« ZurückWeiter »
party set themselves down and began to land only to learn that here there is no build houses, and here the town of Ply-rest for us, and no abiding place. mouth now stands. The Indian name was When the spring came, one half the Accomack. A indicates Plymouth vil- little band lay asleep on the cliff overlage, B the Town Brook, C Billington Sea, hanging the rock where they had so lately D Captain's Hill, Duxbury; E Clark's landed—side by side they were laid, as Island, F Saquish Head, G Jones' River. they stood in life ; and their surviving
“ The Common House," as the first friends, so far from making tombs, or habitation was called, was but twenty planting flowers, leveled the sacred earth, feet square, and in it men, women, and and planted corn, in order to conceal their children, sick and well, corn, goods and great loss from the Indians, lest, tempted all, were huddled together, until new by their weakness, they might fall upon houses could be built, which was a hard and destroy the little handful of survivors and slow work, so often was it interrupted which they were become. by alarms of the Indians, by the severity When the spring came round, and the of the weather, and by sickness.
flowers began to appear, a solitary Indian, Two of their number soon had the mis of noble and fearless carriage, made his fortune to lose themselves in the woods, appearance one “ fair warm” day, and which caused the most painful apprehen- using all the English he knew, bade the sions to the rest, and as may be supposed pilgrims welcome. He proved communiwas anything but agreeable to themselves ; cative, and the settlers obtained some fear of wild beasts and Indians adding ter- / valuable information from him. They ror to the bitterness of the frost and snow. entertained him as well as they could, But it pleased God, to quote their own that they might counteract the bad imwords, “ so to dispose that the beasts pression which the savages already had came not ;' and, after great hardship and | of them; and when he departed, gave him fright, they found their way back to the some little presents. His name was settlement. By the 4th of February, the Samoset, and he often returned with his Common House was as full of beds as they companions to the settlement, after his could lie, one beside another; and there, solitary adventure. He is described as a in that rude habitation, and in the strange man of able body, grave countenance, and country to which they had come, the spare of speech, and differing in attire labors of a great number were ended. | from his followers only in that he wore a
Doubly sad must have been the parting chain of great white bone beads about his of those who had endured so much to neck. “His face was painted a sad red, gether-they had reached the promised | like murrey, and he oiled both head and
face so that he looked greasily. All of frequent and disorderly, insomuch that it his followers painted themselves of differ- | was thought advisable to send an embassy ent colors, yellow, red, and black, and to the nearest chief to make arrangements some dressed in skins, and some went mutually agreeable. Winslow was apnaked.” Governor Carver is represented pointed diplomatist; and taking with him as pledging his wild visitors very cour- a coat of red cotton, edged with lace, a teously in strong drinks, which they recip- present for the sachem, and accompanied rocated in more potent draughts.
by an interpreter, they set out. After a With the warm weather, preparation weary march they fell in with the chief, for the departure of the May-Flower was to whom they presented the red coat, made, and it is strange, in view of all the and whom they paid for the Indian corn hardship and suffering, and the losses of which they appropriated on a former exfriends, brothers, sisters, husbands and pedition. wives, that not one sought opportunity to The chief was so pleased with these return home, but remained, resolved at all courtesies, that he promised to comply hazards to make homes among the graves with all their requests, and distinguished of their kindred.
his guests by lodging them in the same Soon after the departure of the May- bed with himself and wife. If the PilFlower, Governor Carver, while at work in grims had always acted upon this conthe field, was taken ill, in a few hours ciliatory plan, it would have saved their became speechless, and after a few days names from centuries of reproach. died. It is said of him that his great The good ship Fortune came in Novemcare " for the common good shortened his ber, bringing a reinforcement of over thirty
settlers ; but in consequence of extravaWilliam Bradford, of whom we have gant reports about the fertility of the counpreviously spoken, was chosen his suc- try, she brought no supplies of food; so cessor. The first marriage took place the colony was reduced to short allowMay 12th, 1621, and was between Ed ance. ward Winslow and Susanna White, both It is pleasant to contemplate the friendly of whom had been recently bereaved of intercourse between the settlers and the their companions. Under ordinary cir- | Indians at this period. Winslow says: cumstances, this proceeding would have
“We have found them very loving and ready been regarded as an indecency and a scan- | to pleasure us. We often go to them, and they dal ; but under the trying circumstances come to us; some of us have been fifty miles it seems to have been considered exem
| in the country with them." plary.
