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because he hath been trained up in literature; done by each member of the family might but if not he, then such other as you shall show for itself, and be a help to them, or judge most fittest."

a remembrance of good works to posJohn Hugeson became a minister, and terity. not a “ chirurgeon," and died in Salem, ! It is to be regretted that none of these in 1780, aged ninety-two years, and hav- registers have been preserved—it would ing preached more than seventy years. be curious to the fashionable ladies now-a

That “ill weeds might be nipt before days to note the daily employments of the they took too deep a head,” Endicott was women of the olden times. For all deredirected to take special care in the settling lict in duty, severe punishments were of families, that the head of each should proposed, and those to be inflicted at once be grounded in religion, and to have a 1 and in public. watchful eye to the performance of morn- Among other sins, say the advisers, ing and evening family duties. It was “ we pray you make some good laws for esteemed a business worthy of his best the punishment of swearers." This was endeavors to look into this, and, if need enjoined, if comfort or blessing from God were, make some an example to all the was expected on the plantation. Many rest; else, say the advisers, “our govern- who sought of the company to come over ment will be esteemed a scarecrow." were refused, even when they had been at “Our desire,” they continue, “is to use" great charges” with them, on account of lenity all that may be, but, in case of their pernicious practices. But over and necessity, not to neglect the other, know beyond their temporal comfort, they looking that correction is ordained for the ed steadily to the glory of God. fool's back."

Some temperance measures appear to The necessity of labor, which should have been taken chiefly with regard to the be the privilege, as well as duty of us all, salvages, as to the strong waters sent for but which has sadly fallen into disrepute sale. Public and exemplary punishment in modern times, is enjoined thus ur- | was recommended for him who exceeded gently :

| in that inordinate kind of drinking, so “And we heartily pray you that all be kept much as to become drunk. As to the to labor, as the only means to reduce them to raising of tobacco, we find repeated incivil, yea, a godly life, and to keep youth from

structions for its discouragement. Care falling into many enormities, which by nature we are all too much inclined unto.”

was advised to be taken that none was “And God, who alone is able and powerful, planted by new planters, unless in small enable you to this great work, and grant that quantities for mere necessity and for physour chiefest aim be his glory.”

ic, and for preservation of health; and So endeth the first Letter of Instruction that the same were only taken privately from the loving friends of Endicott, “the by ancient men. Governor and Deputy of the New-England Notwithstanding all the hardships and Company for a Plantation at Mattachu- trials which accompanied the new heritsetts Bay.”

age, and all the sacrifice of accustomed In a subsequent letter of instructions comforts, the planters seem to have been from the London company to the planters, | more than satisfied. From Francis Higthey are put in mind to be very circum ginson's account of " the earth of Newspect in the beginning to settle some good England, and all the appurtenances thereorders, whereby all persons resident in the of," I transcribe the following :colony should apply themselves to some

"It is a land of divers and sundry sorts all calling or other, and no idler be permitted

about Massachusetts Bay, and at Charles River to live among them; for if care was taken is as fat black earth as can be seen anywhere; at the first, it was thought a world of dis I and in other places you have clay-soil and sandy orders would be prevented, and many

soil. The form of the earth here in the supergrievous sins and sinners kept out of the

ficies of it is neither too flat in the plainness,

nor too high in the hills, but partakes of both world.

in a mediocrity, and is fit for pasture or for Ay me, even with their severe regula plow, or meadow ground, as men please to emtions, they found it a hard task to keep ploy it. Though all the country be, as i

as it were, drones and idlers out of their midst. |

a thick wood for the general, yet in divers

places there is much ground cleared by the InThe keeping of a daily register in every | dian

ng ora dally register in every | dians; and I am told that about three miles family was prescribed, so that what was from us, a man may stand on a little hilly place

and see divers thousands of acres of as good ground as need to be, and not a tree in the same. It is thought here is good clay to make brick, and tiles, and earthen pots, as need be.”

