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dridge, that the duty we owe the public obliges us to say, they are more the pro perty of that learned critic than of our editor." (Monthly Review, O. S. vol. xxxi. pp. 406, 407.) The book, however, is useful, and not dear.

29. The New Testament or New Covenant of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, translated from the Greek, according to the present idiom of the English tongue. With Notes and References. By John Worsley. London, 1770. 8vo.

The design of this version is to depart, as little as possible, from the authorised translation, while the author has endeavoured (and with some degree of success) to bring it nearer to the original, and to make the form of expression more suited to our present language. He professes to have paid especial attention to the correct rendering of the particles, many of which, it is well known, are omitted in the authorised version. The notes are very brief, and principally intended to confirm and illustrate the more literal or various renderings at the bottom of each page. "This work may be very usefully consulted: and persons, who are unacquainted with the original, may be able from hence to form their judgment concerning the translation in common use among us, and to improve their knowledge of the Scriptures." (Monthly Review, (). S. vol. xliii. p. 12.)

30. The Christian Expositor: being a brief Explanation of the New Testament, whereby the Holy Scriptures are rendered easy to be understood by the meanest capacities. By the Rev. James Ashton. London, 1774. 8vo.

"We think Mr. Ashton seems to have assumed rather too much in his title-page. We have looked over the volume, and find several pertinent illustrations; but we apprehend that this well-intended work will admit of a great deal of improvement." (Monthly Review, O. S. vol. lii. p. 365.)

31. An Exposition of the New Testament, intended as an Introduction to the Study of the Scriptures, by pointing out the leading sense and connection of the Sacred Writers. By Wm. Gilpin, M. A. 2 vols. 8vo.

This justly admired and ably executed work has gone through several editions: it first appeared in one volume, 4to. 1790. "The plan of the author is, to give the whole substance of the New Testament, verse by verse, in such a kind of paraphrase, as may make the historical parts run on in a pleasing style of narrative, and convey the doctrinal parts with such connection of the argument and illustration of the sense, as may induce even the idle to read the whole with pleasure. Sentences are occasionally thrown in for sake of explanation; but, of this and every deviation from the apparent literal sense of the context, due notice is given in the notes; which are numerous, learned, and satisfactory. We have not seen any plan more likely to attract all kinds of readers to this best of studies; and we are happy to bear testimony that the plan is executed with good sense, and without affectation." (British Critic, O. S. vol. iv. p. 122.)

32. A Translation of the New Testament. B. A. Second edition, with improvements. 8vo.

By Gilbert Wakefield,
London, 1795. 2 vols.

The first edition of this work was published in three volumes 8vo. 1792; - for an account of the merits and defects of this version, see Monthly Review, New Series, vol. viii. pp. 241-247. and vol. xx. p. 225. It was preceded, first, by a new translation of the Gospel of Saint Matthew, with notes critical, philological, and explanatory, 4to. London, 1782, of which a severe account is given in the same journal, vol. Ixix. Old Series, pp. 48-59.; and secondly, by a new translation of those parts only of the New Testament, which are wrongly translated in our common version. 8vo. London, 1789. This is a small work, but more valuable for reference than the work above noticed; as it consists simply of corrections of passages mistranslated, without any comment or observations.

33. A Translation of the New Testament, from the Original Greek. Humbly attempted by Nathaniel Scarlett, assisted by men of piety, and literature. With Notes. London, 1798. 8vo.

"It is with sincere regret that we see so much piety and good intention so very

expensively misemployed as in the present volume. Nothing can be more inju dicious than the whole plan and form of the work. What advantage can possibly be expected from printing the historical parts of the Testament like a play ".. "It will hardly be credible to those who do not see the book, that this strange method is employed throughout, whenever it is practicable." (British Critic, O. S. vol. xiii. p. 435.)

34. An Attempt towards revising our English Translation of the Greek Scriptures, or the New Covenant of Jesus Christ, and towards illustrating the Sense by philological and explanatory Notes. By William Newcome, D. D. Archbishop of Armagh. 1796. 2 vols. royal


This work, though printed so long ago as 1796, was not published till some time after the right reverend author's decease in 1800. In his preface it is stated that his original intention extended no further than to improve our authorised translation of the Greek Scriptures, following the text of Griesbach's critical edition, except in a few instances. Finding, however, that his plan would be defective without a comment on the text of such a difficult book, he proceeded to add a selection of annotations from a body of notes which he had formed or compiled, with occasional additions supplied by able commentators, or by his own study of the sacred writings. This version was (much to the mortification of some of the archbishop's relatives) made the basis of the following work, which is here noticed, merely lest the author of these pages should be charged with designedly omitting it.

