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evils among their neighbors across the shops, under the protection of the police, for Atlantic Ocean, to penetrate clear through the commission of this appalling vice. Would the earth and detect the existence of evils,

we have acted thus toward France or Russia,

and established a smuggling depót on their though they should even wear more mon

shores in a prohibited and terrific poison? We strous forms.

dare not. Why then should we legalize and It may not be very agreeable intelli- | protect this dreadful traffic on an island given

to us by the government of China, as a resigence to the British public, but the fact is

dence and for commercial intercourse :?" incontestable, that the principal article of commerce at Hongkong is opium. It is

From this “smuggling depót,"as a great here that are found the immense establish

center, radiates the terrible traffic along ments of the two greatest opium houses

the coast and through the interior of in China ; and in the beautiful harbor, one

China. We need not here trace the hisof the finest in the world, may be seen, all

tory of the extension of this traffic from the year round, several large receiving

the waters of Canton along the extended ships, from whose mast-heads fly the colors

coast which the Chinese empire presents. of Great Britain. Nay, more than this;

The dealers in the drug soon became conwith the boldness to assume the responsi

vinced of the inability of the government bilities of this nefarious traffic, the exam

to enforce the laws and edicts which it ple of which was given to its servants and

had promulged against the trade, and insubjects by the Parliament of England, | pelled by the same insatiable thirst for and as if in defiance of the authorities of | gain which first induced them to particiChina, in 1845 Governor Davis licensed

pate in a traffic so dishonorable, the eplum the public sale of opium by retail in Hong

| merchants began to make experimental kong! We cannot give a better account

voyages along the coast as early as 1520. of this daring measure, than by quoting the

Most of these adventurous trips were sucfollowing from a recent work on China,

cessful, and before long receiving-ships by R. Montgomery Martin, who was at

were stationed at various points on the the time Colonial Treasurer, and a mem eastern coast, and opium-clippers betan ber of the Executive Council of Hong

| to make regular trips of delivery from kong. He says :

Hongkong to Shanghai. The ever-wake

ful authorities of Great Britain in the East, " Twenty opium shops have been licensed in

convinced, from the experiments already Hongkons within gun-shot of the Chinese enpire, where such an offense is death! Hong

made, of the practicability of extending kong has now, therefore, been made the lawful British commerce to other ports in China, opium smoking-shop, where the most sensual, now turned their attention to this subject, degradeil, and depraved of the Chinese, may and on the 27th of February, 1833, Sir securely perpetrate crimes which degrade men

G. B. Robinson, the successor of Lord far below the lerel of the brute, and revel in a vice which destroys body and soul; which has | Napier as

Napier as Chief Superintendent of British no parallel in its fascinating seduction, in its trade in China, wrote the following to inexpressible misery, or in its appalling ruin. Viscount Lord Palmerston :When the governor proposed the conversion of Hongkong into a legalized opium shop, under

"From the period when the first ship, the the assumed license of our most gracious and

Merope, Captain Parkins, in 1820-%), comreligious sovereign, I felt bound, as a sworn

menced the system of delivering opium at vamember of Her Majesty's Council in China, to

rious places, I have closely questioned intelliendeavor to dissuade him from this great crime;

gent men who have had opportunities of making but no reasoning would induce him to follow

observations; and the result of my inquiries is the noble example of the Emperor of China,

the conviction, that the people are intensely who, when urged to derive a revenue from the

desirous to engage in a traffic, certain to prove importation of opium, thus righteously recorded

alike advantageous to themselves and foreigners; his sentiments in an answer which would have

that the mandarins are anxious to benefit been worthy of a Christian monarch :— It is

thereby, but are reluctantly, perhaps, compiled true I cannot prevent the introduction of the

to enforce the prohibitions regarding trade; flowing poison; gain-seeking and corrupt men

and that an opening for alınost unbounded conwill, for profit and sensuality, defeat my wishes;

mercial operations would be the desirable efbut nothing will induce me to derive a reventie

fect of little more than a demonstration on the from the vice and misery of my people. But

part of our government of a determination to money was deemed of more consequence in

establish a proper understanding in the political Hongkong than morality; it was determined, in

and commercial relations of the two countries," the name of her majesty, to sell the permission

