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the catalogue for the Eastern Fair, 1823, but it has not yet made its appearance. The first edition, which was in Hebrew and German, was published at Leipsic, in 1810-12, in two thick volumes, 8vo. In 1814, Anton. Theod. Hartmann printed at Rostock a quarto volume, entitled, Supplementa ad Buxtorfii et Gesenii Lexica Hebraica. Dr. Gesenius is considered the most profound Hebraist of the present day, in Germany; and his work is esteemed to be the best Hebrew Lexicon extant. His second edition promises to afford to students of the Old Testament, what Schleusner's Greek Lexicon does to those of the New Testament, — almost every information they can desire concerning the original meaning of the sacred writers. A new Hebrew and English Lexicon, translated from Gesenius's German and Hebrew, by Professor Leo, of the Royal Military College, at Sandhurst, is printing at the University press, Cambridge, at the expense of the Syndicate: and another translation, by Mr. Gibbs, of Andover (Massachusetts), is in course of publication in North America. Leusden's Clavis Hebraica Veteris Testamenti (Utrecht, 1683, 4to.) and Robertson's Claris Pentateuchi, (Latin and English, Edinburgh, 1770, 8vo.) are useful manuals for those who commence their Hebrew reading with the book of Genesis; as Bythner's Lyra Prophetica, already noticed in p. 125. of this volume, and Messrs. Keyworth and Jones's Principia Hebraica (noticed in p. 701. supra), are to those who begin with the book of Psalms. Of J. H. Meisner's Nova Veteris Testamenti Clavis, only two volumes have appeared (Lipsiæ, 1809, 8vo.): it is executed on the plan of Leusden's or Robertson's works, but does not go through the Old Testament. Its value is enhanced by the addition of the significations of Hebrew words from the Septuagint version; the differ ences of which from the Hebrew are often examined and accounted for with much critical acumen.


Hebrew Lexicons without Points.

1. THE Hebrew Concordance adapted to the English Bible; disposed after the manner of Buxtorf. By John Taylor, D. D. 1758. 2 vols. folio.

This valuable work has already been noticed in p. 528. of this volume; it is mentioned here because it is in effect a Hebrew and English Lexicon.

2. An Hebrew and English Lexicon without Points; in which the Hebrew and Chaldee words of the Old Testament are explained in their leading and derived senses; the Derivative Words are ranged under their respective primitives, and the meanings assigned to each, authorised by references to passages of Scripture, and frequently illustrated and confirmed by citations from various authors. By John Parkhurst, M. A. London, 1792. 4to.

The first edition of this work (the value of which is sufficiently attested by the repeated impressions it has undergone,) appeared in 1762; the second in 1778; and the third in 1792; all in quarto. The third is reputed to be the best edition, as being the last which was corrected by the learned author himself, who closed a long life of study and of piety in 1797. But the later genuine London editions, in royal 8vo., being printed under the critical eye of Mr. Parkhurst's accomplished daughter, are more easy of purchase, and justly claim a place in the library of every student. The Hebrew and Chaldee Grammars above noticed are prefixed to this Lexicon.



NUMEROUS Lexicons to the Greek Testament have been published at different times, a list of which is given by Schleusner, at the end of the preface to his Lexicon; and the defects of which are conidered by J. F. Fischer in his Prolusiones de vitiis Lexicorum Novi

Testamenti, (Lipsia, 1791,) Svo. The following are those most deserving of attention.

1. Critica Sacra: containing Observations on all the Radices of the Hebrew Words of the Old, and the Greek of the New Testament. By Edward Leigh, Esq. London, 1662. folio, with Supplement.

This work was first published in 1639 and 1646, in 4to. The folio impression of 1662 is the best English edition. The Critica Sacra was translated into Latin and printed at Amsterdam, with additional observations by John Heeser, 1696, in folio. Mr. Leigh was one of the most learned men of his time, and enjoyed the friendship of Archbishop Usher. His work is a very valuable help to the understanding of the original languages of the sacred writings; and as it may frequently be obtained at a low price, it may be substituted for either of the following works, which a student may not perhaps be able to purchase. The Critica. Sacra not only gives the literal sense of every word in the Old and New Testaments, but enriches almost every definition with philological and theological notes, drawn from the publications of the best grammarians and critics then extant. Το this work most succeeding Lexicographers on the Old and New Testament have been greatly indebted.