The author goes on to say there was plenty of slate in the Isle of Slate, and lime-stone, free-stone, and smooth stone, and iron stone, and marble stone, in such store that they had great rocks of it. He expresses great hope too of minerals, though no trial had been made in the soil, the fertility of which, he says, " is to be admired at in the abundance of grass that groweth everywhere, both very thick, very long, and very high, in divers places.” “It is scarce to be believed,” he continues, “how our kine and goats, horses and hogs, do thrive and prosper here, and like this country." It is strange that we find no despondency for the hard portion they found—no regret for all they had left all they saw was good, and they believed that greater blessings which they did not l. “This country aboundeth naturally with see awaited them. “ Our plantation.” store of roots of great variety, and good to eat.

Our turnips, parsnips, and carrots, are both writes the same author, “already yields

larger and sweeter than are ordinarily to be found us a quart of milk for a penny, and the in England. There are also store of pumpkins, abundant increase of corn proves the cucumbers, and other things of that nature country to be a wonderment. Yea, Jo

which I know not. Also divers excellent potseph's increase in Egypt is outstripped

herbs grow abundantly among the grass. Straw

berries in their time, and penny-royal, winterhere with us."

savory, sorrel, brooklime, liverwort, carvel, and The cheerful, the almost exultant spirit water-cresses; also leeks and onions, and divers in the records of these devoted worthies physical herb

physical herbs. There are also abundance of

sweet herbs, delightful to the smell, which I affords a pleasing and faith-inspiring con

know not; plenty of single damask roses, very templation. We cannot read their history sweet, and two kinds of herbs that bear two without having our belief in the efficacy kinds of flowers, very sweet, which they say are of prayer increased, our religious trust as good to make cordage and cloth as hemp and strengthened and elevated. God seems

flax. Excellent vines are here up and down

in the woods.” everywhere to have met the measure of their faith-in the perils of the sea and The accompanying cut is designed to the famines of the land ; pledging us anew, illustrate the beautiful may-flower, the as it were, in their faith, that he walks pioneer of the sisterhood of blossoms. It with us still, and answers those that call | answers to the primrose in Old England, on him. But of these things presently. starting first to life, and being regarded I quote further from Francis Higgin with a similar affection—the securing of son's New-England, and the appurte- its earliest blossoms bringing, or being supnances thereof. In one place he says :

posed to bring, good fortune. We can “Our governor hath store of green peas grow

imagine the children about Plymouth, with ing in his garden, as good as ever I eat in Eng a sort of pious superstition, gathering in land."

subdued merriment armfuls of these And in another :

pretty and fortunate flowers-doubtless




from Old England, we performed the same in six weeks and three days.”

The governor went aboard ship to meet them, and himself and family were lodged in his house, which he describes as fair and newly built. Not one of the pilgrim houses is left standing now. The Allyn House, a cut of which we here give, is a specimen of the old style, but more spacious perhaps than that in which Higginson was lodged by the

governor. they fringe the grassy covering now of We can imagine psalms and thanksmany a trusting and demure maiden, who givings going up from beneath that roof believed in their marvelous virtues.' And for preservation from maledictions" and who shall say but that faith lends to its the divers perils of the sea, and for the object something of the quality with which delight which they had received in beholdit believes it to be already endowed. ing the wonders of the Lord in the deep,

For myself, it seems to me that we are which our author quaintly says, “those more indebted to the Puritans for the who dare not go to their town's end, shall beautiful examples of faith and trust be- never have the honor to see." queathed to us, than for their noble inde- Of their habits during the voyage, he pendence and resistance of oppression. says : “ That they constantly served God, There was no questioning about chance, morning and evening, by reading and exand fate, and free-will—they knew no will pounding the Scripture—by singing and but God's will; and under the severest af- prayer—and the Sabbath was solemnly flictions still prayed—“Thy will be done!" | kept by adding to the former preaching