That “little more than a demonstration to the highest bidder by public auction, of the exclusive right to poison the Chinese in Hong on the part of our governme

on the part of our government," was made kong--and to open a given number of opium in the opium war of 1840, and now the system of delivering opium at various amount of 12,639 chests, and in 1834 they places' along the Chinese coast is perfect. amounted to 21,785 chests, which was Opium stations are numerous; large well- sold for about $14,454,193. In 1837 the manned and well-armed receiving-ships sales amounted to between 39,000 and begirt the eastern coast of China; with 40,000 chests, valued at $25,000,000. which is connected, on the one hand, an During this time the trade was universally extensive line of fast-sailing brigantines known to be contraband. For nearly delivering to them every few days their forty years the Chinese authorities had supply of the pernicious drug; and on the done everything in their power to arrest other, any quantity of “fast-crabs" and the startling growth of a traffic which was “ scrambling dragons,” manned by des- working such terrible havoc among the peradoes of the worst and lowest class, lives of the people, and which was proconveying the seductive poison along the ducing an exhausting drain upon the recoast and up the rivers. All the iniquities sources of the country, which were beof fraud, perjury, bribery, and even vio- coming already so greatly embarrassed as lence, the usual concomitants of contra to call forth numerous memorials from the band trade, are practiced, and occasionally first men of the country, showing the fatal fatal collisions occur between them and consequences, not only to the imperial the native authorities. But then, “ the treasury, but to the finances of the entire people are intensely desirous to engage in empire, if this dreadful traffic were pera traffic, certain to prove alike advan mitted to continue. In 1838-39, a detertageous to themselves and foreigners,” by mined effort was made on the part of the diffusing poverty and death among the outraged government to suppress the former, and filling the coffers of the latter; traffic. Edicts of the most stringent and then, " our government has made a character were issued from the imperial little more than a demonstration," and palace, enjoining the utmost vigilance thus a “proper understanding” has been upon the provincial authorities, and calling secured between the two countries; and upon them to use every possible means to * an opening for almost unbounded com- arrest the trade. Almost unlimited powers mercial operations” has been secured un- | were granted to them to enable them to der the protection of the flag of “our most effect this desirable object, and degradagracious and religious sovereign.”

tion, and even death were held out before Under this arrangement, thirty-three the local authorities as the consequence vessels, possessing an aggregate tonnage of their failure. These edicts were reof 12,416 tons, are known to be moored produced at Canton, and proclamations all the year round at different stations on from the local authorities were almost the coast, and eighteen well-armed schoon- daily issued, forbidding all natives from ers and brigantines are constantly occu- engaging in the traffic, and even threaten. pied in making voyages along the coast, ing the consumers of the drug with death, delivering the drug to the receiving ships, while they declared to the foreigners and transporting the accumulated treasure | engaged in the trade the determination to their princely owners. A large number of the government to break up and supof first-class vessels are known to be en- | press entirely the smuggling in of opium. gaged in the trade between India and These decided movements arrested the China, and large quantities of opium from trade, causing the merchants to surrender Calcutta and Bombay are conveyed to to the government about 20,000 chests of China twice a month by the fine steamers the contraband article, which were all of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam destroyed at Canton, and which constiNavigation Company.

