenty miles an hour, and the train was brought pose it to be a magnifying lens. Now, it has to a dead stop in a distance of fifteen rods, with been said that the ancients were not aware of out reversing the engine or causing the slight this power, and the invention is given to Galiest jar. It was next applied while the train leo by some; to a Dutchman, in 1621, by others; was going at the rate of thirty miles an hour, while the compound microscope is attributed to and in a distance of thirty rods, and in troenty one Fontana, in the seventeenth century. But, seconds of time, the train was again brought to a without a magnifying glass, how did the Greeks dead stand. This was repeated the second and Romans work those fine gems which the time, and with the same result as to time human eye is unable to read without the assistand distance, and again without reversing the ance of a glass? There is one in the Naples engine. If this had been done, the cars would Royal Collection, for example, the legend of have been stopped in about two-thirds of the which it is impossible to make out unless by distance and time. The value of such an applying a magnifying power. The remarkable improvement, in the increased safety of travel, fact is, that the glass in question was found is inestimable.
with a stone ready cut and polished for engraving We have also the pleasure of recording a very
thereon, which stone is now also to be seen in important improvement in the manufacture of
the Museum of Naples. It would appear, thererails. A triumphant experiment of the vertical
fore, that a worker of gems possessed and used double-acting rail-mill took place lately at the
this instrument. Trenton Iron Works in the presence of the stock The Earl of Dundonal, better known as holders, directors, and officers, and a large num | Lord Cochrane, bas taken out a patent in this ber of spectators. The machinery was run country for a composition of asphaltum for the through rails from 18 to 21 feet in length, covering of telegraphic wires, and for the making 7 inches in height, weighing 93 pounds to the of foundations for piers and lighthouses; for yard, in an average time of 1 minute to each, to the preservation of all wood under water; for the admiration of all present. The peculiarities | the making of pipes, tanks, &c. Since the inof this invention are, that rails are run through troduction of the electric telegraph in the United at a welding heat in about one-half less time States, it has been found impracticable in cerand with one-third less labor than by the old tain states of the atmosphere to transmit intelligence along the wires from their exposure to being emblematic of the extinction of the Indian race, atmospheric influences. By the earl's inven
fills up this portion. The opposite half of the pediment
is devoted to the effects of Liberty and Civilization, tion this difficulty is removed, and an impor
The first figure on the right of America represents its tant desideratum effected in the art of tele Soldier. He is clothed in the costume of the Revolagraphing, as the substance employed completely tion, as being most suggestive of the country's strug. envelops the wires, which will be carried | gle for independence; bis hand upon bis sword ivdi
cates the readiness of the army to protect America from underground instead of being, as at present,
insult. By the soldier is placed a Mercbant, sitting on stretched on high poles—thus being more effi the emblems of trade; his right band rests upon the cient, much more secure from injury, and getting
globe, by which the extent of American commerce is
symbolized. The anchor at his feet connects his figure rid of the inconvenience of poles and wires in
with those of two boys advancing cheerfully to devote public thoroughfares. The composition is inde themselves to the service of their country. The anchor structible, and can be supplied at little more is easily understood to be the emblern of Hope: behind
them sits the Teacher instructing a youth. The Me. than half the cost of anything previously used.