Speaking of a little daughter whom he twice and catechizing." And in great had lost at sea, Mr. Higginson says :- need they kept solemn fasts with gracious

“So it was God's will the child died about | effect—and he desires all to take notice five of the clock at night, being the first of our that fasting and prayer are as "prevailship that was buried in the bowels of the great able” by sea as by land. The ship-master Atlantic sea.”

and his company, we are told,“ set their Writing of a great storm which befell watches with singing, and prayer that was them shortly after the burial, he says, with not read in a book." a simplicity which begets in us confidence Higginson but exemplifies the general in all his curious narrations, “ This day spirit of trust, of piety, of cheerfulness. Mr. Goff's great dog fell overboard, and “ Experience doth manifest,” he says, could not be recovered.”

" that there is hardly a more healthful As they came near the shore, (I speak place to be found in the world that agreeth now of the emigrants of 1630,) abundance better with our English bodies." For of yellow flowers, which they supposed to himself, he says : “Whereas I did formerhave come from the low meadows, floatedly require such drink as was both strong out to meet them, which made them the and stale, now I can, and oftentimes do, more anxious to see the New-England drink New-England water very well." paradise.

Throughout all the chronicles kept by “Through God's blessing," he says, the settlers of Massachusetts Bay, we find “our passage was short and speedy; for the same cheerful piety manifested as has whereas we had a thousand leagues to sail | already been exhibited in Master Higginson's report. No lamentings anywhere oring of their king and country, the adfor the blessings they had foregone, but a vancement of the Christian faith, and the constant setting forth of those that were glory of God. This voluntary agreement left.


has been defined by some American writers, William Wood, in his description of “the birth of popular constitutional libMassachusetts, says: “In an ill sheep erty;" and this has undoubtedly proved the year, I have known mutton as dear in Old fruit of the tree they planted, although England, and dearer than goat's flesh is they had no idea of the gigantic growth in New England; which is altogether as it was destined to, or of its fruit. good, if fancy be set aside.”

As soon as anchor was cast, parties Among their other afflictions came pes- went ashore to fetch wood and water, tilence, insomuch that there was scarcely and a shallop was fitted for the exploring a house where there was not one dead ; of the coast, and selecting a suitable place 6 but they who survived were not dis- for settlement. This plan was shortly recouraged, but bore God's corrections with linquished, in consequence of the shallop humility,” remembering always that he proving unworthy; and a party, under the had power to raise them up, as well as leadership of Captain Miles Standish, volcast them down.

unteered to make an exploration on foot. Of one it is said, “ She was a godly This was esteemed a service of great peril, virgin, making a comfortable end ;” and and rather permitted, we are informed, that the like loss of her had not been sus- than approved. At length, however, sixtained ; and it is added, without murmur teen men, armed with musket, sword, and or complaint,“ she deserves to be remem- corslet, were put ashore. bered."

They spent the first day in tracking In- There are graves in other places," dians, but were overtaken by night without writes one, “ as well as with us.” Of the having encountered any; and kindling a death of Robert Welden,“ a hopeful young fire, appointed sentinels, and lay down to gentleman," who had just been chosen sleep. The following day they renewed captain of a hundred foot, the chronicle the tracking, but became entangled in says : "he was buried as a soldier, with thickets, by reason of which their very three vollies of shot ;" and in the next armor is said to have been literally torn to sentence a thanksgiving is recorded. On pieces. every page of their records our pusilla- The annexed cut represents the armor nimity is shamed by their great trust of the period, though it is probable our and steady perseverance-remembering pilgrims had only a corselet and headalways the primary object of their pilgrim- piece. age, they paused only to bury their dead, never to mourn.

But to return to the Pilgrims of 1620, for I have been led away from them by the interest attaching to the narratives of their followers.

