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tionaries of the Bible. Of the former, such as treat more particularly of sacred criticism and interpretation have been already mentioned. The following are those which remain to be noticed, together with the principal Biblical Dictionaries, which are more particularly worthy of attention.
1. Georgii Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Novi Testamenti, in quâ quæ ad rem criticam, historiam, chronologiam, et geographiam pertinent, breviter et perspicuè exponuntur. 1st edit. Lipsia, 1704. 12mo. 4th edit. by Hoffman, in 1737. 8vo. and reprinted with corrections, in a large octavo volume, in 1764.
"The service rendered by Carpzov to the Old Testament was performed by Pritius for the New. The improvements of his editor, Hoffman, on the original, are so considerable, that whoever purchases the Introduction of Pritius (and it deserves to be purchased by every student in divinity) must be careful in regard to the date of the title page." (Bishop Marsh.)
2. Salomonis Van Til Opus Analyticum, comprehendens Introductionem in Sacram Scripturam, ad Joh. Henrici Heideggeri Enchiridion Biblicum IEPOMNHMONIKON concinnatum. Trajecti ad Rhenum. 1720. 2 vols. 4to.
A most minute Analysis of every Book and almost of every Chapter in the Scriptures. Heidegger's Enchiridion Biblicum, on which Van Til's work is a commentary, was first published at Zurich (Tiguri) in 1681, and was frequently reprinted in Germany, in the course of the last century. It contains prefaces to the different books of the Old and New Testament, together with analyses of the different books. Where Heidegger's statements were correct, Van Til has corroborated them; where he was in error, the latter has corrected his mistakes, and supplied his omissions.
3. Dissertations, qui peuvent servir de Prolegomènes de l'Ecriture Sainte. Par Dom. Calmet. 4to. 3 tomes. Paris, 1720.
These dissertations were originally prefixed by Calmet to the different books of Scripture, and published in his commentary; in this 4to. edition Calmet has collected them with considerable additions.
4. An Introduction to the reading of the New Testament, by MM. Beausobre and L'Enfant. 8vo. Cambridge, 1779.
This was originally a preface to the French version of the New Testament published by MM. Beausobre and L'Enfant at Amsterdam in 1718. It has been several times printed, and is also to be found in the third volume of the Theological Tracts collected by Bishop Watson; who observes that "this is a work of extraordinary merit. The authors have scarcely left any topic untouched on which the young student in divinity may be supposed to want information."
5. The Sacred Interpreter: or a Practical Introduction towards a beneficial reading and thorough understanding of the Holy Bible. By David Collyer, Vicar of Great Coxwell, Berks. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1746. Carlisle, 2 vols. 8vo. 1796. Last edition, 2 vols. 8vo. Oxford, 1815.
"The author of this work lived in the former part of the last century; it not only went through several editions in England, but in 1750 was translated into German. It is calculated for readers in general, and it is a good popular preparation for the study of the Holy Scriptures." (Bishop Marsh.)
6. Johannis Henrici Danielis Moldenhaweri Introductio in omnes Libros Canonicos, cum Veteris, tum Novi Fœderis, ut et eos qui Apocryphi dicuntur, cum Appendice, quæ tradit acta Apostoli Pauli chronologice digesta. 8vo. Regiomonti, 1744.
Few treatises, professing to be Introductions to the Bible, are more useful than this work of Professor Moldenhawer's. Having briefly shown the canonical authority of the Bible, and noticed its various divisions, he treats of each book in its
order, showing its author, time of writing, argument, scope, chronology, and division. He carefully points out those passages which are more particularly worthy of consideration, or more difficult; and under each book of the Old Testament he specifies the types and prophecies of Jesus Christ, and the citations from each book in the New Testament. The author has derived much assistance from the labours of Moldenhawer in the fourth volume of this work.
7. An Introduction to the Study and tament. By Edward Harwood, D. D. Svo.
Knowledge of the New Tes-
The learned author designed a third volume, which was to embrace the chief critical questions respecting the New Testament. This work contains a collection of dissertations, relative, partly to the characters of the sacred writers, partly to the Jewish History and Customs, and to such part of heathen antiquities as have reference to the New Testament. As these dissertations display great erudition and contain much information illustrative of the New Testament, Dr. Harwood's Introduction is certainly to be recommended to the Theological Student." (Bishop Marsh.) Another experienced divinity tutor (the late Rev. Dr. Williams) has also justly remarked that this work may be read with advantage, making allowance for the author's theological sentiments, (Christian Preacher, p. 417.) which were Arian. The writer of these pages has derived many useful illustrations from Dr. Harwood's labours in the third volume of this work.
