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sideratum- a key to the Revelations." (Works, vol. v. p. 270.) The tenth of Bishop Hurd's sermons on the prophecies discusses, after Mede, the interpretation of the Apocalypse.

103. Anacrisis Apocalypseos Joannis Apostoli, quâ in veras interpretandæ ejus hypotheses diligenter inquiritur, et ex iisdem interpretatio facta, certis historiarum monumentis confirmatur et illustratur, tum quoque quæ Meldensis Præsul Bossuetus hujus libri commentario supposuit, et exegetico Protestantium systemati in visis de Bestia ac Babylone Mystica objecit, sedulo examinantur. Auctore Campegio Vitringa. Amsteladami, 1719. 4to.

104. A Perpetual commentary on the Revelation of Saint John, with a Preliminary Discourse concerning the Principles upon which the said Revelation is to be understood. By Charles Daubuz, M. A. New modelled, abridged, and rendered plain to the meanest capacity, by Peter Lancaster, A. M. London, 1730. 4to.

The best edition of an elaborate and very useful work, of which later writers have not failed to avail themselves. Daubuz's work was first printed in folio, 1720.

105. A Paraphrase and Notes on the Revelation of Saint John. By Moses Lowman, 2d edit. London, 1745. 4to. London, 1807. 8vo. 4th edition.

Bishop Tomline includes this work in his list of books for clergymen and biblical students. Dr. Doddridge has said of it, that he "has received more satisfaction from it, with respect to many difficulties," in the book of Revelation, than he


ever found elsewhere, or expected to have found at all." (Works, vol. ii. Leeds edit. p. 37.) He has given an abstract of Mr. Lowman's scheme of interpretation in his 229th lecture. (Works, vol. v. pp. 410-414.) Lowman's scheme of the seven seals is also approved by the late Rev. David Simpson, in his "Key to the Prophecies," (p. 582. a useful digest of preceding writers) as more consistent with history than that of Bishop Newton, printed in the second volume of his Dissertations on the Prophecies.

106. Bengel:us's Introduction to his Exposition of the Apocalypse; with his preface, and the greatest part of the conclusion of it; and also his marginal notes on the text, which are a summary of the whole exposition. Translated from the High Dutch, by John Robertson, M. D. London, 1757. 8vo.

See an account of this work in the Monthly Review, O. S. vol. xviii. pp. 25— 28. The substance of Bengel's expository writings on the Apocalypse is given in the Rev. John Wesley's notes, mentioned in p. 751. of this Appendix.

107. The Revelations translated, and explained throughout, with keys, illustrations, notes, and comments; a copious introduction, argument, and conclusion. By W. Cooke, Greek Professor at Cambridge, &c. 1789. 8vo.

"A writer who can discover" (as Mr. Cooke has done) "the Jewish church in the Iliad, and Christianity in the Odyssey, may certainly find whatever he pleases in the Book of Revelations; but it is not equally certain that he is qualified to detect the fallacies of Joseph Mede, and to prove him mistaken, false, and erroneous. Though the author professes to have lighted the taper of God's truth from the kindled incense of prayers,' and though he may expect that it will flame like a fire-brand, fling and bounce, and run, singeing and scorching wherever it touches,' we have been so unfortunate as not to receive from this flaming taper a single ray to guide us through this region of darkness." (Monthly Review, N. S. vol. iii. p. 148.)

108. Commentarius in Apocalypsin Joannis. Scripsit Jo. Gothofr. Eichhorn. Gottingen, 1791. 2 vols. small 8vo.

The hypothesis of the celebrated Professor Eichhorn is, that the Revelation of Saint John is a prophetic drama, the true subject of which is the spiritual victory

of Christianity over Judaism and Paganism. His eccentric scheme of interpretation has found but few supporters even in Germany. As this commentary on the Apocalypse is not of very frequent occurrence in this country, the following abstract of his scheme may not be unacceptable to the reader. He divides the Apocalypse into four parts, viz. 1. The Title; -2. The Prologue itself; -3. The Drama itself; - - and 4. The Epilogue.

1. The Title (i. 1—3.)

2. The Prologue (i. 4.—iii. 22.), in which it is stated that the argument of the drama belongs to the Christians; Epistles to the churches being added, which in the symbolic style of the poem are represented by the number seven.

