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a bullock; in like manner Amos (iv. 1.) compares the noble women of Israel to the kine of Bashan, and Hosea compares the Israelites to refractory kine that shake off the yoke. The patriarch Jacob, in his prophetic and valedictory address to his children (Gen. xlix. 14.) in which he foretels their own and their descendants' future condition, terms Issachar a strong ass, literally a strong-boned or strong-limbed ass. Now, if we take these metaphors according to their present sense, we shall greatly err. The ox tribe of animals, whose greatest beauty and strength lie in its horns, was held in very high honour among the antient nations, and was much esteemed on account of its aptitude for agricultural labour: hence Moses specially enacts, that the ox should not be muzzled while treading out the corn. The ass tribe, in the East, is robust, and more handsome, as well as much quicker in its pace, than those animals are in our country; and therefore princes and persons of noble birth thought it no degradation to ride on asses. Hence, in the opinion of the inhabitants of the East, it is not reckoned disgraceful to be compared with oxen and asses; nor, if a metaphor be derived from those animals, do they intend to convey the same meaning which we should express by a figure drawn from them. In the comparison of the tribe of Joseph to the firstling of a bullock, the point of resemblance is strength and power.1 In the comparison of the matrons of Samaria to the kine of Bashan, the point of resemblance is luxury and wantonness, flowing from their abundance :2 in the comparison of Issachar to an ass, the point of resemblance is bodily strength and vigour; for in that animat the Hebrews were accustomed to regard strength, though we usually associate with it the idea of slowness and stupidity.3



Nature of a Metonymy.-1. Metonymy of the cause.-2. Metonymy of the effect.-3. Metonymy of the subject.-4. Metonymy of the adjunct, in which the adjunct is put for the subject.

A METONYMY is a trope, by which we substitute one appellation for another, as the cause for the effect, the effect for the cause, the subject for the adjunct, or the adjunct for the subject.

A Metonymy of the cause is used in Scripture, when the person acting is put for the thing done, or the instrument by which a thing is done is put for the thing effected, or when a thing or action is put for the effect produced by that action.

A Metonymy of the effect occurs, when the effect is put for the efficient cause.

A Metonymy of the subject is, when the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to the

1 Mr. Brown has recorded a similar figure, which is in use at the present time at the court of the sultan of Dar Fûr, în Africa; where, during public audiences, a kind of hired encomiast stands at the monarch's right hand, crying out, “See the buffalo, the offspring of a buffalo, the bull of bulls, the elephant of superior strength, the powerful Sultan Abdel-rachmân-al-rashid!" Journey to Dar Für, chap. 1. in fine, or Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. xv. p. 122.

2 The propriety of this comparison will appear when it is recollected that Bashan was celebrated for the richness of its pastures, and its breed of cattle. (See Numb. xxxii. 4. Deut. xxxii. 14. and Ezek. xxxix. 18.) This region still retains its antient fertility; and its robust, handsome, and independent inhabitants are such as we may conceive its antient possessors to have been. See Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. 325-329.

3 Bauer, Herm. Sacra, pp. 206. 210-213.216-221. Ernesti, Instit. Interp. Nov. Test. pp. 99-110. Morus in Ernest, tom. i. pp. 260-300. 4 Quinctilian, lib. viii. c. vi. tom. ii. p. 103. ed. Bipont.

subject: when the thing or place containing is put for the thing contained or placed; when the possessor is put for the thing possessed; when the object is put for the thing conversant about it; or when the thing signified is put for its sign.

A Metonymy of the adjunct is, when that which belongs to any thing serves to represent the thing itself.


1. Frequently the person acting is put for the thing done.

1. Thus, Christ is put for his Doctrine in Rom. xvi. 9.

Salute Urbanus our helper in Christ, that is, in preaching the doctrines of the Gospel, he having been a fellow-labourer with the apostles. Similar instances occur in 1 Cor. iv. 15. and Eph. iv. 20.

