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Remarks on the Manners and Customs of Eastern Nations. London, 1819. Elephant 4to.

15. Observations on divers passages of Scripture, placing many of them in a light altogether new,..... by means of circumstances mentioned in books of voyages and travels into the East. By the Rev. Thomas Harmer. London, 1816. 4 vols. 8vo. best edition.

As books of voyages and travels are for the most part voluminous, the late reverend and learned Thomas Harmer formed the design, which he happily executed, of perusing the works of Oriental travellers, with the view of extracting from them whatever might illustrate the rites and customs mentioned in the Scriptures. His researches form four volumes in 8vo., and were published at different times, towards the close of the last century. The best edition is that above noticed, and is edited by Dr. Adam Clarke, who has newly arranged the whole, and made many important additions and corrections. In this work numerous passages of Scripture are placed in a light altogether new; the meanings of others, which are not discoverable by the methods commonly used by interpreters, are satisfactorily ascertained; and many probable conjectures are offered to the Biblical Student.

16. The Oriental Guide to the Interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. Two Discourses, preached at Christ Church, Newgate Street, with Illustrative Notes, and an Appendix, containing a general and descriptive Catalogue of the best writers on the Subject. By the Rev. Samuel Burder, A. M. London, 1823. 8vo.

17. Oriental Customs; or an Illustration of the Sacred Scriptures, by an explanatory application of the customs and manners of the Eastern nations. By the Rev. S. Burder, 6th edition. 1922. 2 vols. 8vo.

This is an useful abridgment of Harmer's Observations, with many valuable additions from recent voyagers and travellers, arranged in the order of the Books, Chapters and Verses of the Bible. It was translated into German, by Dr. E. F. C. Rosenmaller, (4 vols. 8vo. Leipsic, 1819), with material corrections and much new matter. Such of those, as were additions to the articles contained in the "Oriental Customs," have been translated and inserted in the sixth edition above noticed. But those articles which are entirely new, being founded on texts not before brought under Mr. Burder's consideration, are translated and inserted in

18. Oriental Literature, applied to the Illustration of the Sacred Scriptures; especially with reference to Antiquities, Traditions, and Manners, collected from the most celebrated writers and travellers, both antient and modern, designed as a Sequel to Oriental Customs. By the Rev. Samuel Burder, A. M. London, 1822. 2 vols. 8vo.

19. The Eastern Mirror; an Illustration of the Sacred Scriptures, in which the Customs of Oriental Nations are clearly developed by the writings of the most celebrated travellers. By the Rev. W. Fowler. 8vo. Exeter, 1814.

An abridgment of Harmer's Observations, and the earlier editions of Burder's Oriental Customs, with a few unimportant additions.

The mode of illustrating Scripture from Oriental voyages and travels, first applied by Mr. Harmer, has been successfully followed by the laborious editor of the "Fragments," annexed to the quarto editions of Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible, and also by Mr. Vansittart in his "Observations on Select Places of the Old Testament, founded on a perusal of Parsons's Travels from Aleppo to Bagdad." 8vo. Oxford and London 1812.




Sacred and Profane History.

1. The Sacred and Profane History of the World, connected from the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire. By S. Shuckford, M. A. 8vo. 4 vols. London, 1743, best edition. This well known and valuable work has been several times re-printed.

2. The Old and New Testament connected in the History of the Jews and neighbouring Nations, from the Declension of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the time of Christ. By Humphrey Prideaux, D. D. 8vo. 4 vols. London, 1749. 10th edit. reprinted in 4 vols. 8vo. 1808.

3. Commentaries on the Affairs of Christians before the time of Constantine the Great: or an enlarged view of the Ecclesiastical History of the first three centuries. Translated from the Latin of Dr. Mosheim, by R. S. Vidal, Esq. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1813.

4. Jo. Francisci Buddei Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Testamenti. Ed. tertia, duobus tomis, 4to. Hala, 1726. 1729.

5. A New History of the Holy Bible, from the Beginning of the World to the Establishment of Christianity, with answers to most of the controverted questions, dissertations upon the most remarkable passages, and a connection of Profane History all along. By Thomas Stackhouse, A. M. folio. 2 vols. London, 1752.

This work has always been highly esteemed for its utility and the variety of valuable illustration which the author has brought together from every accessible source. A new edition of it was published in 1817, in three volumes, 4to., with important corrections and additions, by the Rev. Dr. Gleig, one of the Bishops of the Scotch Episcopal Church.

6. The Credibility of the Gospel History; or the facts occasionally mentioned in the New Testament, confirmed by passages of antient authors who were contemporary with our Saviour or his Apostles, or lived near their time. By Nathaniel Lardner, D. D.

The two first volumes of this great and valuable work illustrate a multitude of passages occurring in the New Testament; its publication commenced in 1733, and was continued for many years, until completed in twelve volumes, to which was added a supplement of three volumes. The "Credibility" and "Supplement" are contained in the first six volumes of the 8vo. edition, and in the first three volumes of the 4to edition of Dr. L.'s collective works.