8. Dictionnaire Historique, Chronologique, Geographique, et Litteral de la Bible. Par Augustin Calmet. Folio. 4 tomes. Paris, 1730.
A translation of this truly valuable work, with occasional remarks, was published in 1732, in three folio volumes; which having become extremely scarce, an edition was published in 1801, in two thick 4to. volumes, by Mr. Taylor, with a volume of additions from books of voyages and travels, &c. under the title of "Fragments." A new edition, (being the fourth) enlarged and greatly improved, was published in 1823, in five volumes 4to. The work is pleasingly illustrated with numerous engravings, which convey an accurate idea of Oriental manners and customs. Calmet's Dictionary is the basis of all other modern works of the
9. A Dictionary of the Holy Bible. By the Rev. John Brown, of Haddington. 2 vols. 8vo.
The author was a minister in the Secession-church of Scotland; and in his doctrinal views Calvinistic. Allowance being made for some of his sentiments, his work may be advantageously substituted for the preceding, the price of which necessarily places it above the reach of many persons. The best edition of Mr. Brown's dictionary is the fifth, which costs about eighteen shillings. A professed abridgment of this work was published in 1815, in two small volumes, 18mo. The "Compendious Dictionary of the Holy Bible," first published by Mr. Button in 1796, and since reprinted with additions and corrections in 12mo. is a judicious abridgment of Brown's Dictionary. "By means of a very small but clear type, a vast quantity of matter is comprised within the compass of this little volume. The book, without doubt, may be serviceable to many," (British Critic, Old Series, vol. x. p. 201.)
10. A Theological, Biblical, and Ecclesiastical Dictionary; serving as a general note-book to illustrate the Old and New Testament, as a guide to the Practices and Opinions of all Sects and Religions, and as a Cyclopædia of Religious Knowledge. By John Robinson, D. D. London, 1815. 8vo.
It is no small commendation of this work that, within a few months after its publication, it was recommended by several dignitaries of the Anglican church to the attention of candidates for the ministerial office. It is very closely printed, and presents a valuable digest, with references to authorities at the end of each article, of almost all that has hitherto been written on biblical literature. Most cordially do we join in the following commendation of it in a modern critical journal. "It is clearly the work of a man of much industry in collecting, and of much judgment in arranging his matter. To every theological student, who has not access to an extensive library, this volume will prove a very useful subsidiary; to many, indeed, who have neither attainment nor abilities for research, it will become neces
sary.” (Brit. Crit. N. S. vol. vii. p. 305.) We cannot however help expressing our regret that, on some topics, Dr. R. should have referred to writers, whose publications (though useful in some respects) are calculated to subvert the fundamental doctrines of the Gospel; and though we cannot but differ from the learned author in some of his positions, yet we have no hesitation in saying, that it is the most compendious Dictionary of the Bible extant in our language. The work is illustrated by several neatly engraved maps. It may be proper to add, that it is noticed with merited commendation in the Evangelical Magazine for 1817, vol. xxv. p. 486. and in the Antijacobin Review, vol. xlix. pp. 1-15.
11. The Biblical Cyclopædia; or, Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures, intended to facilitate an acquaintance with the inspired writings. By William Jones. 1816. 2 vols. 8vo.
The compiler of this work is advantageously known to the public as the author of a valuable "History of the Waldenses." The plan of his Biblical Cyclopedia is less extensive than that of Dr. Robinson's Dictionary, before which some parts of it appeared, though it bears date one year later than the latter work.
12. Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus, e Patribus Græcis, ordine alphabetico exhibens quæcunque Phrases, Ritus, Dogmata, Hæreses, et hujusmodi alia huc spectant, à Johanne Casparo Suicero. Folio. 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1728.
This is the best edition of a most valuable work; which, though indispensably necessary for understanding the writings of the Greek fathers, incidentally contains many illustrations of Scripture. It is said to have cost the learned author twenty years' labour; the first edition appeared at Amsterdam in 1682, in two volumes, folio.