2. The Holy Spirit is put for his Effects: as in 2 Cor. iii. 6.

Who hath made us able ministers of the new covenant, not of the letter but of the spirit; for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. Here, by the word letter we are to understand the law written on tables of stone, which required perfect obedience, and which no man can perform because of the corruption of his nature; therefore the law or letter killeth, that is, can pronounce nothing but a sentence of condemnation and eternal death against man. But by the spirit is intended the saving doctrine of the Gospel, which derives its origin from the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, who teaches or instructs, and prepares man for eternal life. In the same sense, Jesus Christ says, John vi. 63. The words that I speak, they are spirit and life, that is they are from the Spirit of God, and, if received with true faith, will lead to eternal life. A similar mode of expression occurs in Rom. viii. 2. Here, by the law of the spirit of life is meant the doctrine of the Gospel, because it is a peculiar instrument of the operation of the Holy Spirit; who, by a divine efficacy, changes the heart, and writes his law there, which now is not only inscribed on tablets or parchments, but also penetrates the very heart of man, and quickens the soul to spiritual motions and actions.1

3. The Holy Spirit is put for His Operations:

For regeneration, Psal. li. 10. Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27. compared with Eph. iv. 23 Rom. xii. 2. which passages imply nothing less than a radical change, both external or moral, and internal or spiritual, wrought in the soul by the influence of divine grace.

4. The Holy Spirit is put for the Influences or Gifts of the Spirit, as in 1 Thess. v. 19. Quench not the Spirit.

The similitude is borrowed from the antient altar of burnt-offering, in which the fire was to be kept continually burning. The Holy Spirit is here represented as a fire, because it is His province to enlighten, quicken, purify, and refine the soul, and to excite and maintain every pious and devout affection. The Christian therefore must not quench the sacred flame of the Holy Spirit in any of his influences by committing any act, uttering any word, or indulging any sensual or malevolent disposition, which may provoke Him to withdraw both His gifts and graces. Neither must the Christian extinguish the gifts of the Spirit, but keep them in constant exercise, as love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, fidelity, meekness, &c. So, in 2 Tim. i. 6. Saint Paul's advice, Stir up the gift of God which is in thee, means the gift of the Holy Spirit. See also 1 Tim.

iv. 14.

Again, when our Saviour "exhorts us to ask with confidence for spiritual aid, appealing to the conduct of men, he adds, "If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him ?" (Luke xi. 13.) By which he would have us distinctly understand that if man, with all his imperfections and all his unkindness, can yet be tender-hearted to his children, and seasonably bestow on them beneficial gifts, much more will God, who is perfection and benignity inself most assuredly impart the blessing of his Holy Spirit to those who earnestly and anxiously implore divine help, — that help which can illumine what is dark; can strengthen what is irresolute; can restrain what is violent; can comfort what is

Flaccus Illyricus, in Clav. Script. pars 1. col. 1162.

afflicted; in such a manner, and to such a degree, as may be requisite for the soul when struggling under different but difficult temptations; that help, without which man, unassisted, cannot persevere in rectitude of thought and action."l

5. Spirit also denotes a Divine Power or energy, reigning in the soul of the regenerate man.

Compare Luke i. 46, 47. with 1 Thess. v. 23.; and for other places, where the word spirit is put for the new man and spiritual strength, see Isa. xxvi. 9. Ezek. xviii. 31. Matt. xxvi. 41. Rom. i. 9. 1 Cor. v. 3-5. and vi. 20. Gal. iii. 3, &c.

6. More especially the Holy Spirit is put for those peculiar and extraordinary Gifts of the Spirit, which, for various uses, whether public or private, spiritual or temporal, are bestowed on man.

Thus, in 2 Kings ii. 9. Elisha earnestly requests of Elijah, Let a double portion of thy spirit rest upon me; that is, an extraordinary measure of the gifts of prophecy, and of power in working miracles, which are here called the portion of the spirit. See also Numb. xi. 17. 25. Dan. v. 12. The prophet Daniel had a more excellent spirit, that is, a more eminent gift of the spirit, more knowledge, and more understanding.

7. The Spirit is also put for revelations, visions, or ecstasies, whether really from the Holy Spirit, or pretended to be so.

Ezek. xxxvii. 1. The hand of the Lord carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, that is, by a vision or rapture of spirit. 2 Thess. ii. 2. That ye be not shaken in mind. neither by spirit, &c. that is, by revelations pretending to come from the spirit. Rev. i. 10. I was in the spirit, that is, in an ecstasy and peculiar revelation of the Holy Spirit, as is described in Rev. iv. 2. xvii. 3. xxi. 10. and 2 Cor. xii. 2. To this head may also be referred those passages, where spirit is put for doctrines, whether really revealed or pretended to be so: as in 1 Tim. iv. 1. where, by seducing spirits are intended false teachers who pretend to receive their doctrine from the Spirit of God; and 1 John iv. 1. where spirit is put for doctrine pretended to be received by the false teachers from God."

