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dextræ indagandi et exponendi Sensum Scripturæ Sacræ. ... Adjecta est in fine Brevis et Luculenta Scripturam Sacram cum fructu legendi Institutio. Hala, 1717. 8vo.

78. Franckii (Aug. Herm.) Manuductio ad Lectionem Scripturæ Sacræ. Halæ, 1693, 1704, &c. 8vo.

This well known and very useful little work was translated into English by Mr. Jacques, and entitled "A Guide to the Reading and Study of the Holy Scriptures." London, 1813. 8vo.

79. Franckii (Aug. Herm.) Commentatio de Scopo Librorum Veteris et Novi Testamenti. Hala, 1724. 8vo.

80. Franckii (Aug. Herm.) Introductio ad Lectionem Prophetarum, I. Generalis, II. Specialis ad Lectionem Jonæ, quæ in reliquis exemplo esse possit: Utrâque directâ ad comparandam è prophetis agnitionem Jesu Christi. Hala, 1724. 8vo.

81. Franckii (Aug. Herm.) Christus S. Scripturæ Nucleus. Accedunt tres Meditationes cognati Argumenti. Ex Germanico in Latinum Sermonem vertit Henricus Grischovius. Halæ, 1724. 8vo.

82. Franzii (Wolfgangi) Tractatus Theologicus novus et perspicuus de Interpretatione Sacrarum Literarum. Witteberge, 1619. 4to. 1708. 8vo. (best edition.)

83. Glassii (Salomonis) Philologia Sacra, his temporibus accommodata. Post primum volumen Dathii in lucem emissum, nunc continuata, et in novi plane operis formam redacta a Georg. Laurent. Bauero. Tomi secundi Sectio posterior. — Hermeneutica Sacra. Lipsiæ, 1797. 8vo.

This volume, as already noticed in p. 714. is a corrected edition of that part of Glass's Philologia Sacra, which relates to the interpretation of the Scriptures. It is sometimes to be met with as a distinct work, with a separate title page; and such in effect it is, the alterations and additions being so numerous as to render it a new publication. It is unquestionably of great value, and has furnished the writer of these pages with many important observations and explanations of Scripture; but it is at the same time so strongly characterised by that licentiousness of interpretation which so eminently marks many of the modern divines of Germa ny, that the student cannot be put too much on his guard with respect to Professor Bauer's volume.

84. Jahn (Johannis) Elementa Hermeneuticæ Generalis. Lipsiæ, 1815. 8vo.

85. Keilii (Car. Aug. Theoph.) Elementa Hermeneutices Novi Testamenti, Latine reddita à Christ. Aug. Godefr. Emmerling. Lipsiæ, 1811. 8vo.

86. Langii (Joachimi) Hermeneutica Sacra, exhibens primùm Genuine Interpretationis Leges de Sensu Litterali et Emphatico investigando; deinde Idiomata Sermonis Mosaïci, Davidici, et Prophetici, necnon Apostolici et Apocalyptici: cum uberiori ipsius Praxeos Exegeticæ appendice. Hala, 1733. 8vo.

87. Loescher (Val. Ern.) Breviarium Theologiæ Exegetica, Legitimam Scripturæ Sacra Interpretationem tradens. Wittebergæ, 1719. 8vo.

83. A Supplement to the Second Part of the Credibility of the Gospel History, containing a History of the Apostles and Evangelists, Writers of the New Testament, with Remarks and Observations upon every Book of the New Testament. By Nathaniel Lardner, D. D. 8vo. 3 vols. London, 1756, 1757.

This history forms the sixth volume of the 8vo. (the third volume of the 4to.) edition of Dr. Lardner's Works, and also the second volume of Bishop Watson's

Collection of Tracts; it" is an admirable introduction to the New Testament,". and "a storehouse of literary information collected with equal industry and fidelity." (Bishop Marsh.)

89. An Introduction to the New Testament, by John David Mi-. chaelis, late Professor in the University of Gottingen. Translated from the fourth edition of the German by Herbert Marsh, D. D. 8vo. 6 vols. Cambridge, 1802. 2d edit. 1818.