| tuted a prominent feature among the causes But we must turn our attention more leading to hostilities between England and closely to the extent of this enormous China. traffic in China. From 1794 to 1820 the. During these years—from 1839 to 1842 amount of opium imported varied from -a much smaller quantity of opium was 3.000 to 7,000 chests annually; but the brought into the country ; but the demand practicability of extending the trade along being much greater than the supply, it the coast having been successfully tested sold for almost double its former price, about that time, the importations rapidly bringing from $900 to $1,200 per chest. increased, and in 1824 they reached the Many handsome fortunes were made at this time through the speculations in princely munificence has the Honorable opium, and it is generally thought that East India Company provided the Chinese even those merchants who so strenuously with this " innocent luxury !" demanded indemnity for the 20,000 chests From various official and authentic destroyed by the government, actually sources, I have been able to compile a suffered but little loss in their whole trade series of tables exhibiting at a glance the during the existence of the troubles-the trade through a long series of years, from 20,000 chests being more than paid for by 1795 to 1850. We need not burden the the advance in price.

pages of the Magazine with these tables, The war being well over, the treaties but present to the reader a summary of signed, and the Chinese government con- the results. During this period there vinced that the opium trade could not be were exported from Calcutta to China, suppressed while defended by the arms of | 425,909 chests; from Bombay 339,553; Great Britain, and the merchants justified from the Portuguese settlement of Dafor the past, and encouraged for the future maun, 95,774; an aggregate of 861,236 by the demonstration made in their favor chests of opium. We have already seen on the part of their government, the trade that these chests will average all round in opium again opened briskly, and from 135 pounds of opium, giving for the whole that time until the present has grown the enormous quantity of 116,266,860 with astonishing rapidity, and now meets pounds of opium to be consumed by the with but little opposition from the authori- Chinese in a period of about fifty years. ties. The emperor and his cabinet, unable A very reasonable average estimate as the to control the traffic, issue no more edicts; price of opium during the past fifty years no more local proclamations appear; the is $600 per chest; at which rate this local authorities, as venal as the smug- | quantity of opium must have cost the glers, think it wise to make the best of Chinese $516,741,600!! what they cannot prevent, and receive No wonder that the “Friend of India" liberal bribes for their silence; while a says, after contemplating the results of deep and sullen hatred of the foreign name this enormous trade for even a single rankles in the bosoms of the people. year, that An idea of the extent of the trade and

“To all present appearances, we should find its rapid growth since the hostilities of

it difficult to maintain our hold of India without 1840 may be gained from the following

il; our administration would be swamped by figures. From Bombay the exports to its financial embarrassments. Its effects on China have been as follows:—1843–44,

Chinese finances must be as disastrous as it is 18,321 chests ; 1844-45, 31,902; 1845- |

beneficial to our own. The trade is not legal.

ized in China, and the drug is paid for in hard 46, 13,227; 1846–47, 19,311 ; 1847-48,

cash. The annual drain of the precious metals 15,196 ; 1848-49, 20,000; 1819-50, about | from China through this article is, therefore, 21,000 ; making a total of 138,957 chests | between five and six millions sterling. No in a period of seven years, which, disposed

wonder that the cabinet at Peking is struck

dumb by this oozing out of silver, and that of at $600 per chest, which is a fair

we hear from time to time of the most resolute average price, amounts to $83,374,200, or determination to extinguish the trade. Bot $11,910,600 annually. A still greater trade with more than a thousand miles of sea coast than this was carried on at the same time at

to guard, and so small a protective navy, and

ninc-tenths of the officers in it venal to a protCalcutta, and from official reports we find