8. Parents or Ancestors are put for their Posterity; this mode of speaking is of very frequent occurrence in the sacred writings.

Thus Shem, Japhet, and Canaan, are put for their posterity, in Gen. ix. 27. Jacob and Israel for the Israelites, in Exod. v. 2. Numb. xxiii. 21. xxiv. 5. 17. Deut. xxxiii. 28. 1 Kings xviii. 17, 18. Psal. xiv. 7. and cxxxv. 4. Amos vii. 9. in which verse Isaac, as in verse 16. the House of Isaac, means the same people. The seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, (of whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, Rom. ix. 5.) is put for Christ himself, in Gen. xii. 3. xviii. 18. xxii, 18. xxvi. 4. xxviii. 14. and Gal. iii. 8. as is evident by comparing Acts iii. 25. and Gal. iii. 14. 16. In 2 Chron. xxv. 24. Obededom is put for his descendants, who, it appears from 1 Chron. xxvi. 15. were porters and keepers of the sacred treasures. In Ezek. xxxiv. 23. David is put for David's Lord, the illustrious Messiah.

9. The Writer or Author is put for his Book or Work:

As in Lu xvi. 29. xxiv. 27. Acts xv. 21. xxi. 21. and 2 Cor. iii. 15. in which passages Moses and the Prophets respectively mean the Mosaic and Prophetic Writings, composed by them under divine inspiration, and transmitted to posterity as the rule of faith.

To this first species of metonymy may be appropriately referred, FIRST, all those passages where the soul of man is put for his life, which is its effect, as in Gen. ix. 5. (Heb.) Exod. iv. 19. (Heb.) Lev. xvii. 11. Judg. ix. 17. (Heb.) 1 Sam. xxvi. 21. 1 Kings ii. 23. (Heb.) 2 Kings vii. 7. (Heb.) Psal. xxxiii. 19. xxxviii. 12. (Heb.) lvi. 13. Jer. xlv. 5. (Heb.) Lam. v. 9. (Heb.) Jonah ii. 6. (Heb.) Matt. ii. 20. (Gr.) x. 39. (Gr.) xvi. 25. (Gr.) xx. 28. (Gr.) John x. 17. (Gr.) xiii. 37, 38. (Gr.) xv. 13. (Gr.) &c. SECONDLY, those passages also, where the soul is put for the will, affections, and desires, which are its operations, as in the original of the following passages, where the metonymy is correctly rendered in our authorised version, viz. Gen. xxiii. 8. Exod. xxiii. 9. Deut. xxiii. 24. Psal. xvii. 10. xxvii. 12. xli.

1 Bishop Huntingford's Charge, entitled " Preparation for the Holy Order of Deacons," p. 14.

2. cv. 22. Prov. xxiii. 2. and John x. 24. (literally, hold our soul in suspense). And thirdly, all such passages, where the spirit (which is frequently synonymous with the soul of man) is used to express the motions or affections of the soul, whether good or evil. Examples of this kind occur in Gen. xlv. 27. Numb. xiv. 24. Judg. viii. 3. where, in the Hebrew, anger, is soul, as is heart in Exod. xxiii. 9. 2 Chron. xxi. 16. xxxvi. 22. Psal. lxxvi. 12. lxxvii. 3. Prov. i. 23. xviii. 14. xxix. 1. Eccles. vii. 9. Isa. xxix. 10. xxxvii. 7. Jer. li. 11. Ezek. xiii. 3. Dan. v. 20. Hag. i. 14. Hab. i. 11. Rom. xi. 8. (Gr.) 1 Cor. ii. 12. (Gr.) &c.