35. The New Testament in an improved Version, upon the basis of Archbishop Newcome's New Translation: with a corrected Text, and Notes critical and explanatory, &c. &c. &c. London, 1808. Svo.

This version is avowedly made to support the Unitarian scheme, for though the late learned Archbishop Newcome's name is specified in the title page, as a kind of model, his authority is disregarded whenever it militates against the creed of the anonymous editors. The errors and perversions of this translation have been most ably exposed by the Rev. Dr. Nares in his "Remarks on the Version of the New Testament, lately edited by the Unitarians," &c. &c. 8vo. London, 1808; by the Rev. T. Rennell in his "Animadversions on the Unitarian Translation by a Student in Divinity," 8vo. London, 1811; and by the Rev. Dr. Lawrence (now archbishop of Cashel) in his "Critical Reflections on some important Misrepresentations contained in the Unitarian Version of the New Testament," 8vo. Oxford and London, 1811; and especially in the “ Vindication of the Authenticity of the Narratives contained in the first two chapters of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke," by a Layman. London, 1822. 8vo. The three last mentioned treatises discuss various topics, which it did not fall within Dr. Nares's plan to notice. Two short but very able critiques on the Unitarian_Version_ may also be seen in the Quarterly Review, vol. i. pp. 315–336. and the Eclectic Review for 1809, vol. v. pp. 24-39. 236-251.

§ 2. Commentators on detached Books of the New Testament.


1. Novi Testamenti Libri Historici, Græci et Latini, perpetuo Commentario illustrati, a Baldvino Walæo. Lud. Bat. 1653; et Amstel. 1662. 4to.

This may, with great propriety, be termed an edition of the four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, cum notis variorum. The notes of Beza, Grotius, Drusius, Heinsius, and others, are here inserted in regular order, the reader being left to decide for himself, which interpretation he will prefer. As the book sells at an easy price, it may be advantageously substituted for the larger editions of those eminent critics, where they cannot be conveniently referred to.

2. A Paraphrase on the Four Evangelists. By Samuel Clarke, D. D. London. 2 vols. 8vo.

To form a complete paraphrase on the New Testament, there are usually associated with this valuable work of Dr. Clarke, a "Paraphrase on the Acts and Epistles," 2 vols. 8vo. and a "Paraphrase on the Revelations," in one volume 8vo. by T. Pyle, M. A. Their deserved popularity has caused them to pass through repeated editions. Dr. Clarke's paraphrase on the Evangelist deserves an attentive reading; he narrates a story in handsome language, and connects the parts well together; but fails much in emphasis, and seems to mistake the order of the histories." (Dr. Doddridge.) Pyle's Paraphrase on the Epistles Dr. D. considered to be inferior in ability to that on the Old Testament already noticed.

3. Samuelis Friderici Bucheri Antiquitates Biblicæ ex Novo Testamento selectæ, consuetudines, ritus, formulas veterum examinantes. Vitembergae et Lipsia, 1729. 4to.

A collection of notes some of which are sufficiently prolix-on the four GOFpels, elucidating them principally from the rabbinical writers.

4. A Commentary, with Notes, on the Four Evangelists and the Acts of the Apostles; together with a New Translation of Saint Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, with a Paraphrase and Notes, to which are added other Theological Pieces. By Zachary Pearce, D. D. late Bishop of Rochester. London, 1777. 2 vols. 4to.

"On the whole, Dr. Pearce deserves to be ranked with other writers of eminence who have employed their philological learning in illustrating the sacred writings." (Monthly Review, O. S. vol. lvi. p. 205.) To Dr. Z. Pearce, Bishop of Rochester, we are indebted for an invaluable commentary and notes on the four Gospels," &c. "The deep learning and judgment displayed in these notes are really beyond all praise." (Dr. A. Člarke.)