It may be proper to add, that most of the questions relative to the history, geography, &c. of the Bible are noticed in Schleusner's valuable Lexicon to the Septuagint version, and also in his Greek and Latin, and in Mr. Parkhurst's Greek and English Lexicons to the New Testament; where they are illustrated with equal learning and accuracy.
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL COMMENTATORS
And Biblical Critics of Eminence; with Bibliographical and Critical Notices, extracted from authentic Sources.
[Referred to in page 566. of this Volume.]
A COMPLETE History of Commentators would require a volume of no ordinary dimensions. The present list is therefore necessarily restricted to an account of the Principal Commentaries and Critical Works illustrating the Holy Scriptures. The reader who may be desirous of prosecuting this subject more at length, will find much interesting information relative to the early commentators in Rosenmüller's Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum in Ecclesia Christiana, inde ab Apostolorum Etate usque ad Originem, published in detached fasciculi at Leipsic, between the years 1795-1814, and forming five tomes usually bound in two vols. 8vo. This elaborate work treats exclusively on the early commentators. Father Simon's Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament, 4to. 1680 (liv. iii. pp. 416– 466), and his Histoire Critique des Principaux Commentateurs du Nouveau Testament, 4to. Rotterdam, 1689, contain many valuable strictures on the Expositors of the Old and New Testaments, up to his own time. In 1674 was published at Frankfort, in two large folio
volumes, Joh. Georg. Dorschei Biblia Numerata, seu Index Specialis in Vetus Testamentum ad singula omnium Librorum Capita, et Commata. It contains a list of Commentators (four hundred and ninety-one in number), who had illustrated any book, chapter or verse of the Scriptures, with references to the books, chapters and pages of their several works. The merits and demerits of commentators are likewise discussed in Walchius's Bibliotheca Theologica Selecta, vol. iv. pp. 369-931.; in Ernesti's Institutio Interpretis Novi Testamenti, pars
iii. cap. ix. pp. 278-311.; and in Morus's Acroases Academicæ, vol. ii. pp. 204-340. Rambach, in his Institutiones Hermeneutica, pp. 663-726.; Professor Keil, in his Elementa Hermeneutices Novi Testamenti (8vo. Leipsic, 1811), pp. 159. et seq. and Professor Beck, in his Monogrammata Hermeneutices Librorum Novi Fœderis (8vo. Lipsiæ, 1803), part i. pp. 168. et seq. respectively notice the principal expositors of the Scriptures, particularly those written in the German Language, which being understood by few biblical students in this country, all commentaries in that tongue are necessarily omitted in the following bibliographical notices of commentators.
SCHOLIA ON THE ENTIRE BIBLE, OR THE GREATER PART THEREOF.
1. JOANNIS MARIANE Scholia in Vetus et Novum Testamentum. Paris, 1620. folio.
2. HUGONIS GROTII Annotationes ad Vetus et Novum Testamentum.
The Scholia on the Old Testament were first published at Paris, in 1644 and those on the New Testament at the same place, in three volumes, in 1641, 1646, and 1650. They are also to be found in the fourth volume of his Opera Theologica (Basil, 1732, folio), as well as in the Critici Sacri, and in Calovius's Biblia Illustrata. They were republished in 4to., with numerous corrections by Vogel, vol. i. Hala, 1775; vol. ii. and vol. iii. were published in 1776 by Docderlein, who, in 1779, published an Auctarium, also in 4to., which was separately sold under the title of Scholia in Libros Poeticos Veteris Testamenti. An edition of them was published by Mr. Moody, in two vols. 4to., London, 1727; and his Scholia on the New Testament were reprinted at Erlang in 1755, and following years, in 4to. We have been thus minute in stating the editions of Grotius's Scholia, on account of their intrinsic value. Father Calmet has criticised many parts of them with great severity, particularly his preface to and explanation of the Canticles. “Grotius," says Dr. Doddridge," has done more to illustrate the Scriptures, by what is generally called profane learning, than perhaps almost all the other commentators put together; nevertheless, he too often gives up prophecies, which, in their original sense, relate to the Messiah. His notes on some texts are large and learned dissertations, which might have profitably been published by themselves." "His learning," says an eminent biblical critic of the present day, 66 tensive; his erudition profound; and his moderation on subjects of controversy highly praise-worthy. No man possessed a more extensive and accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin writers; and no man has more successfully applied them to the illustration of the sacred writings. He is, perhaps justly, suspected of Socinian sentiments; and is, in general, so intent upon the literal meaning of the Scriptures, as to lose sight of the spiritual." (Dr. A. Clarke.) On the New
was very ex
1 The references above, as well as in the following pages, to Drs. Doddridge and Adam Clarke, are, to the "Lectures on Preaching" of the former, inserted in the fifth volume of his detached works, printed at Leeds, 1804, pp. 471. et seq., and to the "General Preface" of the latter, prefixed to vol. i. of his Commentary on the Bible, which is noticed in a subsequent page.