chanic completes the group. He rests upon the cage Researches at Pompeii— Canosa. A correspond wheel, without which machinery is useless. In his
hands are the emblems of trade; and at his feet are ent of the London Athenceum says: “At Pompeii
some sheaves of corn, expressive of fertility, activity, the works were for a long time suspended. A and abundance, in contradistinction to the grave at bronze statue of Apollo had been brought to the corresponding corner." light, a little larger than life, Roman in style; Here is a short announcement that savors of it was found near the small theater. The ex. | old times: “The Greek government has selected cavations are now being prosecuted very feebly, a marble block in the Parthenon for the mond. but with a view to discover the lower part of ment of George Washington, now being raised in the boundary walls of the ancient city. The the city named after him. It is to bear the follow. point of greatest interest, however, has been, | ing inscription :- To George Washington, the and still continues to be, Canosa, in Puglia, - | heroic general, the high-minded citizen, the and the excavations of the Greek tombs have founder of modern freedom, the land of Solon, been carried on under the able direction of Themistocles and Pericles, the birthplace of Signor Carlo Bonucci. These tombs are in the ancient freedom, dedicates this old marble as form of small chambers, decorated with columns
a sign of reverence and admiration.'" and paintings. Here have been found objects of quite a novel and extraordinary interest, in
A foreign correspondent of the Tribune writes arms, terra-cottas, and glass; ornaments of
that “whatever political differences there may gold, as necklaces, bracelets, diadems, earrings,
be between the politicians of the two countries, and rings; cameos and vases which are remark
the learned men of Germany have a high estiable for the beauty of their paintings, and the
mation of the scientific character, as well as interest and the grandeur of the subjects. I
of the attainments of our countrymen. The have already spoken of the wonderful vase on
English are too jealous to give us due credit for which is represented the wars between the East
our discoveries, and the French too uncosmoand the West, or Asia and Greece, in which politan. The Germans freely acknowledge our Darius is seated in the midst of his satraps,
claims to the greatest scientific discovery of the while the various provinces of Asia, personified
century, namely, that of Etherization. Until by beautiful women, bring their offerings for
lately chloroform was in general use on the conthe war; and I only allude to it now for the
tinent as well as in Great Britain, but it will reason that I have just seen some fragments of
soon be supplanted by a milder and less danthese beautiful productions of art. When I
gerous agent, namely, sulphuric ether, which speak of fragments, it should be known that no
was originally employed in Boston. A death part is missing, and that the vase will be re
occurred a short time since at the General Hosstored to perfection."
pital from the use of chloroform. In a conver
sation a few evenings since, at the Imperial Crawford's Great Work.-A correspondent of
Institute, with Hofrath von Oppelzer and Haller an English journal, writing from Rome, speaks
-the former the most distinguished physician, as follows of Crawford :
and the latter the first chemist of Austris-I "From Mr. Gibson's I pass to Mr. Crawford's studio, found both of these eminent men in favor of the where everything now yields to the grand work or
Boston method of etherization.” The Boston dered by the United States Government. It is to be of statuary marble, and is to be placed at the eastern
faculty was the first to apply the new discovery; extremity of the Capitol extension at Washington. As and it has invariably adhered, in at least its it engages inuch of the attention of the artistic world,
hospital practice, to etherization - rejecting I will give a detailed description of what it is to be; for at present nothing is to be seen but huge portions
chloroform. It has hardly had a single evil of plaster models. The central figure of the pediment result to report. We believe with this writer, represents America standing on a rock, against which
that the new agent, or at least its new apthe waves of the ocean are beating. She is attended by the eagle of the country; while the sun rising at
plication, is the greatest improvement of the her feet indicates the light which accompanies the age. It should be used in every painful operamarch of liberty. In one hand she holds the rewards tion in surgery, in all instances of childbirthof civic and military merit-laurel and oak wreaths;
in almost every case involving severe pain. It her left band is extended toward the pioneer, for whom she asks the protection of the Almighty. The is God's greatest gift of the times to our poor pioneer is the athletic figure of a backwoodsman clear- humanity. ing the forest. The Indian race and its extinction is explained by the adjoining group of the Indian chief Leutze's statue of Washington at the Battle anil family. The son of the chief is returning from tho of Monmouth will be shortly exhibited at Bruschase, with a collection of game slung on & spear over
sels. It is at present in the sculptor's studio his shoulder. In the statue of the Indian cbief, Mr. Crawford has endeavored to describe the despair and
at Berlin. profound grief resulting from his conviction of the
Dr. Elster, a well-known German writer on white man's triumph. The wife and infant of the chief complete this group of figures; while the grave, | Art, died suddenly, a short time since, at Berlin.
PRESIDENTS OF THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. TOHN JAY, LL.D., was elected the “That the Society are very much gratified at J second president of the American Bible the choice made by the managers of the Hon. Society in the year 1822, having been pre
John Jay, as the successor of their late venersecond to no other statesman in the coun- / of learning-among them Alexander Hamcils of our nation.
able president, Dr. Boudinot, and at his kindly viously one of its vice-presidents. Owing
consenting to accept the appointment; and that to his advanced age, and infirm state of the thanks of this Society be conveyed to the health, the Board dispensed with his per president for the excellent address which, in sonal attendance at their meetings. He
his unavoidable absence, he has been pleased
to transmit to the present meeting." refers to this circumstance in his address acknowledging the honor conferred upon Mr. Jay possessed a inind formed for him, and which was read by his son, Peter eminence and imbued with virtue. Sel. A. Jay. At the sixth anniversary he says: dom has there been found in any Ameri
can citizen a more enlightened intellect, "I assure the Society that although restrained from active services by long-continued mala
united to a heart of more purity. A statesdies, and the increasing infirmities of age, my man or transcendent abilities, ne successattachment to this institution, and my desire to fully managed the most weighty interests promote the attainment of its great and impor- of the land. His country was the idol of tant objects, remain undiminished.”