erb, that cabinet is helpless." that the exports of opium from that city to China have been as follows:-1843–44, Here is the secret of the protection and 21,526 chests; 1844-45,22,000; 1845– | encouragement given to the dreadful traffic 46, 24,990; 1846–47, 21,619; 1847-48, in China by the English Government. 28,705; 1848–49, 36,000; 1849-50, about Because, without it, “it would be difficult 40,000; making a total of 194,870 chests, to maintain our hold of India," and, thereworth in China $116,922,000; constitu- fore, though it is a traffic in human lifeting a trade of $10,703,143 annually. though it is a revenue drawn from the The aggregate of the trade in East India / wretchedness of suffering millionsopium thus amounts to 333,872 chests, though it must be “as disastrous to the worth $200,296,200, during a period of finances of China as it has been beneficial seven years, or an annual traffic to the to our own"—though the authorities have amount of $28,613,743! With what made the “most resolute determinations to extinguish the trade”-still “ it would made by itself alone this number of be difficult to maintain our hold of India," princely fortunes, if some of the merand therefore it must be encouraged. And chants, more aspiring and avaricious than then the Chinese government has “more others, had not realized more than their than a thousand miles of sea-coast to share. It is stated, on good authority, guard, and but a small protective navy," that a single house in China, a few and we have already succeeded in se- years since, divided £3,000,000, or about ducing “nine-tenths of the officers in it," $15,000,000, as the clear profits of their so that “ the cabinet is helpless.” Ac- | trade in opium. After paying to the mercordingly in 1840, Lord Melbourne, Herchants their net profit we have still left Majesty's chief adviser, stated the argu- the sum of $188,605,481 to be expended ment as follows:

in building ships, steamers, and brigantines, “We possess immense territories peculiarly

to sail between India and China, and to fitted for raising opium, and though I could ply along the eastern coast; to supply and wish the government were not so directly concerned sustain a fleet of receiving ships to lie in the traffic, I am not prepared to pledge my moored at the principal ports of China ; self to relinquish it."

to pay large salaries to agents, clerks, Why certainly not, my lord, so long ship captains, &c., and to bribe liberally as “we possess immense territories pe- the venal authorities of the empire. culiarly fitted for raising opium,” and These results, vast as they are, can only then “would find it difficult to maintain be viewed as a good approximation to the our hold” of these immense territories real extent of this enormous traffic. It without this revenue. Is there not some will be remembered that the trade has thing of a vicious circle in the arguments always been contraband, and, therefore, of his lordship and that of the Friend though conducted with a degree of boldof India, when we come to “ dovetail ” ness which the smugglers would not dare them?

to venture on in other countries, its transBut let us proceed a little further with actions are involved in some secrecy. our calculations. One thousand rupees Before the war with England, the results per chest is a low average for the price of the trade were publicly made known, of opium at Calcutta during those fifty with almost the same freedom as with years, the price ranging from 500 to 1,500 any other branch of trade; but since the rupees. 425,909 chests would thus realize war the traffic is universally acknowledged to the company an income of 425,909,000 to be illegitimate, and its results are disrupees. Three hundred rupees per chest carded from the official returns. This is a reasonable average for the transit places us under the necessity of studying duties on the opium delivered at Bombay, the opium trade in China somewhat inwhich would give to the company another directly through the reports of the trade income of 95,865,900 rupees, or a total in India, in which country there is no for the two presidencies of 521,774,900 necessity for secrecy. We have carefully rupees, equal to about $237,407,579. It examined the data used in our calculations, would be correct, perhaps, to allow the and believe that in nearly every instance same as the average price of the Damaun our figures are rather below than above opium, which gives an additional item of the real returns of this gigantic trade. about $47,577,170, making for the whole Still this does not constitute the whole of sum realized from the East India trade in the traffic, as the trade in Turkey opium, opium with China, $280,984,749, which, of which we have taken no account, is far deducted from the aggregate realized in from an inconsiderable item; and in formChina, viz.: $516,714,600—$280,984,749 | ing a conception of the vast extent of the =$235,756,851, as the spoils of the traffic consumption of the drug in China, we to be divided among the merchants engaged must observe, that the cultivation of the in the trade in China. We may safely poppy in the country itself is rapidly inset down as clear profit to merchants en- creasing, and already furnishes a considergaged in the trafic an average of about able supply of the native drug. The 20 per cent., which will give to the mer- traffic still continues in unabated vigor ; chants a net profit of $47,151,370; a sum and efforts are constantly being made in sufficient to make forty-seven millionaires, India to augment the supply. and the opium trade in China would have |