The first edition of Michaelis's inestimable work was published in Germany in 1750, and translated into English in 1761. 4to.; its value is very materially enhanced by the notes of Bishop Marsh (which unfortunately extend to part of the work only), who has further added a Dissertation on the Origin and Composition of the three first Gospels. See an ample critique on this work in the British Cri. tic, (O. S.) vol. iii. p. 601-608. and vol. iv. p. 46-54. 170-176. A French translation of this work was published at Geneva, in 1822, in 4 volumes 8vo. entitled "Introduction au Nouveau Testament, par J. D. Michaelis; quatrième edition, traduite sur la troisième de Herbert Marsh, evêque de Peterborough, avec une partie de ses notes, et des notes nouvelles, par M. J. J. Chenevière, pasteur et professeur en theologie à Genève."

90. Essai d'une Introduction Critique au Nouveau Testament, par J. E. Cellérier, fils. Genève, 1823. 8vo.

Partly a translation, and partly an analysis of the very valuable German Introduction to the writings of the New Testament of Professor Hug. (Fribourg in Brisgau, 1821. 2 vols. 8vo.) Though a distinct publication, M. Cellérier's volume may be considered as a necessary supplement to both the English and French translations of Michaelis.

91. A Course of Lectures, containing a Description and Systematic Arrangement of the several Branches of Divinity, accompanied with an Account both of the principal Authors, and of the Progress which has been made at different Periods, in Theological Learning. By Herbert Marsh, D. D. [Bishop of Peterborough.] London, 1810 -1823. 8vo.

Seven parts of these Lectures have been published. They embrace almost every topic of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation, and also the genuineness, authenticity, and credibility of the Scriptures; and are particularly valuable for their critical notices of the principal writers who have treated on these subjects.

92. Monsperger (Josephi Juliani, in Universitate Vindobonensi P. O.) Institutiones Hermeneutica, V. T. Prælectionibus Academicis accommodatæ. Lovanii, 1787. 2 vols. 8vo.

93. Pfeifferi (Augusti) Hermeneutica Sacra, sive Tractatio luculenta de interpretatione sacrarum literarum. Dresdæ, 1684. 8vo. Lipsia, 1690. 4to.; also in the second volume of the collective edition of his philological works.

94. Pfeifferi (Joach. Ehrenfrid.) Institutiones Hermeneutica Sacræ, veterum atque recentiorum et propria quædam præcepta complexa. Erlanga, 1771. 8vo.

95. Rambach (Jo. Jacobi) Institutiones Hermeneuticæ Sacræ variis observationibus copiosissimisque exemplis biblicis illustratæ. Cum præfatione Jo. Francisci Buddei. Jenæ, 1723. 8vo.

96. Turretini (Joan. Alphonsi) De Sacræ Scripturæ Interpretandæ methodo, Tractatus bipartitus. Trajecti Thuriorum, 1728. small 8vo. Francofurti ad Viadrum, 1776. 8vo.

The edition of 1776 is considered to be the best; it professes to be "restitutus et auctus," by William Abraham Teller, some of whose remarks are certainly valuable; but others convey doctrinal interpretations which Turretini (or Turretin as he is most usually termed) held in utter abhorrence. The edition of 1728 is therefore to be preferred.

97. An Inquiry into the General Principles of Scripture Interpretation, in Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford in the year 1814, as the Lecture founded by the late Rev. John Bampton, M. A. By the Rev. William Vanmildert, D. D. [now Bishop of Llandaff.] Oxford, 1815. 8vo.

98. A Vindication of the Authenticity of the Narratives contained in the first Two Chapters of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke, being an Investigation of Objections urged by the Unitarian Editors of the Improved Version of the New Testament, with an Appendix containing Strictures on the Variations between the first and fourth Editions of that Work. By a Layman. London, 1822. 8vo.

In this very elaborate work, the authenticity of Matt. i. and ii. and Luke i. and ii. are most satisfactorily vindicated from the objections of the Editors of the Unitarian Version of the New Testament; whose disingenuous alterations in successive editions of that work are exposed in the Appendix.

No. V.


[Referred to in Page 544. of this Volume.]


Principal Writers on Biblical Antiquities.

1. PETRI Cunæi de Republica Hebræorum Libri tres; editi à Jo. Nicolai. 4to. Ludg. Bat. 1703.

The best edition of a very learned work; which, till lately, continued to be a text-book whence the continental professors of Hebrew antiquities lectured.