Much valuable information relative to the history of the Moabites, Philistines, Babylonians, and other nations mentioned in the Scriptures, is exhibited by Vitringa in his commentary on Isaiah, by Bishop Newton in his Dissertations on the Prophets, and by Reland in his Palæstina; to whom, perhaps, may be added Rollin in his Antient History of the Greeks, Assyrians, &c. 8 vols. 8vo.


Principal Writers on Sacred Chronology.

1. Ludovici Cappelli Chronologia Sacra, 4to. Paris, 1655.

This work is reprinted by Bishop Walton, in the prolegomena to his edition of the Polyglott Bible.

2. Gerhardi Johannis Vossii Chronologiæ Sacræ Isagoge. Hag. Com. 4to. 1659.

3. Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti, a primâ mundi origine deducti. A Jacobo Usserio, Archiepiscopo Armachano. Folio, Geneva, 1722.

The best edition of a most valuable work; the chronology of Archbishop Usher is followed in the margins of all our large Bibles.

4. The Scripture Chronology demonstrated by Astronomical Calculations. By Arthur Bedford. Folio, London, 1730.

5. Chronologie de l'Histoire Sainte. Par Alphonse de Vignolles. 4to. 2 vols. Berlin, 1738.

6. Chronological Antiquities; or the antiquities and chronology of the most antient kingdoms from the creation of the world. By the Rev. John Jackson. 4to. 3 vols. London, 1752.

7. A New Analysis of Chronology, in which an attempt is made to explain the History and Antiquities of the primitive Nations of the World, and the Prophecies relating to them, on principles tending to remove the imperfection and discordance of preceding systems. By the Rev. William Hales, D. D. 4to. 3 vols. in four parts. London, 1809-1812.

This is the most elaborate system of chronology extant in our language. There is scarcely a difficult text in the sacred writings which is not illustrated. Dr. Hales follows the chronology of Josephus, whose genuine numbers he conceives that he has restored; and that, by a comparison with the Septuagint and the other texts, he has ascertained the true series of primeval times. The longer chronology, established by Dr. H. with great success, is unquestionably preferable to that founded on the Masoretic text, as it removes many of those difficulties with which the Scripture history is encumbered in that text. His "New Analysis" ought to have a place in the library of every biblical student who can procure it.

8. Historia Universe Tabula Ethnographico-Periodico-Synchronisticæ, ab rerum primordiis ad nostram diem, post doctissimorum virorum curas iisque ducibus ad præstantissima temporis putandi exempla juxta æram vulgarem dispositæ ; adjectis clarissimarum gentium genealogiis copiosoque rerum quarumlibet indice: præmissâ etiam ærarum inter se comparata delineatione, item totius historiæ adfiniumque doctrinarum notitia literaria, in usum historiæ amicorum adornatæ studio Francisci Josephi Dumbeckii. Berolini, 1821. folio.

These chronological tables claim a place in the student's library, not only for their cheapness, but also for their utility. They are noticed here on account of the clear exhibition which they contain of sacred chronology and the affairs of those nations with whom the Jews had any intercourse. The modern events are brought down to the year 1820.

9. Les Fastes Universels, ou Tableaux Historiques, Chronologiques et Geographiques, contenant, siècle par siècle et dans des colonnes distinctes, depuis les tems les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours:

1. L'Origine, les progrès, la gloire, et la décadence de tous les peuples, leurs migrations, leurs colonies, l'ordre de la succession des Princes, &c.

2. Le Precis des epoques et des événemens politiques;

3. L'histoire générale des religions et de leurs différentes sectes; 4. Celle de la philosophie et de la legislation chez tous les peuples anciens et modernes ;

5. Les découvertes et les progrès dans les sciences et dans les arts; 6. Une notice sur tous les hommes célèbres, rappelant leurs œuvr

ages ou leurs actions. Par M. Buret de Longchamps. Paris, 1821. Atlas 4to.

This work contains the most copious set of Chronological Tables that is extant in any language. That part of it which includes sacred chronology is displayed with great perspicuity.


Principal Writers on Sacred Geography.

1. Samuelis Bocharti Geographia Sacra, sive Phaleg et Canaan, in the third volume of the folio edition of his works.

2. Johannis Davidis Michaelis Spicilegium Geographiæ Hebræorum exteræ post Bochartum. Partes i. ii. Gottingen, 1760. 1780. 4to.

Some observations on the first part of this learned work, which is not always to be procured complete, were published by John Reinhold Forster, intituled Epistola ad J. D. Michaelis, hujus spicilegium Geogr. Hebr. jam confirmantes, jam castigantes. Gottingen, 1772. 4to. It is desirable to unite this with the work of Michaelis; but unfortunately both works are extremely rare and dear.

3. Hadriani Relandi Palestina ex monumentis veteribus et tabulis adcuratis illustrata. 4to. 2 vols. Traject. Batav. 1714.