(To be continued.) Vol. V.-32


mixed, giving that grayish or grizzled

appearance - whence the trivial name, VENTURE WITH ONE.

grizzly. But although this is the most MHE.grizzly bear (Ursus ferox) is, be common color of the species, there are

1 yond all question, the most formidable many varieties. Some are almost white, of the wild creatures inhabiting the con- others yellowish red, and still others nearly tinent of America-jaguar and cougar not black. The season, too, has much to do excepted. Did he possess the swiftness with the color; and the pelage is finer and of foot of either the lion or tiger of the longer than that of the Ursus Americanus. Old World, he would be an assailant as The eyes are small in proportion to the dangerous as either ; for he is endowed size of the animal, but dark and piercing. with the strength of the former, and quite The geographical range of the grizzly equals the latter in ferocity. Fortunately, bear is extensive. It is well known that the horse outruns him : were it not so, the great chain of the Rocky Mountains many a human victim would be his, for he commences on the shores of the Arctic can easily overtake a man on foot. As it Ocean, and runs southwardly through the is, hundreds of well-authenticated stories North American continent. In these attest the prowess of this fierce creature. mountains the grizzly bear is found, from There is not a " mountain man" in Amer- their northern extremity, at least as far as ica who cannot relate a string of perilous that point where the Rio Grande makes its adventures about the “ grizzly bar ;" and great bend toward the Gulf of Mexico, the instances are far from being few in in the United States and Canada this which human life has been sacrificed in animal has never been seen in a wild state. conflicts with this savage beast.

This is not strange. The grizzly bear The grizzly bear is an animal of large has no affinity with the forest. Previous dimensions ; specimens have been killed to the settling of these territories, they and measured quite equal to the largest were all forest-covered. The grizzly is size of the polar bear, though there is much never found under heavy timber, like his variety in the sizes of different individuals. congener the black bear; and, unlike the About five hundred pounds might be taken latter, he is not a tree-climber. The black as the average weight. In shape, the bear “ hugs” himself up a tree, and usugrizzly bear is a much more compact ani- ally destroys his victim by compression. mal than either the black or polar species : | The grizzly does not possess this power, his ears are larger, his arms stouter, and so as to enable him to ascend a tree-trunk; his aspect fiercer. His teeth are sharp and for such a purpose, his huge dull claws and strong ; but that which his enemies are worse than useless. His favorite most dread is the armature of his paws. haunts are the thickets of Corylus rubus The paws themselves are so large, as fre- | Amelanchiers, under the shade of which quently to leave in the mud a track of | he makes his lair, and upon the berries of twelve inches in length by eight in breadth ; , which he partially subsists. He lives and from the extremities of these formi- much by the banks of streams, hunting dable fists protrude horn-like claws full six among the willows, or wanders along the inches long! Of course, I am speaking steep and rugged bluffs, where scrubby of individuals of the largest kind. These pine and dwarf cedar, (Juniperus prosclaws are crescent-shaped, and would be | trata,) with its rooting branches, forms an still longer, but in all cases nearly an inch almost impenetrable underwood. In short, is worn from their points. The animal the grizzly bear of America is to be met digs up the ground in search of marmots, with in situations very similar to those burrowing squirrels, and various esculent which are the favorite haunts of the roots; and this habit accounts for the African lion, which, after all, is not so blunted condition of his claws. They are much the king of the forest as of the sharp enough, notwithstanding, to peel the mountain and the open plain. hide from a horsc or buffalo, or to drag! The grizzly bear is omnivorous. Fish, the scalp from a hunter-a feat which has flesh, and fowl, are eaten by him apparently been performed by grizzly bears on more with equal relish. He devours frogs, than one occasion.

lizards, and other reptiles. He is fond The color of this animal is most gen- of the larvæ of insects; these are often erally brownish, with white hairs inter- / found in large quantities adhering to the

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