3. The drama itself (iv. 1.

xxii. 5.), which consists of a prelude and three

acts!!! In the Prelude (iv. 1.-viii. 5.), the scenery is prepared and adorned. ACT I. Jerusalem is taken; i. e. Judaism is conquered by the Christian religion. (viii. 6.-xii. 17.)

ACT II. Rome is captured; i. e. Paganism is subdued by the Christian religion. (xi. 18.-xx. 10.)

ACT III. The New Jerusalem descends from heaven; or the happiness of the life to come, which is to endure for ever, is described. (xx. 11.-xxii. 5.) 4. The Epilogue. (xxii. 6-21.)


Of the Angel. (xxii. 6.)


Of Jesus Christ. (xxii. 7—16.)

c. Of Saint John, who denounces a curse against those who shall add to or diminish the predictions contained in this book (xxii. 16—20.), and concludes with an apostolical benediction. (21.)

The hypothesis of Eichhorn (we understand) was attacked and refuted by M. Lange, in his German translation of the Apocalypse.

109. A Commentary on the Revelations. By Bryce Johnstone, D. D. Edinburgh, 1794. 2 vols. 8vo.

This work we have not had an opportunity of seeing it is stated by the late Dr. E. Williams to be "well calculated for general use, being written with great perspicuity, and in a popular practical strain." (Christian Preacher, Appendix, p. 437.)

110. Reflections sur l'Apocalypse. Par E. Gibert, Ministre de la Chapelle Royale, et Recteur de St. André dans l'Isle de Guernsey. Guernsey, 1796. 8vo.

Plain, pious, and practical. The learned author has chiefly followed the exposition given by Bishop Newton in the second volume of his Dissertations on the Prophecies.

111. Practical Observations on the Revelation of Saint John, written in the year 1775. By the late Mrs. Bowdler. 2d edit. Bath, 1800. 12mo.

This work is expressly designed for those who have not leisure or inclination to examine the prophetical meaning of the apocalypse. "Many such readers will doubtless be found; and whoever takes up the book with a serious mind, will be edified by the good sense, piety, and modesty of the writer." (British Critic, O. S. vol. xvi. p. 561.)

112. A Commentary on the Revelation of Saint John, accompanied with historical testimony of its accomplishment to the present day. By the Rev. E. W. Whitaker. London, 1802. 8vo.

The present work is an enlarged edition of a small work on the prophecies, originally printed in 1795. The author "has the peculiar merit of compelling the historian Gibbon to give testimony, in almost every instance that falls within the limits of his chronology, to the fulfilment of the prophecies." The points insisted on by Mr. Whitaker, "he has succinctly handled, and reasoned upon each in such a manner as to render his work, if not decisive upon the subject, yet too impor tant not to become a book of reference and authority to future commentators." (British Critic, vol. xxiii. O. S. pref. p. iv. and p. 252.)

113. Brief Commentaries upon such parts of the Revelation and other Prophecies as immediately refer to the present times; in which

the several allegorical types and expressions of those prophecies are translated into their literal meanings, and applied to their appropriate events, &c. &c. By Joseph Galloway, Esq. London, 1802. 8vo.

"In the work before us, much ingenuity is displayed, as to the explanation of some of the apocalyptic visions; though in other parts solutions are offered, which appear to us to be but very weakly supported." "Mr. Galloway deserts many of the old interpretations for applications invented by himself; and, though we often dissent from his comments, we are pleased by the spirit of his admonitions." (British Critic, vol. xxiii. p. 537. and Pref. p. iv.)

114. The Apocalypse, or Revelation of Saint John, translated, with Notes critical and explanatory. To which is prefixed a Dissertation on the divine origin of the book, in answer to the objections of the late Professor Michaelis; with a biographical chart of writers in the early Christian church, who appear to have afforded evidence in favour of the Apocalypse. By John Chappel Woodhouse, D. D. London, 1806. royal 8vo.

"This," said the late Bishop Hurd, "is the best book of the kind I have seen. It owes its superiority to two things, the author's understanding, for the most part, the apocalyptic symbols in a spiritual, not a literal sense: Secondly, to the care he has taken to fix the precise import of those symbols, from the use made of them by the old prophetical and other writers of the Old and New Testament. Still many difficulties remain and will remain to the time of the end." (Manuscript note of the late Bishop Hurd, on a blank leaf of a presentation copy of this work, in the library of Hartlebury. See Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxxviii. part ii. p. 702.) After such commendation any further observation is unnecessary. The text of the Apocalypse is handsomely printed in three columns, containing the Greek text of Griesbach's second edition of the New Testament, Dr. W.'s own translation from it, and the authorised version, from which he never departs but when the sense requires it. The reader who is desirous of seeing analyses of this most excellent work, may consult the British Critic, O. S. vol. xxix. pp. 190–200. ; and the Eclectic Review, O. S. vol. ii. part ii. pp. 914-922.