2. A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament: in which the Words and Phrases occurring in those sacred books, are distinctly explained; and the meanings assigned to each authorised by references to passages of Scripture, and frequently illustrated and confirmed by Citations from the Old Testament and from the Greek writers. By John Parkhurst, M. A. 4to. and 8vo.

The first edition of this admirable work appeared in 1769; the second (which is considered as the best) in 1794 both in quarto; and numerous subsequent well executed editions in royal 8vo. have enabled the students of the Greek Testament to avail themselves of the valuable stores of philology which Mr. Parkhurst has provided for them. To the work is prefixed a plain and easy Greek Grammar, adapted to the use of learners, and those who understand no other language than English; it is one of the clearest and best summaries of Greek Grammar ever printed.

3. Novum Lexicon Græco-Latinum in Novum Testamentum, congessit et variis observationibus philologicis illustravit Johannes Friedericus Schleusner. Lipsiæ, 1819. 4 parts in 2 vols. 8vo.

This is the fourth and best edition of an invaluable work: the first appeared at Leipsic in 1791; the second in 1801; and the third in 1808. An elegant reprint of this Lexicon was executed at the University press, Edinburgh, in 1814, in two vols. 8vo. the German quotations introduced by Schleusner are in this edition translated into English by the editors, Messrs. Smith, Strauchon, and Dickenson. Another reprint of this Lexicon issued from the Glasgow press in 1817, also in two volumes 8vo. The fourth Leipsic edition contains many additional words and new observations which are interspersed through the work. The Preface contains a severe philippic against the two reprints just noticed.1

4. Christiani Schoetgenii Novum Lexicon Græco-Latinum in Novum Testamentum: post J. T. Krebsium recensuit, et variis observationibus, philologicis et criticis, locupletavit G. L. Spohn. Lipsiæ, 1790. 8vo.1

1 Indispensable as the Lexicons of Schleusner and Spohn are to Biblical students, the author cannot omit the following salutary advice of Bishop Jebb. "I would," he says, "earnestly exhort those biblical students, who may happen to use, (as, with proper caution, all advanced students will find it their advantage to use,) the Lexicons of Spohn and Schleusner for the New Testament, and those of Schleusner and Bretschneider for the Septuagint and Apocrypha, to be particularly on their guard against alleged identity of meaning, in words whose ordinary signification is any thing but synonymous. In such cases, let the cited passages be carefully examined; and I venture to affirm, that, instead of synonymous, there will almost universally be found an important variation of meaning between the related members: commonly a progress in the sense, but always such a variation, as will 89


The first edition of Schoetgenius's Lexicon was published at Leipsic, in 1746 ; Kreb's corrected and enlarged edition appeared also at Leipsic, in 1765, both in Evo. Previously to the appearance of Schleusner's work, Spohn's third edition was justly considered as the best Greek and Latin Lexicon to the New Testament, for which it may be substituted by those who cannot afford to purchase Schleusner's volumes.1

5. A Greek and English Manual Lexicon to the New Testament, with examples of all the irregular and more difficult inflections. By J. H. Bass. London, 1820. 12mo.

This little volume is confessedly a manual Lexicon for young students of the Greek Testament. Its author has carefully abridged the more diffuse explanations of other Lexicons; but it is noticed here, principally because it contains nearly fifty articles commonly omitted in other Lexicons of the New Testament, and which are supplied from the fourth edition of Schleusner above noticed.

6. A New Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament; in which the Quantity of all the doubtful Vowels is carefully marked, and Genealogical Tables connected with the Sacred History are annexed. For the Use of Schools. By the Rev. Henry Laing, LL. D. London, 1821. 8vo.

7. Novus Thesaurus Philologico-Criticus, sive Lexicon in LXX et reliquos interpretes Græcos ac Scriptores Apocryphos Veteris Testamenti; post Bielium et alios viros doctos congessit et edidit Johannes Friedericus Schleusner. Lipsia, 1820, 1821; in 5 parts or vols. Svo. Glascuæ: curaverunt et excuderunt A. et J. M. Duncan, Academiæ Typographi, impensis R. Priestley, Londini, 1822. In three thick volumes, 8vo.

Biel's Norus Thesaurus Philologicus, sive Lexicon in LXX. was published at the Hague in 1779-1783, in 3 vols. 8vo. Two Spicilegia, or supplements of words omitted, were published by Schleusner (Lipsia, 1784, 1786. 8vo.), and a third by Bretschneider. (Lipsiæ, 1805. 8vo.) On the basis of these publications Schleusner has produced a Lexicon for the Septuagint Greek version, which is surpassed only by his Lexicon for the New Testament.