5. Chr. Gul. Thalemanni Versio Latina Evangeliorum, Matthæi, Lucæ, et Johannis, itemque Actorum Apostolorum, edita a C. C. Titmanno. Berolini, 1781. 8vo.

Illustravit Christ. Theoph. Kuinöel.

6. Pericopa Evangelicæ. Lipsia, 1796, 1797. 2 vols. 8vo.

This work contains critical and expository annotations on the Gospels for every Sunday in the year, according to the ritual of the Lutheran church, in which these portions of the New Testament usually form the subjects of the preacher's discourse. The passages selected are nearly the same as those used in the Liturgy of the Anglican church. The notes in this work are much enlarged and corrected in the ensuing article.

7. D. Christiani Theophili Kuinöel Commentarius in Libros Novi Testamenti Historicos, vols. 1-3. Lipsiæ, 1808-1812; vol. 4. Lipsiæ, 1818. 8vo.

This is one of the best philological commentaries on the Historical Books of the New Testament; and is less tainted by dogmatical hypothesis than many of the biblical productions of the later German divines. The text is not inserted. Vol. i. contains the commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel; vol. ii. those on the Gospels of Saint Mark and Saint Luke; vol. iii. that on Saint John; and vol. iv. that on the Acts of the Apostles. To each book are prefixed well compiled prolegomena, in which the author's life, the authenticity of his narrative, the time, place, and the language in which he wrote, as well as his style and manner of writing, are fully discussed. New editions of vol. i. were published in the years 1816 and 1822, the second edition of vols. ii. and iii. in 1817, and the third edition of vol. ii. in 1823.

8. Explanatory Notes upon the Four Gospels, in a new method for the use of all, but especially the unlearned English reader, in two parts, to which are prefixed three discourses. By Joseph Trapp, D. D. Oxford, 1805. 8vo.

The design of this very useful work (which first appeared in 1747 or 1748) is to take notice only of difficult texts, to correct the authorised version, and explain the diction of the sacred writings, but chiefly to reconcile apparently contradictory passages. The three discourses prefixed, explain with much perspicuity

many prophecies of the Old Testament, that are cited in the New. The numerous impressions which this work has undergone, sufficiently attest the high estimation in which it is deservedly held.

9. The Harmony of the Four Gospels. By J. Macknight, D. D. 4to. 2 vols. 1756; 2d edit. 1763; 3d edit. 8vo. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1804.

See a notice of this excellent work, in p. 482. supra, of this volume.

10. The Four Gospels translated from the Greek; with preliminary Dissertations and Notes. By George Campbell, D. D. F. R. S. Edinburgh; Principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen. 4to. 2 vols. London, 1790; 8vo. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1807; 3d edit. London, in 3 vols. 8vo.

The extensive circulation of this valuable work, which has placed the author high in the rank of biblical critics, sufficiently attests the esteem in which it is held. Although his version has not altogether answered the expectations enter. tained of it, yet the notes which accompany it form an excellent philological commentary on the four Evangelists; and the dissertations are a treasure of sacred criticism. The narratives of the sacred writers are arranged in sections, regulated by the subject matter, and the divisions of chapters and verses are retained in the margin. Professor Campbell's work is in Bishop Tomline's list of books for


11. Annotations on the Four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles. Compiled and abridged for the use of students. 3 vols. 2d edit. London, 1812. Svo.

Though published anonymously, this work is known to be the production of the Rev. Mr. Elsley, vicar of Burenston near Bedale; by whom the annotations on the Gospels only were first published in 2 vols. 8vo. 1799. "Altogether, we say without the smallest reserve, we never saw a book more admirably adapted for the use of students, more creditable to an author's sagacity, diligence, and erudition, or more likely to make the investigation of the New Testament easy and agreeable.' (British Critic, O. S. vol. xvi. p. 236. See also Monthly Review, N. S. vol. xxx. p. 441. and vol. lxxvi. p. 381.)



12. Caroli Mariæ de Veil Explicatio Littéralis Evangelii secundum Matthæum et Marcum, ex ipsis Scripturarum fontibus, Ebræorum ritibus et idiomatis, veterum et recentiorum monimentis, eruta. Londini, 1678. 8vo.


