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2. Alberti Schultens Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguæ Hebrææ. Lugduni Batavorum, 1731. 4to.

3. Grammatica Linguæ Hebrææ ; cum notis, et variis questionibus philologicis, in quibus præcipuè disseritur de natura et indole Linguæ Hebrææ. Jacobo Robertson, A. M. Ling. Orient. Professore in Academia Edinburgena, auctore. Edinburgi, 1758. 8vo.

This Hebrew Grammar, which has always been held in the highest estimation, contains the most useful and necessary of those principles and rudiments, which are laid down in the elaborate work of Professor Schultens.

4. Grammatica Hebræo-Harmonica cum Arabica et Aramæa, methodo logico-mathematica, etc. ex Altingio, Buxtorfio, Beveridgio, Buchero, Chappelovvio, Dantzio, Erpenio, Gerhardi, Hasæo, Koolhasio, Martini, Michaelis, Pfeiffero, Schickardo, Schultens, Simonis, Vriemotio, contracta et emendata; Charta Lusoria, analytice delineata, et directorio elucidata. Auctore J. G. Kals. Amstelædami, 1758. 8vo.

Mr. John William Kals was for many years scholar, and afterwards assistant to the celebrated professor Albert Schultens; and for some time taught Hebrew at Oxford. His work consists of three parts. 1. A Hebrew Grammar, compiled from the labours of preceding writers on this branch of sacred philology; 2. A Harmonic Grammar of the Arabic and Syriac Languages; 3. An Analysis of the chief prophecies and promises concerning the Messiah.

5. Janua Hebrææ Linguæ Veteris Testamenti, auctore Christiano Reineccio. Ex recensione I. F. Rehkopf. Lipsiæ, 1788. 8vo.

6. Grammatica Linguæ Hebraicæ. Auctore Joanne Jahın. Viennæ, 1809. 8vo.

7. Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguæ Hebrææ, edidit Nich. Guil. Schroeder. Editio Tertia. Groningæ, 1810. 8vo.

8. De Radicum Linguæ Hebraicæ Natura nominali Commentatio Grammatica; quam Lectionibus suis præmisit J. Th. Plüschke. Phil. D. Theologiæ Prof. Extr. Lipsiæ, 1817. 8vo.

The design of this tract is, to prove that many of the words, hitherto considered in the dictionaries as radical verbs, are in fact only words derived from nouns ; and 2. That even verbs, to which no root can be assigned, are rather to be regard. ed as nouns than as verbs. (Melanges de Religion et de Critique Sacrés, publices à Nismes, tom. i. Gazette Litteraire, p. 24.)

9. Elémens de la Grammaire Hebraïque, par J. E. Cellerier, fils, Pasteur et Professeur de Langues Orientales, Critique, et Antiquité Sacrée, à l'Académie de Genève. Suivis des Principes de la Syntaxe Hebraïque, traduits librement de l'Allemand de Wilhelm Gesenius. Genève, 1820. 8vo.

To those, who wish to study Hebrew with points, through the medium of the French Language, this beautifully printed volume will be peculiarly acceptable. That part of it which relates to the Syntax is particularly valuable, as it presents in a small compass the results of the researches made by Professor Gesenius (noticed in the preceding age) whose prolixities he has abridged, while he has rendered clear what is left obscure, and has explained what the professor had stated with too much brevity.

10. Linguæ Hebraica Literæ, Accentus, Pronomina, Conjugationes, Declinationes, Nomina numeralia, et Particula. Jenæ, 1822. folio.

11. Jac. Chr. Lindberg, Chrestomathia Hebraica historici argumenti, e libris Exodo, Numeris, et Deuteronomio, decerpta; præfatiunculâ de accentibus Hebraicis et de nominibus derivatis præmissâ. Havniæ, 1822. 8vo.


Hebrew Grammars without Points.