Early in the morning of the 9th of November, after the sufferings of a crowded passage of sixty-four days, these Pilgrims obtained their first view of the coast of America. Their rejoicing and praising of God we must leave to be imagined. Wonderfully refreshing must have been the sight of the sand-hills covered with scrubby woods and sloping toward the sea, leafless and snow-covered as they were. After being driven about by contrary winds and endangered by shoals, they were anchored safely in Cape Cod harbor.

Before making land, however, they had covenanted and combined themselves together into a civil body-politic for the hon



These explorers appear to have found than the shore. Heavy snow and rain nothing more worthy of note than some came on, and with the prospect all ob. Indian traps, in one of which Captain scured, “the gale increased, the sea got Standish was caught accidentally, the site up, the rudder snapped," and a poor at. of a house, an old ship's kettle, and a tempt at steering was made with a couple basket of Indian corn, which they carried of oars, the waves threatening to swamp away, intending to reimburse the owners; them, and the light of a winter day fading also, they crossed some graves. Wearily from a perilous shore-surely they needed they drew toward the seashore, and were then their great trust. The pilot having glad to have their signal answered from called them to be of good cheer, for he the ship.

beheld the harbor, all sail was strained to Subsequently, a larger party went out get in, when the mast snapped in three in the boat, which, owing to boisterous places, and the pilot exclaimed, “The winds, could not keep the sea, and the Lord be merciful! my eyes never saw this men were forced to wade ashore through place before.” Breakers were just before water above their knees, and after toil-them, but with wonderful presence of mind some marching to encamp for the night the shallop was got about and carried into in the open air, and exposed to a fall of the harbor with flood tide. Safe from the snow, so that some who afterward died danger of the sea, night came down upon were supposed to have there “taken the them, wet, hungry, almost frozen. Fear original of their deaths.” The following of the savages kept them for some time day the explorations were renewed, the in the boat, but so near perishing were snow through which they waded, and the they with cold that a few went ashore, wintry woods, making the scene doubly and having kindled a fire, were joined by desolate. Their only good fortune seems the rest. The place proved to be an unto have been the finding of a supply of inhabited island, and having looked about corn. By the third day several were too they resolved to pass the day there, dry sick to proceed further, and were accord- their baggage, and refix their muskets. ingly sent back; and shortly the whole The next day was Sunday, and sore party became worn out with the hard toil pressed as they were to join their companand discouragement, when ten of the ions, they remained and observed it with staunchest volunteered to proceed alone ; customary solemnity. Monday, sounding among these were Standish, Carver, Brad- the harbor, they found it eligible for ship

and from their great suffering two of the further, and making land, stepped on the ten were taken ill; the sleet froze over rock which has since acquired such cethem, and, says the chronicle, they were lebrity. Here their researches ended, as speedily cased all over in coats of iron. | has been already recorded, and, weighing

They met traces of Indians, but en- | anchor, they carried back the good news countered none. One night a hideous to their friends. cry surprised them, and the sentinel cried During their exploration, Mistress White “ To arms !” but having fired off a couple gave birth to a son, whom she called Pereof muskets, nothing more was heard, and grine—the first child born in the colonythe shrieks were supposed to have been and Dorothy, the wife of Bradford, was wild beasts. This supposition proved drowned. untrue, for on the morrow, having prayed, ! On the 17th of December, the Mayand being about to breakfast, a repetition Flower set sail from Cape Cod Harbor, of the yell burst upon them, followed by and the next day anchored in Plymouth a storm of arrows. Standish was the Bay, and having called on God for direcfirst to fire, and his companions quickly tion, went ashore. followed with a general discharge of mus- The spot where they resolved to settle ketry. The sachem stood bravely, but was a ridge of high ground which had was at length overcome, and wounded been cleared and planted with corn some fled back into the woods. “ The First years before. The place, we are told, Encounter" the place of this skirmish is abounded with “ delicate springs" of water, called.

and under the hillside ran "a very sweet They now betook themselves to the brook." boat, but the sea proved more inhospitable! A rude shelter was erected, where the

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