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This work is wholly designed for family use, to which it is excellently adapted; but the marginal renderings and parallel texts have been entirely omitted. The absence of these is inexcusable in any edition of the Bible above the size of a duodecimo volume.

26. HEWLETT. The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testament, with the Apocrypha, with Critical, Philological, and Explanatory Notes. By the Rev. John Hewlett, B. D. London, 1812. 3 vols. 4to.

The typographical execution of this rariorum edition of the Scriptures is singularly correct and beautiful; the parallel texts and marginal renderings are put at the foot of the text, and above the notes, which are selected with uncommon industry. To the first volume are prefixed very copious prolegomena, containing every requisite information relative to the authenticity and inspiration of the Scriptures; the formation of the sacred Canon, MSS. and editions of the Bible, sects, &c. with a variety of useful tables; and to the third volume is prefixed a compendious history of the Jews, from their restoration to Judæa, to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans; the whole forming a connection between the history of the Old and New Testament; and the work is terminated by three useful indexes. On many occasions we have consulted this commentary with equal pleasure and advantage; there are, however, some discrepancies in the notes, which we have observed with regret. Many of these are stated and animadverted upon in an ably conducted critical journal. (See British Critic, New Series, vol. ii. pp. 339. et seq.) Several of Mr. Hewlett's notes are elaborate critical disquisitions on important topics. Copies of this work may be purchased with maps, and numerous well executed engravings, after pictures by the most celebrated painters. In 1816, an edition of the notes, &c. was published without the text, in 5 vols. octavo, entitled Commentaries and Disquisitions on the Holy Scriptures.

27. D'OYLY and MANT. - The Holy Bible according to the Authorised Version, with Notes explanatory and practical; taken principally from the most eminent writers of the United Church of England and Ireland; together with appropriate introductions, tables, indexes, maps, and plans, prepared and arranged by the Rev. G. D'Oyly, B. D. (now D. D.), and the Rev. Richard Mant, D. D. (now Bishop of Killaloe). Oxford and London, 1817. 3 vols. 4to.

This work, which is published under the sanction of the venerable Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, professes to communicate only the results of the critical inquiries of learned men, without giving a detailed exposition of the inquiries themselves. These results, however, are selected with great judgment, so that the reader who may consult them on difficult passages will rarely be disappointed; and the sale of more than twenty thousand copies proves the estimation in which this laborious work is held. Of the labour attending this publication some idea may be formed, when it is stated that the works of upwards of one hundred and sixty authors have been consulted for it, amounting to several hundred volumes. On the fundamental articles of Christian verity, the Deity and atonement of Jesus Christ, and the personality and offices of the Holy Spirit, this work may be pronounced to be a library of divinity. The maps and engrav ings, though only outlines, are executed with much spirit. An index of matters, and a concordance, together with a geographical index, are subjoined. The small paper copies are unquestionably the cheapest of all the commentaries extant. There is an useful concordance in 4to. edited by the Rev. T. W. Bellamy, M. A. which is usually bound up with this commentary: and in the year 1818, the Rev. Dr. Wilson published another index, which is much more complete than that annexed to the work; and the student, who can afford it, will do well to purchase it.

28. CLARKE (Dr. A.) — The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments; the Text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present authorised translation, including the marginal readings and parallel Texts; with a Commentary, and critical Notes, designed as a help to a better understanding of the Sacred Writings. By Adam Clarke, LL. D. F. A. S. London, 1810-1823. 4to.

Three volumes of this elaborate work have appeared, comprising the whole of

the New Testament, and ten parts of the Old Testament, from Genesis to the Song of Solomon. In this work, Dr. Clarke states, that the whole of the text has been collated with the Hebrew and Greek originals, and all the antient versions; "the most difficult words are analysed and explained; the most important readings in the collections of Kennicott and De Rossi on the Old Testament, and in those of Mill, Wetstein, and Griesbach, on the New, are noticed, the date of every transaction, as far as it has been ascertained by the best chronologers, is marked; the peculiar customs of the Jews, and neighbouring nations, so frequently alluded to by the prophets, evangelists, and apostles, are explained from the best Asiatic authorities; the great doctrines of the Law and Gospel of God are defined, illustrated, and defended; and the whole is applied to the important purposes of practical Christianity." The literary world in general, and biblical students in particu lar, are greatly indebted to Dr. Clarke for the light he has thrown on many very difficult passages.