3. A New Version of Saint Matthew's Gospel, with Select Notes; wherein the version is vindicated, and the sense and purity of several words and expressions in the Original Greek are settled and illustrated. By Dr. Scott, J. U. D. London, 1741. 4to.

14. Gottfridi Olearii Observationes ad Evangelium Matthæi. Lipsiæ, 1743. 4to.

Professor J. B. Carpzov mentions this as an excellent commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel.

15. Jacobi Elsneri Commentarius in Evangelia Matthæi et Marci. Zwolle, 1767, et annis sequentibus. 3 vols. 4to.

16. Lectures on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, delivered in the parish church of Saint James, Westminster, in the years 1798, 1799, 1800, and 1801. By the Right Rev. Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London. London, 1802. 2 vols. 8vo. 1823, in one vol. 8vo.

The multiplied editions of these admirable lectures sufficiently attest how highly they are esteemed. "They are," indeed, " calculated alike to do good to the learned and unlearned; the aged as well as the inexperienced, the grave and the re

flecting, the gay and the thoughtless. They are learned without ostentation, pious without any tincture of enthusiasm, argumentative without pedantry, and perspicuous without losing sight of the graces of style and diction." (British Critic, O.'s. vol. xx. p. 306.)


17. Georgii Friderici Heupelii Commentarius in Evangelium Marci. Argentorati (Strasburgh), 1716. 8vo.

Carpzov has indicated this Commentary as being an excellent one; we have

never seen it.


18. Sam. Frid. Nath. Mori Prælectiones in Lucæ Evangelium, edidit C. A. Donat. Lipsia, 1795. Svo.


19. Joannis Clarisse, Pro Evangelii Joannei 'ATOENTEIA Dissertatio Critico-Theologica. Harderovici, 1806. 8vo.

19.* Caroli Gulielmi Stein, Authentia Evangelii Joannis contra Bretschneideri Objectiones defensa. Additur Specimen Novi Lexici Joannei. Brandenburgi, 1821. 8vo.

This publication contains a satisfactory vindication of the genuineness of the writings of Saint John, against the objections of M. Bretschneider; who, in his Probabilia de Evangelii et Epistolarum Johannis Apostoli indole et origine, (Lipsiæ, 120, 8vo.) had asserted, contrary to all evidence, -that the writings which bear that apostle's name, were compiled after his decease by some Gentile Christian in the beginning of the second century, who passed himself for the apostle!

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20. A. Th. Calmberg, De antiquissimis Patrum pro Evangelii Joannei au evreía Testimoniis. Lipsiæ et Hamburgi, 1823. folio.

21. L. Usteri, Commentatio Critica, in qua Johannis Evangelium genuinam esse, ex comparatis IV Evangeliorum de coenâ ultimâ et de passione Jesu Christi narrationibus, ostenditur. Turici, 1823. 8vo.

21.* G. F. Weber, Authentia capitis ultimi Evangelii Johannis, hujusque Evangelii totius, argumentorum internorum usu vindicata. Hale, 1823. 8vo.

22. An Exposition of the Gospel of Jesus Christ according to John. By George Hutcheson, Minister of the Gospel at Edinburgh. London, 1657. folio.

A Book not of common occurrence: it contains many valuable observations. 23. Commentarius Analytico-Exegeticus, tam literalis quam realis, Evangelii secundum Johannem. Auctore Fred. Adol. Lampe. Amstelædami, 1724-1726. 3 vols. 4to.

This is unquestionably the most valuable work on Saint John's Gospel that was ever published, every thing which the learned author could possibly collect, in order to illustrate the Evangelist, being here concentrated. It is, however, a work better adapted to the mature scholar than to the student in divinity, who may not always be able to select with judgment from these ample tomes. Lampe also composed two quarto volumes of Dissertationes Philologico-Theologica, on Saint John's Gospel, which were published in 1737, by Dr. Gerdes. They are replete with solid erudition.

24. Paraphrasis Evangelii Joannis, cum Notis et Cantabrigiensis Codicis Latino Textu, a Joanne Salomone Semlero. Halæ, 1771. Svo.

Semler was one of the most celebrated biblical critics of Germany, during the last century: his writings, which illustrate with great ability many philological difficulties, bear a high price; but he espoused such rational dogmas, in certain points of doctrine, which are of fundamental importance that the student cannot be too much on his guard against them.



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