II. Sometimes the cause or instrument is put for the thing effected by it. Thus,

1. The Mouth, the Lips, and the Tongue, are respectively put for the Speech.

Thus, Deut. xvii. 6. by the mouth of two or three witnesses (that is, their speech or testimony) shall he that is worthy of death be put to death. So Deut. xix. 15. Matt. xviii. 16.—Prov. xxv. 15. A soft tongue breaketh the bone; that is, a mild and courteous way of speaking softens the hardest heart and most obstinate resolutions. Similar instances occur in Psal. v. 9. Prov. x. 20. Jer. xviii. 18. Acts ii. 4. 11. Tongue is also put for the gift of foreign languages, in Mark xvi. 17. and 1 Cor. xiv. 19. Gen. xi. 1. The whole earth was of one language, (Heb. lip,) and of one speech (Heb. word). In the book of Proverbs, the lip is very frequently put for speech. See Prov. xii. 19. 22. xiv. 7. xvii. 7. xviii. 7. 20. Job xii. 20. (Marginal renderings.)

2. The Mouth is also put for Commandment in Gen. xlv. 21. (mar ginal rendering) (Heb. mouth). Numb. iii, 16. 39. xx. 24. xxvii. 14. Deut. i. 26. 43. and in Prov. v. 3. the Palate (marginal rendering) is also put for Speech.

3. The Throat is also put for Loud Speaking, in Isa. lviii. 1. Cry aloud (Heb. with the throat).

4. The Hand is ordinarily put for its Writing, 1 Cor. xvi. 21. Col. iv. 18.

By the same form of speech also Labour is put for Wages, or the fruit of labour, Ezek. xxiii. 29.; and things that are sold, for the price at which they are sold. Thus, in Matt. xxvi. 9. it is said the ointment might have been sold for so much and given to the poor. See likewise Exod. xxi. 21. The sword is put for war or slaughter. Exod. v. 3. Lev. xxvi. 6. Psal. cxliv. 10. Isa. i. 20. Jer. xliii. 1. Rom. viii. 35.

5. The Sword, Famine, and Pestilence, likewise respectively denote the effects of those scourges.

Ezek. vii. 15. The sword is without, and the pestilence and the famine within; that is, death and ruin are every where scattered by those terrible agents. So, in Matt. x. 34. I came not to send peace (or temporal prosperity) but a sword; that is, variance, death, and persecution. Our Saviour's meaning is, not that his coming was the necessary and proper cause of such unhappiness, but that so it should eventually happen on his appearance in our nature; because his kingdom was of another world, and consequently opposed to all the designs and interests of the present world. This remark will satisfactorily explain Luke xii. 51-53., where Jesus foretels the effects that would follow from preaching the Gospel.


III. Sometimes, on the contrary, the effect is put for the cause.

Thus, God is called Salvation, that is, the author of it, Exod. xv. 2., our life and the length of our days, Deut. xxx. 20., our strength, Psal. xviii. 1. So Christ is termed Salvation, Isa. xlix. 6. Luke ii. 30.- Life, John xi. 25. and the resurrec tion in the same place. See also Col. iii. 4. Peace, Eph. ii. 14. So he is said to be made unto us wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, that is, the author of all these, in 1 Cor. i. 30. So, in Luke xi. 14, compared with Matt. ix›

32. a dumb devil or demon is one that made the person whom he possessed, dumb. In like manner, the Gospel is called the power of God unto salvation, in Rom. i. 16., that is, the instrument of his power. Faith is called our Victory, because by it we overcome the world, 1 John v. 4. That which is the means of sustaining or preserving life is called our life, Deut. xxiv. 6. or our living, Mark xii. 44. Luke viii. 43. and xv. 12. So, glad tidings, are such as make glad, Rom. x. 15. A tively hope is that which revives or enlivens, 1 Pet. i. 3. Wine is a mocker, and strong drink is raging, Prov. xx. 1., that is, they make men such. There is the same form of speech likewise in Heb. vi. 1. and ix. 14. where dead works are deadly works, that is, such as make men obnoxious to death. Deut. xxx. 15. I have set before thee this day life and death, that is, have clearly shewed thee what is the cause and original of each. John iii. 19. This is the condemnation, that is, the cause of it. Rom. vii. 7. Is the law sin? that is, the cause of sin, in itself. Rom. viii. 6. To be carnally minded is death, that is, its cause, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace, or the cause of those blessings. A like expression occurs in Rom. vi. 23. Bread is put for the seed of which bread is made, Eccl. xi. 1. Shame is put for that which is the cause of it, or the idols worshipped by the Israelites, which proved their shame. Jer. iii. 24. Hos. ix. 10.