29. THOMSON. The Old Covenant, commonly called the Old Testament, translated from the Septuagint. The New Covenant, commonly called the New Testament, translated from the Greek. By Charles Thomson, late Secretary to the Congress of the United States. Philadelphia, 1808. 4 vols. 8vo.

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This translation is executed with great fidelity, though that of the Old Testament, being a version of a version, can hardly afford much assistance to the biblical student. The translation of the New Testament is much improved in the punctuation, and also in the arrangement of the objections and replies that oceasion such frequent transitions in St. Paul's Epistles. The notes which accompany this work are very brief, but satisfactory as far as they go.

30. BELLAMY. The Holy Bible, newly translated from the Original Hebrew, with notes critical and explanatory. By John Bellamy. London, 1818-21. 4to.

Three parts of this new translation have been published. The arrogant claims of the author and his extravagancies of interpretation have been exposed in the Quarterly Review, vols. xix. pp. 250-280. and xxiii. pp. 290-325.; in the Eclectic Review, vol. x. N. S. pp. 1-20. 130-150. 280-299.; in the Antijacobin Review, vol. liv. pp. 97–103. 193-207. 305–316.; in Mr. Whittaker's Historical and Critical Inquiry into the Interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures, and Supplement to it, 8vo., Cambridge, 1819, 1820; in Professor Lee's Letter to Mr. Bellamy, Cambridge, 1821; and last, though not least in value, in Mr. Hymen Hurwitz's "Vindicia Hebraica; or, a Defence of the Hebrew Scriptures, as a Velicle of Revealed Religion: occasioned by the recent Strictures and Innovations of Mr. J. Bellamy; and in confutation of his Attacks on all preceding Transla tions, and on the established Version in particular. London, 1821." Svo. This author is a learned Jewish Teacher; who, while he has exposed Mr. Bellamy's misinterpretations with great learning, has rendered to British Christians an incalculable service, by showing the general excellence of our authorised English Version; and has also, perhaps unwittingly, silenced the Jewish objector, who used to deny the validity of the Old Testament as cited from that version.

31. BOOTHROYD.-A new Family Bible, and Improved Version, from corrected texts of the originals, with notes Critical and Explanatory, and short practical Reflections on each chapter. By the Rev. B. Boothroyd, D. D. Pontefract and London, 1818, 1821, 1823. 3 vols. 4to.

The Rev. Dr. Boothroyd has long been advantageously known as the editor of the critical edition of the Hebrew Bible with philological notes, of which we have given an account in p. 124. of the present volume. His improved English Version of the Bible will be found a valuable help to the critical understanding of the Sacred Scriptures. Where any reading, in the original, is supported by the authority of antient MSS. and Versions, Dr. B. has availed himself of it, and has inserted it in the text; always apprising his readers of such changes, which (as we have had occasion to remark in our chapter on various readings) are not unfrequently real improvements. The Historical Books are printed in continuous paragraphs, the Poetical Books being printed in single lines. The two first volumes contain the Old Testament; the third, the New Testament. The numbers

of the different verses are judiciously thrown into the margin; and the notes, which are placed at the foot of each page, possess the rare merit of condensing much important critical and explanatory matter, in comparatively a small compass. To the whole, Dr. B. has prefixed a well-executed abridgment of Michaelis's Commentaries on the Law of Moses.



1. Commentators on the Old Testament.

1. RICHARDSON (Bishop). - Choice Observations and Explanations upon the Old Testament, containing in them many remarkable matters, either not taken notice of, or mistaken by most: which are additionals to the large annotations made by some of the Assembly of Divines to which are added some further and larger observations upon the whole book of Genesis. By John Richardson, Bishop of Ardagh. London, 1655. folio.