They were entertained familiarly, and The first offense, as recorded in the repaid the hospitality with skins and venijournal of the governor, is that of Johnson. And it was a common picture to Billington; and was contempt of the cap- see the Englishmen in corslet and buff tain's lawful command, and opprobrious sitting on the grass beside the plumed and speeches, for which he was adjudged to painted chief. We pass over the details have his neck and heels tied together ;” of the first bloody encounter, quoting, simfor what length of time the journal saith ply, what Robinson, the good pastor whom not. It appears, however, that in hum- they had left behind them, said, on hearing bling himself and craving pardon he was of it. “Consider your ways, and the disforgiven. Remarkable leniency for the position of your captain, who is of warm times. The second offense was a duel temper," he wrote-he doubted whether fought upon challenge at single combat there was not wanting that tenderness of with sword and dagger, between Edward the life of man which was meet, and addDotey and Edward Leister, servants of ed: "O how happy a thing had it been, Mr. Hopkins. What the cause of chal- if you had converted some before you lenge was, appears not; but the parties | killed any." actually fought and were both wounded, He seems to have been heartily loved for which they were adjudged to have by his people, and deserving all their love; their head and feet tied together, and so but he was too much in advance of them lie for twenty-four hours without meat or and of the age to be always appreciated. drink.
“I charge you,” he said, in his last adThe visits of the savages began to be dress to them, “that you follow me no
further than you have seen me follow the Having followed the Pilgrims thus Lord Jesus Christ." In the sentiment through all their sufferings and toils to the annexed, there is a wisdom which even in dawn of prosperity—the day of magisterial this day has been attained by few :
authority—there comes a time of denun
ciation, of whipping, and banishment, and “ The Lord has more truth yet to break forth
hanging, which we are glad to pass over. out of his holy word. I cannot sufficiently bewail the condition of the reformed Churches
The perilous wandering of Roger Wilwhich have come to a period in religion, and liams, which lasted for fourteen weeks, will go, at present, no further than the instru- during which he had no bread nor bed-no ments of their reformation. Luther and Calvin
shelter from the storm, and no guide or were great and shining lights in their times; yet they penetrated not into the whole counsel
companion and all for that he pleaded the of God. The Lutherans cannot be drawn to go rights of conscience, has left dark spots on beyond what Luther saw: and the Calvinists, the Puritan character that cannot be washyou see, stick fast where they were left by that great man of God.”
The public flogging of Anne Burden, And he further charges them to be ready
who came from London to deliver her to receive TRUTH whenever it shall be message of peace, has left a picture to the made known to them.