1. FRANCISCI MASCLEF Grammatica Hebraica a punctis aliisque inventis Massorethicis libera. Accesserunt tres Grammaticæ, Chaldaica, Syriaca, et Samaritana ejusdem instituti. Parisiis, 1731. 2 vols. 8vo.

Of all the writers of Hebrew Grammar without points, Masclef has enjoyed the highest reputation. A late eminent divine and professor of the University of Cambridge, has said of his work, "I know none more to be recommended; as it gives rules for the Chaldee, Syriac, and Samaritan, as well as for what is commonly called Hebrew." (Dr. Hey's Norrisian Lectures in Divinity, vol. i. p. 23.) — As Masclef's work is now extremely scarce and dear, professor Hey recommends

2. Elements of Hebrew Grammar; to which is prefixed a Dissertation on the two modes of reading, with or without points. By Charles Wilson, Professor of Hebrew at the University of Saint Andrews. London, 1782. Fourth edition, 1810. 8vo.

See an Analysis of this work in the Monthly Review (O. S.) vol. lxviii. pp. 424 -427.

3. The Hebrew Guide; or an English Hebrew Grammar without points, to which is added, a View of the Chaldaic, and for the farther satisfaction of the inquisitive, a brief Introduction to the Knowledge of Hebrew Punctuation. By Peter Petit, M. A. London, 1752. 4to.

Though this Grammar contains nothing very extraordinary, besides what may be found in other productions of the same nature, yet it may be of considerable and peculiar use to learners. The author follows the plan of Masclef's Grammar, above noticed; but has reduced his work into a narrower compass, and has added a small praxis, consisting of short sentences, to illustrate the use of the several conjugations. For the sake of the more inquisitive scholar, who has acquired a competent knowledge of the Hebrew language, without points, Mr. Petit has subjoined a brief Introduction to the Knowledge of Hebrew Punctuation; which he does not give as a complete system, but as a collection of as many substantials of the doctrine, as are generally retained even by those who would be thought adepts in that part of learning. (Monthly Review, O. S. vol. vii. p. 234.)

4. A Methodical Hebrew Grammar without points: adapted to the use of learners, and even of those who have not the benefit of a master. To which is subjoined the Hebrew Grammar at one view. By John Parkhurst, M. A. 8vo.

This is admitted by all competent judges to be the shortest and most compendious Hebrew Grammar extant in the English language. It is prefixed to the learned author's Hebrew and English Lexicon, which is noticed in p. 704. infra.

5. A New and Easy Introduction to the Hebrew Language, upon the plan of Grammar in general, designed to encourage and promote the study of that language, by facilitating the acquirement of its principles, upon a plan, which in no work of the kind has been hitherto adopted. By the Rev. James William Newton, M. A. London, 1806. 12mo.

"The study of the Hebrew language has been attended with considerable difficulties from the circumstance of there being no Grammar of that language, constructed upon the model of grammar in general. In the present work this impediment has been removed, and the learner will find that in acquiring a new lan-' guage, he has to contend with none of those embarrassments that proceed from encountering a system of grammar entirely new to him; which to those who have been at the trouble of learning the grammar of several lauguages, is an obstacle which is not frequently to be surmounted...The work is conducted with a simpli

city and perspicuity which afford every assistance to those who may be disposed to become acquainted with the rudiments of the Hebrew tongue." British Critic (O. S.) vol. xxvii. p. 441.

6. A Hebrew Primer. To which are prefixed the opinions of Melancthon, Luther, and others, on the Utility, Necessity, and Easiness of the Study of the Hebrew Language. Durham and London, 1808. 12mo.

7. Hebrew Elements: or a Practical Introduction to the Reading of the Hebrew Scriptures. London, 1807. Svo.

Both these publications are by the present learned Bishop of Saint David's; and together with his engraved Copies of Hebrew letters and words, form the simplest and clearest introduction to the reading of Hebrew, which perhaps has ever been published. The Rudiments of Hebrew Grammar,' announced by the same eminent divine, have not yet issued from the press.

A new edition of the two preceding articles, neatly printed in one volume, 12mo. issued from the University Press, Glasgow, in 1823.