The edition, which in 1822 issued from the University Press at Glasgow, reflects great credit on the printers, Messrs. A. and J. M. Duncan, as well as on the publisher, at whose expense it has been undertaken: it is very beautifully executed. In this edition many typographical errors, particularly in the Greek and Hebrew quotations, have been corrected; and the references to the chapters and verses, which in the foreign edition are very inaccurate, have been carefully amended. Professor Schleusner's German explanations of particular words uniformly have English Translations attached to them and to the third volume there is appended an index of all the Hebrew words occurring in the work, together with a collation of verses and chapters, as set out respectively in the editions of the Greek Septuagint superintended by Wechel and Bos. The former of these will in a great measure supply the want of a Hebrew Lexicon. This Appendix, which fills nearly three hundred pages, is not to be found in the Leipsic Edition.

It is greatly to be desired that some biblical scholar, possessing sufficient leisure, would collate Schleusner's two Lexicons and that of Mr.Parkhurst, together with the very numerous Commentators and Critics referred to by them, as well as the best recent British Commentators; and from their united labours produce a copious Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament and to the Septuagint. Such an undertaking would be a work of immense labour; but the benefit to the majority of Biblical students, who can rarely afford to purchase many books, would be incalculable.

8. Clavis Philologica Novi Testamenti, auctore M. Christ. Abraham Wahl, Verb. Div. apud Schneebergenses Ministro. Lipsia, 1822. 2 vols. 8vo.

quite supersede the necessity of resorting to an unusual, much less an unprece dented, acceptation of the terms employed." Bp. Jebb's Sacred Literature, p. 5L 1 See the note in preceding page

This is a very useful Greek and Latin Lexicon to the New Testament: it is expressly designed for those who cannot afford to purchase Schleusner's Lexicon, above noticed. The author professes to have availed himself diligently, of every critical help he could procure; and to have avoided that excess of philological speculation, which, unhappily for inexperienced students, is too often found in Schleusner's masterly work, and which has called forth the animadversions of Bishop Jebb. See the note in p. 705.

9. Bretschneider (C. G.) Lexicon Manuale Græco-Latinum in Libros Novi Testamenti. Lipsiæ, 1823. 2 vols. 8vo.

No. III.


[Referred to, in Page 33. of this Volume.]


Lexicons of the Kindred Languages.

1. LEXICON Heptaglotton, Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samaritanum, Ethiopicum, Arabicum, conjunctim; et Persicum separatim. In quo omnes voces Hebrææ, Chaldææ, Syræ, Samaritanæ, Ethiopica, Arabicæ, et Persicæ, tam Manuscriptis, quam impressis libris, cum primis autem in Bibliis Polyglottis, adjectis hinc inde Armenis, Turcicis, Indis, Japonicis, &c. ordine Alphabetico, sub singulis Radicibus digestæ, continentur, &c. Cui accessit brevis et harmonica (quantum fieri potuit) Grammaticæ omnium præcedentium Linguarum Delineatio. Authore Edmundo Castello, S. T. D. Regiæ M. à sacris: Linguæ Arabicæ apud Cantabrigienses Professore, &c. Londini imprimebat Thomas Roycroft, LLD. Orientalium Typographus Regius, 1669. 2 vols. folio.

This work, which forms the companion to Bp. Walton's Polyglott Bible noticed in pp. 116-118. of the present volume, is perhaps the greatest and most perfect undertaking of the kind hitherto performed by human industry and learning. "Dr. Castell expended both his fortune and his life in this immense undertaking. It is true he had help from several learned men. Dr. Murray lent him assistance in the Arabic; Doctor (afterwards Bishop) Beveridge, in the Syriac; and Dr. Wansleb in the Ethiopic. But the person to whom he was most indebted was the celebrated Dr. Lightfoot, a man who, for the amiableness of his disposition, the purity of his manners, and the extent and depth of his literary knowledge, had, even in that age of profound learning, no superior, and since no equal. So implicitly did Dr. Castell depend on his judgment, that when he began that work, in 1657, he wrote to him for direction and advice, promising either to proceed in or suppress it, as he should determine. Dr. Lightfoot not only helped on this immortal work by his counsels, corrections, &c. but he also contributed money, and procured subscriptions, so that Dr. Castell acknowledged there was no man in the three kingdoms to whom he owed so much. When Dr. Castell sent him his Lexicon, he acknowledged that it owed a great part of its perfection to his learning and industry, and thought his name should occupy a distinguished place in the title-page. The Persic Lexicon is the fruit of the joint labour of himself and Golius. This part of Dr. Castell's work has been undervalued by such as either did not or could not consult it; but it is an excellent work; and to it even Meninski and Richardson are indebted for a multitude of articles. Its chief fault is want of distinct arrangement; the words are sadly intermixed, and many Persian words are printed with Hebrew types, probably because they had but few Persian characters. Dr. Castell laboured at this work for seventeen years, during which time he maintained in his own house, at his own cost, seven Englishmen and seven foreigners, as writers, all of whom died before the work was finished. The names of those respectable literary drudges I have not been able to find. Besides the