world of a whipping-post adjoining the In 1625, “having finished his course meeting-house ; and the meek exclamaand performed his work,” he was taken tion of poor Mary Dyer, “ The will of the home. In a letter to Governor Bradford,
Lord be done,” as she folded her hands in reference to his death. occurs the fol. I and awaited on the scaffold the execution, lowing passage :
| makes us almost deaf to the long prayers
of her accusers. “He was taken away even as fruit falleth | Doubtless they saw at stake truths of before it is ripe, when neither length of days
eternal moment, and the lives of a few nor infirmity of body did seem to call for his end. The Lord even then took him away, as it
heretics were as nothing in comparison. were in his anger, whom if tears could have If it be true that the evil which mendo held, he would have remained to this day.” lives after them, and the good perishes
with their bones, it is best to discourage April, 1623, found the settlers reduced the tenacity of bad memories as much as to severer privations than they had yet
we may by silence. known. The corn was exhausted, and
From “ The Pilgrim Fathers," an exfaint and staggering for want of food cellent work to which I have already been they began to plant for the harvest. All much indebted in the compilation of this had been hitherto held in common; but as article, the subjoined particulars of Plya greater stimulus to labor, the land was
mouth as it is now, are gathered :now divided, and each man wrought for himself. No sooner had the corn ap “It consists of a fow principal streets and peared, than a drought set in, and con- some straggling by-lanes, running off into the tinued for six weeks, so that starvation |
surrounding country—a quiet, old-fashioned
place, yet having a cheerful look. It is seemed inevitable ; and the more, that a
charmingly rural, many of the gay rustic lookship dispatched to their relief, after being ing dwellings being detached, and standing driven back twice, was wrecked on the amid gardens full of shrubs and flowers. The coast. In this fearful exigency a day of
principal avenues are lined with wooden houses,
often furnished with verandahs, neatly painted fasting and prayer was appointed, and the
white or stone color, and with blinds and narrator says:
shutters of light green. Rows of tall elms
with shooting branches meeting overhead give “ In the morning when we assembled to the scene an air of tranquillity and delicious gether, the heavens were as clear and the
nd the repose." drought as likely to continue as ever it was, yet (our exercises continuing some eight or The street first laid out by the Pilgrims nine hours) before our departure the weather
| is upon high ground, and below runs "the was overcast, the clouds gathered together on all sides, and on the next morning distilled very sweet brook, the mouth of which such soft, sweet, and moderate showers of rain, afforded harbor for shallops and boats, continuing some fourteen days, and mixed with and in their season abounded with fish. such seasonable weather, as it was hard to say At the head of this street was the hill whether our withered corn or drooping affec
| where the fort was erected, and which was tions were most quickened or revived—such was the bounty and goodness of our God.” | called Fort-hill, now Burial-hill.
The shores are flat, rising with gentle Bradford, the stout yeoman of Austerfeld, acclivities from the water—with the ex- and afterward honored governor of the ception of Captain's-hill, named in honor settlement of Plymouth. The spot was of Miles Standish, and the ridge of Mano- known to his descendants, many of whom met. From the principal street, Leyden, are buried around him. Among these the the descent is steep to another which runs tomb of one of his sons, Major Bradford, parallel with the seashore, and leads to the is selected as a good specimen of the style Forefathers' Rock. On the left is an ab- 1 of the more ornamental ones. rupt ridge, the top of which is covered with grass, but its sides disguised by modern edifices. This is the Cole's-hill, and was the first burial place of the Pilgrims—there are no tombstones, nor other marks to indicate their resting - places now. Formerly this eminence overhung the seabeach, and immediately be T HERE LYES Y BODY OF low it, and projecting into the
Ý HONOURABLE MAJOR waves, was the rock on which the Pilgrims landed. The scene is
MWILLIAM BRADFORD greatly changed, and the original
WHO EXPIRED TEB Y 2017 features with difficulty traced. A part of the rock was removed from
W 1702 AGED 70 YEARS its first position in the time of the
HELIUED LONG BUT STILL WAS DOING GOOD revolution for purposes of political
& IN HIS COUNTREYS SERVICE LOST MUCH BLOOD excitement, and placed in the
AFTER ALIFE WELL SPENT HES NOWAT REST Town-square; and thence, finally,
HIS UERY NAME & MEMORY IS RLESI to its present position in front of Pilgrim-hall, where it is surrounded with an iron railing which bids defiance to the patriotic lovers of memorials, who, if it were accessible, would soon break it to pieces. A picture of this fragment will be found at the head of the chapter.