2. Melchioris Leydekkeri de Republica Hebræorum Libri xii. folio. 2 tom. Amstel. 1704-1710.

3. Caroli Sigonii de Republica Hebræorum Libri vii.; editi à Jo. Nicolai. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1701.

4. Origines Hebrææ: or the Antiquities of the Hebrew Republic. By Thomas Lewis, M. A. 8vo. 4 vols. London, 1724-5.

This is a laborious compilation, from the most distinguished writers, whether Jews or Christians, on the manners and laws of the Hebrews.

5. Apparatus Historico-criticus Antiquitatum sacri codicis et gentis Hebrææ. Uberrimis annotationibus in Thomæ Goodwini Mosen et Aaronem subministravit Johannes Gottlob Carpzovius, 4to. Francofurti, 1748.

The most elaborate system of Jewish antiquities, perhaps, that is extant. Godwin's Moses and Aaron is a small quarto volume, now rather scarce; it was formerly in great request as a text-book, and passed through many editions: the latest, we believe, is that of 1678. Numerous other treatises on Hebrew antiqui. ties are to be found in the 34th volume of Ugolini's Thesaurus Antiquitatum Hebræarum.1

1 Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, complectens selectissima clarissimorum virorum opuscula, in quibus veterum Hebræorum mores, leges, instituta, ritus saeri et civiles, illustrantur; auctore Blasio Ugolino, folio, 34 vols. Venetiis, 17441769. "Many other books treating of Jewish antiquities, have been published;

6. Jewish, Oriental, and Classical Antiquities; containing Illustrations of the Scriptures, and Classical Records, from Oriental Sources. By the Rev. Daniel Guildford Wait, LL. B. F. A. S. Vol. 1. Cambridge, 1823. 8vo.

The object of this elaborate work is, to illustrate Biblical and Classical Antiquities from the oriental writings. This first volume is exclusively devoted to a demonstration of the coincidence which subsists between these different departments of study and that coincidence, the author has satisfactorily shown by various examples. The subsequent volumes are announced to contain disquisitions on detached subjects, and elucidations of the text and assertions of those Greek writers, who have treated of Eastern History, or alluded to eastern customs. Mr. Wait has long been known to biblical students as the author of numerous valuable articles on sacred criticism, which have appeared in different volumes of the Classical Journal.

Various abridgments of sacred antiquities have been written by different authors of these the following are the most valuable.

1. Hadriani Relandi Antiquitates sacræ veterum Hebræorum recensuit, et animadversionibus Ugolinianis-Ravianis auxit, Georgius Joannes Ludovicus Vogel. 8vo. Hala, 1769.

The best edition of a valuable little summary, which for many years continued to be the text-book of professors.

2. The Manners of the Antient Israelites, containing an account of their peculiar Customs, Ceremonies, Laws, Polity, Religion, Sects, Arts, and Trades, &c. &c. By Claude Fleury. 8vo. London, 1809.

For this third and best edition, the public are indebted to Dr. Adam Clarke, who has enlarged the original work with much valuable information from the principal writers on Jewish antiquities. The Abbé Fleury's work was translated many years since by Mr. Farnworth. The late excellent Bishop of Norwich (Dr. Horne) has recommended it in the following terms: "This little book contains a concise, pleasing, and just account of the manners, customs, laws, policy, and religion of the Israelites. It is an excellent introduction to the reading of the Old Testament, and should be put into the hands of every young person."

3. Antiquitates Hebraicæ secundum triplicem Judæorum statum, ecclesiasticum, politicum, et œconomicum, breviter delineate a Conrado Ikenio. 12mo. Bremæ, 1741. editio tertia; 1764. editio quarta.

There is no difference between these two editions, excepting that the errors of the press in the third edition are corrected in the fourth. The first edition appeared in 1737. This book of Ikenius is valuable for its brevity, method, and perspicuity. It continues to be a text-book in some of the universities of Holland (and perhaps of Germany). In 1810, there was published at Utrecht, a thick 8vo. volume of Professor Schacht's obeervations on this work, under the title of Jo. Herm. Schachtii Theol. et Philolol. Harderov. Animadversiones ad Antiquitates Hebræas olim delineatas a Conrado Ikenio Theol. Bremens. Patre mortuo, edidit Godfr. Jo. Schacht. This volume only discusses the first of Ikenius's sections, on the ecclesiastical state of the Hebrews; it contains many valuable additions and corrections, with references to other writers. Independently of its being an imperfect work, this volume is too bulky to be of use to students generally, but would prove valuable in the hands of any one who should compose a new treatise on biblical antiquities.