8. Extracts from the Books of the Old Testament; to which are prefixed Sketches of Hebrew and Chaldee Grammar, for the use of Students in the University of Edinburgh. [By the Rev. Dr. Brunton.] Edinburgh, 1814. 8vo.

9. An Easy Introduction to the knowledge of the Hebrew Language without the points. By James P. Wilson, D. D. 1818. 8vo. This grammar appeared in North America in 1818. We have not been able to obtain a sight of it, or to ascertain the place where it was printed.

10. An Introduction to Hebrew Grammar; in which the Genius of the Language is explained by a new and simple principle of Analysis, applied to the Improvements of the latest and most improved Grammarians; and particularly intended to reduce the Irregularities of the inflected parts of speech to the common analogy of the Language, and to explain the peculiarities of the construction by assimilating it to the Idiom of the English. By the Rev. Frederick Nolan. London, 1821. 12mo.

11. A Hebrew Dictionary and Grammar without points; together with a complete List of such Chaldee Words as occur in the Old Testament, and a brief Sketch of Chaldee Grammar. By James Andrew, LL. D. London, 1823. 8vo.


Hebrew Grammars with and without Points.

1. A PLAIN and Complete Grammar of the Hebrew Language, with and without points. By Anselm Bayly, LL. D. London, 1774. 8vo. 2. Principia Hebraica; comprising a Grammatical Analysis of 564 verses, selected from the Hebrew Psalms, in which are found nearly all the radical words in common use occurring in the Hebrew Scriptures. To which is prefixed a concise Hebrew Grammar, adapted to the Analysis, and so arranged as to illustrate the principles of the Language, both with and without points. By Thomas] K[eyworth], and D[avid] J[ones]. London, 1817. 8vo.

In this very useful work, the Serviles are printed in hollow characters - the root and radical sense are pointed out-those rules of grammar are referred to, which account for the form of each word and a literal version in English is in terlined with the Hebrew Text.

"The Authors have unitedly produced an introduction to the reading of the Hebrew Bible, of distinguished excellence and utility. Nothing so complete of the kind was ever before put into the hands of the English scholar, who is here provided with a guide to Hebrew reading worthy of his confidence. In awarding the high praise to which the Authors have an unquestionable claim, we cannot omit the commendation due to their unassuming manner their learning is never used for the purpose of display, but is invariably employed to promote the solid improvement of those persons, who may choose to avail themselves of the means here provided for their correct instruction, in the knowledge of Hebrew. They have furnished the student with every admissible facility for his initiation and progress in the Hebrew language. The work is very judiciously constructed for the use of the two different classes of Hebrew readers, the Punctists and the Antipunctists; it is, however, particularly adapted for the latter." Eclectic Review, Nov. 1818.

So great a number of Hebrew Grammars (upwards of six hundred, we believe,) has been published by distinguished Hebraists at different times, that it is difficult to determine which is preferably to be adopted. An experienced tutor will be the best guide, in this case, to the Hebrew student. In the preceding pages, therefore, those only have been specified which have some pretensions to notice for their utility and simplicity of method. Many important rules relative to the use of the conversive vau1 are contained in the late venerable Granville Sharp's "Three Tracts on the Syntax and Pronunciation of the Hebrew Tongue ;" and Dr. Gerard has accumulated a variety of important observations on the structure and genius of the Hebrew language from Glassius, Schultens, Robertson, Buxtorf, and other eminent Hebraists.2


Chaldee Grammars.

1. A SHORT Chaldee Grammar, without points, designed for the use of those who already understand Hebrew. [By the Rev. J. Parkhurst, M. A.]

This is subjoined to Mr. P.'s Grammar, which is prefixed to his Hebrew LexiA Compendium of Chaldee Grammar is given in the second volume of Masclef's Grammatica Hebraica.