12,000l. of his own property, which this great man expended on this work, he was obliged to borrow 18001. more; and not being able to make up this money, he was constrained to make application to King Charles II. and entreat him, ne carcer esset præmium tot laborum et sumptuum — that a prison might not be the reward of so many labours and so much expense. This produced a letter from the king, in 1660, to all the archbishops, bishops, dukes, lords, and nobles of the realm, recommending the work, and earnestly soliciting pecuniary assistance in behalf of its distressed and embarrassed author; which was followed, three years after, by one from the Archbishop of Canterbury, directed to all the clergy, on the same behalf; and, afterwards, by another from twenty-nine English and Irish prelates, earnestly entreating the public not to permit this great man to sink under his labours, and the pecuniary embarrassments brought on him by a work, which he had undertaken for the honour of God, the promotion of religion and learning, and consequently the good of mankind. Is it not strange, that when the king and the clergy laid this so much to heart, and recommended it so warmly, the author's embarrassments should still continue? The reason seems to have been this— the nation was impoverished, and the exchequer itself emptied, by the late civil


At the end of the third page of his Preface, he makes the following complaint, which no scholar can read without pain of heart; "Socios quidem habui in hoc opere, sed perexiguo tempore mecum in illo commorantes, nescio an dicam, immensitate laboris plane exterritos. Per plures annos, jam ætate provectus, et una cum patrimonio satis competenti, exhaustis etiam animi viribus, oculis caligantibus, corporis variis in hoc opere confractis, et dislocatis membris, relictus sum solus, sine amanuensi, aut vel correctore ullo." He died in 1685. Some copies of this Lexicon have in the title, "Londini, Scott, 1686;" but this proves nothing more than a re-impression of the title; for there never was a second edition of the work. (Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary, vol. i. pp. 268–270.) For other interesting particulars concerning this distinguished but ill-requited scholar, see Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, vol. viii. pp. 398-400.

2. V. Schindleri Lexicon Pentaglotton, Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Talmudico-Rabbinicum, et Arabicum. Hanoviæ, 1612. folio.


Syriac Grammars and Lexicons.

1. Johannis Leusdeni Schola Syriaca, una cum Dissertatione de Literis et Lingua Samaritanorum. Ultrajecti, 1658. 12mo.

2. Caroli Schaaf Opus Aramæum, complectens Grammaticam Chaldaicam et Syriacam, Selecta ex Targumim, cum versione Latina, necnon Lexicon Chaldaicum, &c. Lugduni Batavorum, 1686. 12mo.

3. J. D. Michaelis Grammatica Syriaca. Halæ, 1784. 4to.

4. A Syriac Grammar, principally adapted to the New Testament in that language. By Thomas Yeates. London, 1821. 8vo.

5. Martini Trostii Lexicon Syriacum. Cothenis Anhaltinorum, 1623. 4to.

6. Egidii Gutbirii Lexicon Syriacum. Hamburgi, 1667. 12mo. 7. Caroli Schaaf Lexicon Syriacum Concordantiale, omnes Novi Testamenti Syriaci voces, et ad harum illustrationem multas alias Syriacas, et linguarum affinium dictiones complectens, cum necessariis indicibus, Syriaco et Latino, ut et catalogo nominum propriorum et Gentilium N. T. Syr. Lugduni Batavorum, 1709. 4to.

This work was published as a companion to the beautiful edition of the Syriae Testament, published at Leyden in the same year. In his preface, Schaaf makes honourable mention of the previous labours of Trostius, Gutbirius, and especially

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