4. A. G. Waehneri Antiquitates Hebræorum et Israeliticæ Gentis. 8vo. 2 vols. Gottingen, 1741.

This work is incomplete, the author having died before its publication; it contains much valuable information relative to the literature of the Jews.

but those who have a taste for such sort of reading, will find this collection far more useful to them than any other of the kind." (Bishop Watson.)

5. Christ. Brünings Compendium Antiquitatum Hebræorum. 8vo. Francofurti, 1766.

6. Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum è profanis sacrarum, collegit, naturali ordine disposuit, ad sacrarum literarum illustrationem passim accommodavit Christianus Brünings. Francofurti, 1759. 8vo.

7. Jewish Antiquities, or a Course of Lectures on the Three first Books of Godwin's Moses and Aaron. To which is annexed a Dissertation on the Hebrew Language. By David Jennings, D. D. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1766; Perth, 1808, and London, 1823, in one volume 8vo.

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This work has long held a distinguished character for its accuracy and learning, and has been often reprinted. "The Treatises of Mr. Lowman, on the Ritual (Svo. London, 1748), and on the Civil Government of the Hebrews (8vo. London, 1740), may properly accompany these works." (Bishop Watson.)

8. Ernesti Augusti Schulzii Theologiæ Doctoris, et Professoris quondam in Academia Viadrina celeberrimi, Compendium Archæologia Hebraicæ. Cum figuris æri incisis, edidit, emendavit, addenda adjecit, notisque locupletavit Abr. Phil. Godefr. Schickedanz. 8vo. Dresden, 1793.

This is, perhaps, the best summary of Hebrew antiquities extant in the Latin language; but, unfortunately, it is incomplete, the author having executed only two books which treat of the political and ecclesiastical antiquities of the Hebrews. Professor Schulze and his editor have diligently availed themselves of the labours of all previous writers on this topic, and have arranged their materials in a manner equally concise and valuable.

9. Ferdinandi Stosch Compendium Archæologia Economica Novi Testamenti, ducentis thesibus comprehensum, et aliis aliisve notis illustratum. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1769.

A small volume, of considerable rarity in this country; it treats of the private life and manners of the Jews, as mentioned in the New Testament, and may serve as a supplement to the imperfect work of Schulze, last noticed.

10. Archæologia Biblica in Epitomen redacta a Johanne Jahn. Editio secunda emendata. 8vo. Viennæ, 1814.

An elaborate compendium of biblical antiquities, abridged from the author's larger work on the same subject in the German language (in four large Svo. volumes) and arranged under the three divisions of domestic, political, and ecclesiastical antiquities. At the end of the volume are upwards of sixty pages of questions, framed upon the preceding part of the work; the answers to which are to be given by students. A faithful English translation of "Jahn's Biblical Archæology," was published at Andover (Massachusetts) in 1823, by T. C. Upham (assistant teacher of Hebrew and Greek in the Theological Seminary at that place), with valuable additions and corrections, partly the result of a collation of Jahn's Latin work with the original German treatise, and partly derived from other sources.

11. Johannis Pareau Antiquitas Hebraica breviter delineata. Trajecti ad Rhenum. 1817. 8vo.

12. The Antiquities of the Jews carefully compiled from authentic sources, and their customs illustrated by modern Travels. By W. Brown, D. D. London, 1820. 2 vols. 8vo.

13. Illustrations of the Holy Scripture, in three Parts. By the Rev. George Paxton. Edinburgh, 1819. 2 vols. 8vo. Reprinted at Philadelphia, 1821. 2 vols. 8vo.

14. Scripture Costume exhibited in a Series of Engravings, representing the principal Personages mentioned in the Sacred Writings. Drawn under the Superintendence of the late Benjamin West, Esq., P. R. A., by R. Satchwell, with Biographical Sketches and Historical

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