2. J. D. Michaelis Grammatica Chaldaica. Gottingæ, 1771. 8vo. 3. Joannis Jahn Elementa Aramaïcæ, seu Chaldææ-Syriacæ Linguæ. Latinè reddita, et nonnullis accessionibus aucta, ab Andr. Fr. Oberleitner. Viennæ, 1820. 8vo.

4. An Introduction to Chaldee Grammar; in which the Genius of the Language is explained by a new and simple Principle of Analysis. By the Rev. Frederick Nolan. London, 1821. 12mo.

5. Elements of the Chaldee Language; intended as a Supplement to the Hebrew Grammar, and as a General Introduction to the Aramean Dialects. By the Rev. W. Harris, LL. D. London, 1822. 8vo.

1 The letter vau, it may be proper to remark, is said to be conversive; because it has the power of changing the signification of preterites into futures, and vice versa.

2 Institutes of Biblical Criticism, pp. 40-51. 297-377.

No. II.


[Referred to in Pages 10, 31. of this Volume.]


Hebrew Lexicons with Points.

1. JOANNIS BUXTORFII Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum. Basileæ, 1634, 1645, 1675, 1720, or 1735. 8vo.

2. Joannis Buxtorfii Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum et Rabbinicum. Basileæ, 1639. folio.

3. Petri Guarini Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldæo-Biblicum. risiis, 1746. 2 vols. 4to.


4. Christiani Stockii Clavis Linguæ, Sanctæ Veteris Testamenti. Jenæ, 1739, 1743, 1753. (best edit.) 8vo.

5. Lexicon et Commentarius Sermonis Hebraici et Chaldaici, post J. Cocceium et J. H. Maium, longe quam ante hac correctius et emendatius edidit Joh. Ch. Fried. Schulz. Lipsiæ, 1777. 2 vols. 8vo.

Cocceius's Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary was very highly esteemed in the former part of the last century. M. Schulz, in preparing his edition for the press, omitted all the superfluous Dutch and German words: and, in determining the signification of each Hebrew word, previously consulted the equivalent term in the Arabic and other Oriental languages. He also restored to their true place several scattered roots together with their derivatives. The work is neatly and correctly printed; and may frequently be obtained at a reasonable price.

6. Joannis Simonis Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum, recensuit J. G. Eichhorn. Halæ, 1793. 2 vols. 8vo.

7. Philipp. Ulric. Moser Lexicon Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum, in quo omnium textus sacri Vet. Test. Vocabulorum Hebraicorum et Chaldaicorum significatio explicatur, cum Indice Latino copiosissimo. Præfatus est D. Gottlob Christian Storr. Ulmæ, 1795. 8vo. 8. Joannis Dindorfii Novum Lexicon Linguæ Hebraico-Chaldaicæ. Lipsiæ, 1802. 2 vols. 8vo.

9. Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum manuale, cura Everardi Scheidii et Joannis Groenewoed. Lugduni Batavorum, 1805. 2 vols. 8vo.

10. A Hebrew, Latin, and English Dictionary; containing, 1. All the Hebrew and Chaldee words used in the Old Testament, including the proper names, arranged under one alphabet, with the derivatives referred to their proper roots, and the signification in Latin and English, according to the best authorities. 2. The principal words in the Latin and English Languages, with those which correspond to them in Hebrew. By Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey. London, 1816. 2 vols. 8vo.

11. E. F. C. Rosenmülleri Vocabularium Veteris Testamenti Hebræo-Chaldaicum, Halæ (Librariâ Orphanotrophei). 1822. 8vo.

12. D. G. Gesenii Lexicon Hebræo-Latinum, seu Commentarius Philologico-criticus, Linguæ Hebraicæ et Chaldaicæ Veteris Testamenti. Insunt nomina propria hominum, urbium et locorum, suis locis inserta. Editio altera, plenior et copiosior, imprimis uberior, linguarum cognatarum collatione adaucta. Lipsiæ, 2 vols. 8vo.

This edition of Professor Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon was announced in the catalogue of books, published at the Leipsic September Fair, 1821, and again in

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