IV. Sometimes the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending upon the subject.

Thus, the HEART is frequently used for the will and affections, as in Deut. iv. 29. vi. 5. x. 12. Psal. ix. 1. xxiv. 4. li. 10. lxii. 10. cv. 25. cxix. 10. 32. 112. Prov. xxi. 1. xxiii. 26. Acts iv. 32. For the understanding, mind, thoughts, and memory, Deut. iv. 39. vi. 6. xi. 16. 18. xxix. 4. 1 Sam. i. 13. 2 Chron. vi. 8. Job xxii. 22. Psal. iv. 4. lxiv. 6. Prov. xix. 21. xxviii. 26. and Luke ii. 51. For the conscience, 2 Sam. xxiv. 10. 2 Kings xxii. 19. Eccles. vii. 22. and 1 John iii. 20. and for the desires of the soul expressed in prayer, in Psal. lxii. 8. Lam. ii. 19. The reins are also frequently put for the thoughts, as in Psal. vii. 9. xxvi. 2. li. 6. lxxiii. 21. Prov. xxiii. 16. Jer. xi. 20. xvii. 10. and xx. 12. So, the new or inward man is put for the condition or state of a regenerated soul, to which the old or outward man is opposed. See Rom. vi. 6. and xii. 2. Eph. iv. 22. 24. 2 Cor. v. 17.

V. Sometimes the place or thing containing denotes that which is contained in such place or thing.

Thus, the EARTH and the WORLD are frequently put for the men that dwell there. in, as in Gen. vi. 11. Psal. xcvi. 13. Hab. ii. 14. John i. 29. iii. 16, 17. xv. 18. and xvii. 21. 1 Cor. vi. 2. as also in very many passages. In like manner, countries, slands, cities, and houses are respectively put for their inhabitants, Gen. xli. 57. Psal. c. 1. cv. 38. Isa. xli. 1. 5. xlii. 4. xliii. 3. li. 5. Matt. iii, 5. viii. 34. xi. 21, 22, 23. Gen. vii. 1. Exod. i. 21. 2 Sam. vii. 11. 1 Chron. x. 6. Acts x. 2. 1 Tim. iii. 4. Heb. xi. 7. So the houses of Levi and Israel denote their several families. Exod. ii. 1. Ezek. iii. 1. The basket, Deut. xxviii. 5. 17. is the fruit of the basket; a table, Psal. xxiii. 5. lxix. 22. and Ixxviii. 19. denotes the meat placed on it; the cup, the wine or other liquor in it, Jer. xlix. 12. Ezek. xxiii. 32. Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. Mark xiv. 23. Luke xxii. 17. 20. 1 Cor. x. 16. 21. and xi. 26, 27.; ships, Isa. xxiii. 1. 14. the men in them; the grave, those who are buried in it, as in Isa. xxxviii. 18. compared with verse 19. and Psalms vi. 5. and xxv. 17. In like manner heaven is put for God himself, in Psal. lxxiii. 9. Matt. xxi. 25. Luke xx. 4. and xv. 18.

VI. Sometimes the possessor of a thing is put for the thing possessed. Thus, Deut. ix. 1. To possess nations greater and mightier than thyself, means to possess the countries of the Gentiles. See also Psal. lxxix. 7. where Jacob means the land of the Israelites. In like manner, the name of God is put for the oblations made to him. Josh. xiii. 33. with verse 14. Josh. xviii. 7. and Deut. x. 9. Christ is put for his church (or believers, who are termed his peculiar people, Tit. fi. 14. 1 Pet. ii. 9.) in Matt. xxv. 35. explained in verse 40. 1 Cor. xii. 12.; and the afflictions of Christ are put for the afflictions of the faithful, in Col. i. 24.

VII. Frequently the object is put for that which is conversant about it. Thus glory and strength are put for the celebration of the divine glory and strength, in Psal. viii. 2. explained by Matt. xxi. 16.; see also Psal. xcvi. 7, 8. A burthen is a prediction of divine judgments or punishment about to be inflicted on sinners. Isa. xiii. 1. xv. 1. xvii. I. xix. 1. xxi. Î. xxii. 1. and xxiii. 1. Promise is 75


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