This elaborate work is also to be found in the sixth volume of Ugolino's Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum; the fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes of which collection, contain various works relating to sacred geography.

4. Sacred Geography: being a geographical and historical account of places mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. By Edward Wells, D. D.

This learned work has frequently been printed at the Oxford press, and is too well known to require commendation; a new edition, revised and corrected from the Discoveries of Sir William Jones and other eminent scholars, was published by the English editor of Calmet's Dictionary in 4to. in the year 1804. There are also copies in two or three vols. crown 8vo.

Dr. Wells's Geography of the New Testament was translated into German by M. Panzer, with numerous additions and corrections, in 2 vols. 8vo. Nuremberg, 1764.

Most of the preceding works are illustrated with maps. There is an excellent map of Palestine in D'Anville's Ancient Atlas; it has been consulted for the maps accompanying this work, which have been drawn with great care, and corrected from the researches of modern Geographers. The quarto Atlas published by the late Rev. Thomas Scott, as an accompaniment to his commentary on the Bible, possesses the double merit of being correct as well as cheap. The Scripture Atlas, published by Mr. Leigh, is executed in a superior style, and has had a very extensive sale. Mr. Wyld's Scripture Atlas is a neat publication. But the most useful single map is that published by Mr. Leigh, and entitled

5. An Historical Map of Palestine or the Holy Land, exhibiting the peculiar features of the country, and of all places therein, connected with Scripture History; interspersed with ninety-six vignettes illustrative of the most important circumstances recorded in the Old and New Testaments

The size of this beautifully executed map is 40 inches by 274. The vignettes will be found very amusing to young persons, while they serve to impress on the mind the leading points of sacred history and geography. The map is accompanied by a folio sheet of letter press, containing explanatory references to the vignettes. The design of the latter is to embody and connect with the names of places marked upon the map, the principal incidents in Jewish history — by placing the texts of Scripture in which such incidents are mentioned, close to the name of the place where the transaction occurred. The sheet of letter press also comprises a brief outline of the history of Palestine from the earliest period - the

stations of the tribes-and Buhle's economical calendar of the country, exhibiting the state of the weather in the Holy Land throughout the different months of the year, and containing useful remarks on the various productions of the soil.


Principal Writers on the Natural History of the Bible.

1. Samuelis Bocharti Hierozoicon, sive de animalibus sacræ Scripturæ. 4th edit. folio. Lug. Bat. 1714; also in 3 vols. 4to. Lipsia, 1793, and following years.

This last is unquestionably the best edition; it was published by Professor Rosenmüller, to whose researches biblical students are so largely indebted; and who has corrected it throughout, as well as enlarged it with numerous facts from the writings of modern travellers, &c.

2. Olai Celsii Hierobotanicon, sive de plantis sacræ Scripturæ, two parts, 8vo. Upsalæ, 1745-7.

3. Petri Forskäl Descriptiones Animalium, Amphibiorum, Piscium, Insectorum, Vermium quæ in Itinere Orientali observavit. 4to. Hauniæ (Copenhagen), 1775. — Ejusdem Flora Ægyptio-Arabica. 4to. Hauniæ, 1775. Ejusdem Icones Rerum Naturalium, quas Itinere Orientali depingi curavit. 4to. Hauniæ, 1776.

M. Forskäl was a learned Swedish Naturalist, who was sent in 1761, at the expense of his Danish Majesty, to investigate the natural productions of the East, in company with the celebrated traveller Neibuhr. He died at Jerim in Arabia, in 1763, and his unfinished notes, valuable even in their imperfect state, were published by his colleague in the three works just noticed.

4. Physica Sacra: hoc est, historia naturalis Biblia a Joanne Jacobo Scheuchzero edita, et innumeris iconibus æneis elegantissimis adornata, 4 vols. folio, August. Vindel. 1731-1735.

This is one of the most beautiful and useful works which has appeared on the natural history of the Bible; the engravings, 750 in number, were executed by the most eminent artists of that day. A German translation appeared at Augsburgh, at the same time with the Latin edition, to which it is preferred on account of its having proof impressions of the plates. The French translation, published at Amsterdam, in 1732-1738, in 4 vols. folio, is inferior to both the preceding editions as it respects the plates, though the text and typographical execution are equally valuable. From the costly price of this work, it is chiefly to be found in great public libraries. Michaelis and other learned German writers have also ably illustrated the Natural History of the Scriptures.

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5. Scripture Illustrated by Engravings, referring to Natural Science, Customs, Manners, &c. By the Editor of Calmet's Dictionary

of the Bible. 4to. 1802.

Many otherwise obscure passages of the Bible are in this work happily illustrated from natural science, &c. It is handsomely and ably executed: and though it does not profess to be a complete natural history of the Scriptures, yet it illustrates that interesting subject in so many instances, as to demand a place in the student's library.


Introductions to the Scriptures. - Dictionaries of the Bible.

The various topics discussed by the writers noticed in the preceding lists, are also considered by the authors of most of those useful compendiums usually termed Introductions to the Scriptures, and Dic

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