his affections, and in her history he early This address was eloquent, and filled became a legislator of unswerving integwith noble and pious sentiments. As soon rity-an advocate and counsellor of the as it had been read, the American Bible most exalted standing. His wisdom and Society passed the following resolution :- | address united in giving him an influence
ilton, Dewitt Clinton, and Washington In any country Mr. Jay 'would have Irving. After taking his Bachelor's dereached distinction ; but in his own he ac- gree, he was admitted to the bar about quired that admiration and renown which | 1768. the union of goodness and greatness can In the year 1774 Mr. Jay married Sarah. alone command.
daughter of that distinguished patriot. The ancestors of John Jay were French William Livingston, Governor of NewHuguenots. Augustus Jay, his grandfa- Jersey. Soon he attained great eminence ther, was one of the three sons of Pierre | as a lawyer, not only in New York, but in Jay, an opulent merchant of La Rochelle. | the neighboring provinces of Connecticut On the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, and New-Jersey. The American revoPierre fled from the persecutions which lution was now about to break out, a mofollowed this insane measure of Louis mentous era, and his fellow citizens began XIV. He sailed for England, the vessel to look up to him as a guide through the containing all that remained of his fortune. dark and gathering storm which was evi. Two sons accompanied their father, one dently approaching. In 1774 he was seof whom he had the misfortune to lose lected as one of the delegates to the first during the voyage. The other, a brave | American Congress-an imperishable honman, died in England of wounds received or. The members of that august body at the celebrated battle of the Boyne, when will ever command the gratitude, not only he fought under the illustrious Count of the American people, but of the world. Schomberg, in one of the French volun- In 1776 he was chosen president of Conteer and Protestant regiments.
gress. The next year he was a member At this period the grandfather of Mr. of the convention which framed the conJay embarked from England, with other stitution of New York, and made the first Huguenots, for South Carolina ; but, not draft of that paper. During the year 1778 liking that climate, he proceeded to New- the government of this state was organized, York. In this province he settled at when Mr. Jay became its chief justice. We Esopus, which, at the time, was a favor- find him, the next year, again in Congress; ite residence of the French Protestants. and, while its presiding officer, he was apThence he removed to New-York and pointed minister plenipotentiary to Spain. married Miss Bayard, in 1697. He died, The objects of this mission were to obtain much respected, at the advanced age of from that nation an acknowledgment of eighty-five, leaving three daughters and our independence, a treaty of alliance, and one son, (Peter,) born in 1704, who mar- pecuniary aid. Early in the summer of ried a daughter of Jacobus Van Cortlandt. | 1782 he received the appointment of a "These were the parents of John Jay. Be commissioner to negotiate peace with fore the American revolution, he had re- | England; but to continue the Spanish netired from mercantile pursuits to an estate gotiations also. at Rye; but was forced to leave it, at the | Dr. Franklin, Mr. Adams, and Mr. commencement of that struggle. He died | Laurens, joined Mr. Jay in concluding at Poughkeepsie in 1782.
the treaty of peace, and all arrived at His son, John Jay, was born in the city of Paris in 1782. That important treaty was New-York, December 1, (old style,) 1745. signed in 1783, and the following year Mr. An estimable mother instructed him in the Jay returned to the United States. first. rudiments of literature. When eight During the year 1787 there was an years old, he was placed in the school of the alarming riot in the city of New York, Rev. Mr. Stoep, rector of the Huguenot caused by the culpable imprudence of medChurch, New-Rochelle, and at fourteen ical students, who had disinterred some entered King's, now Columbia College, dead bodies for dissection. Such was the then recently founded. Dr. Johnson was excited state of the public feeling, that the president of the institution, and was suc- young men were compelled to seek proceeded by Dr. Cooper, both accomplished tection from the violence of the populace scholars, the latter especially excelling in in the city prison. A large crowd assemBelles lettres. It is a well-known fact bled for the purpose of forcing them from that some of the best American minds this retreat, and of inflicting on them sumhave graduated from this venerable seat mary punishment. The militia were or..