The Burying-hill is the most remark- 1 Upon the southern extremity of this able and conspicuous spot in Plymouth- hill was erected a strong timber fort, upon a green mound, rising above the buildings, which they planted their cannon, and and set thick with gray tombstones. Its where watch was kept against the apo summit commands a wide view of sea and proach of the Indians. The building land, embracing the whole field of Pilgrim afterward served for a long time for a adventure, from the first arrival till the meeting-house. On the opposite side of settlement of Plymouth. The white sand- the bay, the view inland extends over an hills of Cape Cod in the distance, the in- irregular ground fringed with primitive dented shores of the bay, embracing within forests. Small lakes surrounded with its wave Clark's Island, Saquish Head, trees lie among the hills, and, notwithand the Gurnet light, the green hill of standing the occasional fields and houses, Duxbury and the pine-clad ridge of Mano- the scene retains much of its original met. But the cemetery itself is the most wildness. interesting feature of all. It is covered On the other side of the town brook with dark slate stones, most of them rises a bold eminence crowned with a brought from England, and adorned with wind-mill, and called Watson's-hill. It quaint carvings of death's head and was here that Massisoit first made his cross bones, and bearing the names of the appearance with his Indians; and from the first comers and their descendants. The hollow beneath that, Winslow and his men graves of the earliest pilgrims are, how- advanced to meet them. ever, unknown. A column was erected Many of the tombstones bear the record some years ago to the memory of William of eighty, ninety, and in some cases of a
hundred years; and among the Christian | many conflicts; and here, in 1656, he names taken from the Old Testament, died at the age of seventy-two, and his may be found such as “Experience," sepulcher no man knoweth to this day. 6. Patience,” “ Fear," " Mercy,” “ Wrest | Many memorials of him are still in ling," and the like.
existence. His good sword, with a large In the neighborhood of Plymouth is kettle and dish, are preserved at Plymouth, Captain's-hill-a long slope covered with and are here presented in a group. short thick turf and gray boulders. Here The weapon, from an Arabic inscripthe spring of Miles Standish still flows, tion, is supposed to have really been one and here his house formerly stood. From of the Damascus blades so famous for this point, the course which Standish and temper and keenness. Among the entries his companions took on their first voyage of the first winter's mortality is this: “ On of discovery may be seen. In the distance January 29, died Rose, wife of Captain are the hills of Cape Cod, and the long Standish.” shore which the shallop explored on her Good Miles seems to have been less way to Plymouth Bay. The dark pine- successful among the ladies than as a covered ridge of Manomet is seen to the soldier, if tradition be to be trusted. It is south, and to the north the Gurnet Light related of him, and the story is strikingly and the projecting point of Saquish Head, characteristic of the Puritan simplicity of between which were the breakers where heart, that in the course of time the galthe little shallop was so nearly cast away. lant captain sought to fill the melancholy Near the shore lies Clark's Island, where void occasioned by the death of the bethe half-frozen pilgrims found shelter from loved Rose, and to this end fixed his heart the storm ; where they kindled a fire, and upon one Priscilla, the daughter of William watched all night, and rested on the Sab- Mullens, as a help-mate for him. Unforbath preceding the memorable Monday turately, he adopted the singular method when they first trod upon the Rock of of addressing the lady by proxy, and by Plymouth. This hill was originally oc- some strange infatuation chose a young cupied by Standish, together with John and comely gentleman named John Alden, Alden, Jonathan Brewster, and Thomas as the interpreter of his wishes to the fair Prence; whence they moved to Plymouth lady, who was too much pleased with the in the winter for the greater convenience handsome youth to remember the sober of attending worship. The hill and some captain at all; and so it fell that as the adjacent lands were afterward assigned blushing herald stood stammering forth to Standish, and named Duxbury, after his the proposals of his patron, the lady inancestral estate in England. Some faint | terrupted him with, “ Prythee, John, why indications of the dwelling-house are said do you not speak for yourself?" Upon to be seen yet, and the spring trickles out which the young man did speak for himfreshly through moss and sedge, and self, not unsuccessfully, as may be inamong wild flowers finds its way to the ferred, and the defeated Miles was taught sea.
thereafter to woo for himself. No doubt There lived Miles Standish, after his he was a good deal laughed at, but his