Bishop Richardson has been characterised by his contemporaries as a man of profound learning, well versed in the Scriptures, and of exact knowledge in sacred chronology. His Harmony of the Four Gospels, in which he led the way to a more exact arrangement of the narratives of the four evangelists, is printed in Archbishop Usher's Annals. Bishop Richardson's Annotations were published after his death; as they sell at a low price, they are not unworthy of the student's attention.

2. PYLE. A Paraphrase with short and Useful Notes on the Books of the Old Testament. By the Rev. Thomas Pyle, M. A. Svo. 4 vols. London, 1717-1725.

These volumes extend to all the historical books of the Old Testament; Dr. Doddridge calls it "an elegant and judicious contraction" of Bishop Patrick's work, noticed in p. 753. supra; and adds, that it is "vastly to be preferred to his Paraphrase on the Epistles, which is mentioned infra, in the list of commentators on the New Testament.

3. ORTON. A short and plain Exposition of the Old Testament, with devotional and practical Reflections, for the use of families, subjoined to each chapter, somewhat in the manner of Dr. Doddridge's Family Expositor. By the late Rev. Job Orton. Svo. 6 vols. 1788 -1791; second edition. London, 1822.

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The work was published after the author's death by Mr. Gentleman of Kidderminster; it contains notes chiefly collected from modern expositors, of which "it cannot be said that they are eminently critical; but they often convey valuable instruction, and the reflections are admirably adapted to promote the purposes of serious religion." (Biographia Britannica, 2d edit. vol. v. p. 311. See also Month. Rev. O. S. vol. lxxix. p. 329.) To form a complete comment on the Scriptures, Mr. Orton's paraphrase may be joined with the late Mr. Palmer's abridgment of Dr. Doddridge, noticed infra, in the list of commentators on the New Testament. 4. Geddes. The Holy Bible, or the Books accounted sacred, otherwise called the Books of the Old and New Covenants, faithfully translated from the corrected Texts of the Originals, with various readings, explanatory notes, and critical remarks. By Alexander Geddes, LL. D. 4to. London, vol. i. 1792, vol. ii. 1797. Critical Remarks on the Hebrew Scriptures, 4to. London, 1800, vol. i. on the Pentateuch.



The two volumes of Dr. Geddes's version include the historical books from Genesis to Chronicles, and the book of Ruth. Of the doctor's heterodox commentaries and version, the reader may see an ample examination and refutation in the 4th, 14th, 19th, and 20th volumes of the British Critic, old series. The learned doctor's work is here noticed, lest the author should be charged with designedly omitting it.

§ 2. Principal Commentators on Detached Books of the Old Testament.


1. Annotations upon the Five Books of Moses, the Book of Psalms, and the Song of Songs or Canticles. By Henry Ainsworth. London, 1639. folio.

This work " is a good book, full of very valuable Jewish learning; and his translation is in many places to be preferred to our own, especially on the Psalms." (Dr. Doddridge.) It was translated into Dutch in 1690, and is highly esteemed on the continent.

2. A Commentary on the Five Books of Moses; with a Dissertation concerning the author or writer of the said Books, and a general argument to each of them. By Richard Kidder, Bishop of Bath and Wells. London, 1694. 2 vols. 8vo.

3. Joannis Marckii Commentarius in præcipuas quasdam partes Pentateuchi. Lug. Bat. 1713. 4to.

4. A Critical and Practical Exposition of the Pentateuch; with Notes, theological, moral, critical, philosophical, and historical. To which are subjoined two dissertations:-1. On the Mosaic history of the creation, and 2. On the destruction of the seven nations of Canaan. London, 1748. folio.

This Exposition is compiled with considerable industry from the labours of the best interpreters, antient and modern. It was originally published in numbers, and was designed to have been a complete commentary on the entire Bible: but not meeting with sufficient encouragement, the author (a Mr. Jamieson) proceeded no further than the Pentateuch. It is not of common occurrence.

5. A New and Literal Translation, from the original Hebrew, of the Pentateuch of Moses, and of the Historical Books of the Old Testament to the end of the second Book of Kings; with notes critical and explanatory. By the late Rev. Julias Bate. London, 1773. 4to.

"It is most certainly a new translation, and so very literal, as to be really unintelligible to a plain English reader." (Monthly Rev. O. S. vol. i. p. 106.)