Testament, Grotius is particularly valuable for understanding the history and He-
3. DIODATI (John) Annotations on the Bible, translated from the Italian. London, 1664. folio.
Diodati was an eminent Italian divine and reformer in the early part of the 17th century; his annotations are properly Scholia, rather practical than critical, but containing many useful hints; a considerable portion of them was introduced into the "Assembly's Annotations," noticed in a subsequent page.
4. Jo. CHRIST. FRID. SCHULZII et GEO. LAUR. BAUERI Scholia in Vetus Testamentum. Norimberga, 1783–1797. 10 vols. 8vo.
The three first volumes only of these learned Scholia were ostensibly written by Professor Schulze, who states in his preface, that, in imitation of Rosenmuller's Scholia on the New Testament, he undertook similar short notes on the Old Testament. For this purpose, he has made extracts from the best philological and critical Scholia, chiefly from German works which are not readily accessible or intelligible by foreigners; this is no small advantage; and, independently of it, Schulze has added numerous critical notes of his own, beside the contributions of his learned friends. (Maty's Review, vol. v. p. 406-412.) On the death of Schulze, Professor Bauer continued the work, and published the remaining seven volumes on the same plan.
5. ERNEST. FRID. CAR. ROSENMÜLLERI Scholia in Vetus Testamentum. Lipsiæ, 1795-1821. 18 vols. 8vo.
6. J. G. ROSENMÜLLERI Scholia in Novum Testamentum. Edit. Nova, Norimbergæ, 1801-1808. 5 vols. 8vo.
These Scholia have long had a very extensive circulation in Germany, but are now beginning to be known in this country, though their high price renders them accessible to comparatively few students. The Scholia on the Old Testament are written by Rosenmüller the son; and those on the New Testament by Rosenmüller the father. The latter is upon the whole a much safer and sounder critic than his son, whose Scholia in many passages are made conformable to the lax and (miscalled) rational system of interpretation, which for many years has been but too prevalent among the German Biblical Critics. In the improved editions above noticed of their very valuable Scholia, the two Rosenmüllers have diligently availed themselves of every possible aid, which their own researches, or those of their friends, could procure for them. The author of the present work is indebted to these eminent critics for many valuable observations on the Analysis, &c. of the Sacred writings. A third edition of the younger Rosenmüller's Scholia on the book of Genesis (so much enlarged and corrected as almost to form a new work), and a second of those on the Psalms, was published at Leipsic in 1821, 8vo.
7. REEVES.-The Holy Bible, containing the Old Testament and the New, translated out of the original tongues, and with the former translations diligently compared and revised. London, printed for John Reeves, Esq., one of the Patentees of the office of King's Printer. 9 vols. royal 4to. 9 vols. royal 8vo. 9 or 10 vols. crown 8vo.
Although the beautiful editions of the Bible here noticed do not profess to be commentaries, yet as they are accompanied by short explanatory and Philological Scholia, it would be injustice towards Mr. Reeves's splendid and public-spirited efforts to render the Scriptures attractive to the higher classes, were we to pass them in silence. On this account Mr. Reeves's editions may justly claim a place
1 Jahn affirms that they were not written by Schulze himself, but by Schöder under his name; and he further adds, that, in general, on difficult passages, an antient and a modern interpretation is given, and the decision between them is left to the reader's judgment. (Jahn, Enchiridion Hermeneuticæ Generalis, p. 173.) Whether Schöder or Schulze wrote the first three vols. is not material now to know; useful as the wor. unquestionably is, the reader should be informed that the author has adopted the fashionable hypothesis of many German divines, that Moses was a clever mythologue, who compiled his history from certain mythi or traditional narratives! This hypothesis is also adopted by Rosenmüller, and by Dathe; and it was embraced by the late Dr. Geddes in his version of the Bible. See it examined, and (we trust satisfactorily) refuted, infra, Vol. IV. pp. 6—9.