6. The Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses illustrated; being an Explication of the Phraseology incorporated with the Text, for the use of Families and Schools. By the Rev. S. Clapham, of Christ Church, Hants. 1818. 12mo.

7. Hora Mosaica; or a view of the Mosaical Records, with respect to their coincidence with profane antiquity, their internal credibility, and their connection with Christianity. By George Stanley Faber, A. M. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1801; second edition, London, 1818, 2 vols. 8vo.

Although this and the four following works are not, in strictness, commentaries on the Pentateuch, yet they illustrate so many important passages, that the author would have deemed this work imperfect, if he had not noticed them here. Mr. Faber's learned Treatise contains the substance of the eight Bampton Lectures delivered by him. "Those who have not the means or leisure to consult the very valuable works of Mr. Bryant, Mr. Maurice, and Sir W. Jones in this line, will find in these volumes many of the most striking facts brought together, and so arred as jointly to corroborate and confirm the events recorded in the Pentateuch

The references to other authors are numerous, nor are these confined solely to the antients. Additional notes and illustrations are to be found at the end of each volume." (Brit. Crit. vol. xix. O. S. pp. 382. 388.) The second edition, published in 1818, is very materially enlarged and greatly improved by its learned author.

8. An Analytical Exposition of the whole first Book of Moses, called Genesis, and of xxiii. Chapters of his second Book called Exodus. Wherein the various readings are observed; the original text explained; Doubts resolved; Scriptures paralleled; the Scripture Chronology from the Creation of the World to the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai cleared; and the whole illustrated by Doctrines collected from the Text. Delivered in a Morning Exercise on the Lord's Day. By George Hughes, B. D. late minister of the Gospel in Plymouth. (Plymouth) 1672. folio.

A very elaborate and curious work; it is not of common occurrence.

9. Lectures on the Four last Books of the Pentateuch, designed to show the divine origin of the Jewish religion, chiefly from internal evidence; in three parts. By the Rev. R. D. Graves, D. D. (now Dean of Ardagh.) London, 1815. 2 vols. 8vo.

The first edition of this valuable work appeared in 1807; in this impression it is very materially improved, and is indispensably necessary to the biblical student.

10. Commentaries on the Laws of Moses. By the late Sir John David Michaelis, K. P. S. F. R. S. Professor of Philosophy in the University of Gottingen; translated from the German by Alexander Smith, D. D. London, 1814. 4 vols. 8vo.

The spirit of the political and ceremonial law, contained in the writings of Moses, is copiously investigated in is work. Valuable as these "Commentaries" of Michaelis are in many respects, it is much to be regretted that they are not free from that licentiousness of conjecture and of language, as well as tendency to scepticism, which are the too frequent characteristics of modern biblical critics in Germany. Great caution, therefore, will be necessary in consulting this work.

11. The Character of Moses established for Veracity as an Historian, recording Events from the Creation to the Deluge. By the Rev. Joseph Townsend, M. A. vol. i. London, 1813: vol. ii. Bath, 1815. 4to.

For an analysis of this elaborate work, see the Quarterly Review, vol. xiv. pp. 96-112. and the Eclectic Review, O. S. vol. x. pp. 32-49.

12. The Hebrew Text of the Parallel Prophecies of Jacob and Moses, relating to the Twelve Tribes, with a translation and notes, and the various lections of near forty MSS. &c. &c. By D. Durell, D. D. Principal of Hertford College. Oxford, 1764. 4to.


13. Joannis Merceri Commentarius in Genesin. Geneva, 1598. folio.

14. A Few and New Observations upon the Book of Genesis; also a Handful of Gleanings out of the Book of Exodus. By John Lightfoot, D. D. Works, vol. i. p. 698. Lond. 1684.

15. A New English Translation, from the original Hebrew, of the Three First Chapters of Genesis, with marginal illustrations, and notes, critical and explanatory. By Abraham Dawson, M. A. London, 1763. 4to.

16. A Fourth and Fifth Chapter of Genesis, translated from the original Hebrew. By Abraham Dawson, M. A. London, 1772. 4to.

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