115. England Safe and Triumphant: or Researches into the Apocalyptic Little Book, and Prophecies, connected and synchronical. By the Rev. Francis Thruston, M. A. Coventry and London, 1812. 2 vols. 8vo.

"Among many interpretations of the Divine Book of the Revelation, here is one which expressly views in it the permanency of the church of England, and its prevalence over all other denominations of the Christian world! Much as we are inclined to believe that there is a strong foundation of truth in what this author urges, in conformity with other sound interpreters, or built on their positions, we cannot but think in many places, particularly towards the latter end of his work, he is rather too rapid in forming his deductions and conclusions; in some of which we confess ourselves unable to follow him." (British Critic, O. S. vol. xxxiii. pp. 593. 595.) It may be proper to remark, that Mr. Thruston has followed the line marked out by Mr. Faber in his works on prophecy already noticed.

116. A Dissertation on the Dragon, Beast, and False Prophet of the Apocalypse; in which the Number 666. is satisfactorily explained: and also a full illustration of Daniel's Vision of the Ram and He-Goat. By James Edward Clarke. London, 1814. 8vo.

"We cannot agree with the author in many of his explanations; yet we have read his work with some degree of satisfaction, and think he has succeeded in throwing additional light on some of the obscure subjects which he undertakes to illustrate." (Eclectic Review, N. S. vol. iv. p. 289.)

117. Expository Discourses on the Apocalypse, interspersed with Practical Reflections. By the late Rev. Andrew Fuller. London,

1815. 8vo.

This posthumous publication, consisting of thirty-one discourses delivered in the years 1809 and 1810, after undergoing several revisions, was finished by the learn

ed author, a short time only before his decease. "There is however but little novelty in the work, but little to gratify the anxious curiosity of the age, or to elucidate the unfulfilled and more difficult parts of the Revelation. The general outline of the prophetic scheme is boldly sketched, and its various ramifications are marked with that precision which was common to the writer: but in general there is an extreme of modesty and diffidence, with scarcely any attempts to pass the usual boundaries of thought on these subjects, or any adventurous flight of speculation." (Morris's Memoirs of Mr. Fuller, p. 249.) An abstract of Mr. F.'s scheme of the Apocalypse is given in the same work (pp. 250-260.), and in Mr. Jones's Biblical Cyclopedia, article Apocalypse.

118. The Prophetic History of the Christian Revelation Explained: or a Brief Exposition of the Revelation of Saint John. By the Rev. George Schmucker, Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, York Town, Pennsylvania. Vol. I. Baltimore, 1817. 8vo.

119. An Exposition of the Book of Revelation. Being the substance of forty-four Discourses preached in the Parish Church of Olney, Bucks. By the Rev. Henry Gauntlett. London, 1821. 8vo.

This work "affords ample proofs of his" [the author's] "piety, good sense and industry. His interpretations of the prophecies, whether fulfilled or expected to be so, are mostly supported by venerable authorities; and where he differs from them, it is with due modesty and candour." (British Review, vol. xviii. p. 396.)

120. M. T. Laurmann Prælectio de imaginum sive figurarum poeticarum, in Apocalypsi Joannea, indole atque pretio. Groninga, 1822. 8vo.

121. A Concise Exposition of the Apocalypse, so far as the Prophecies are fulfilled; several of which are interpreted in a different way from that adopted by other Commentators. By J. R. Park, M. D. London, 1823. 8vo.

The author of this work regards the Apocalypse as being altogether a spiritual and not a political prophecy; that is, as relating exclusively to the progress of true religion, and not to the history of the Roman Empire. This general principle is derived from the excellent work of Dean Woodhouse noticed in p. 806, which Dr. Park has adopted as his guide, and whose translation he has for the most part preferred.

122. Dissertations, introductory to the Study and Right Understanding of the Language, Structure, and Contents of the Apocalypse. By Alexander Tilloch, LL. D. London, 1823. 8vo.



1. Fr. Lud. Abresch, Animadversiones ad Eschylum; accedunt adnotationes ad quædam Loca Novi Testamenti. 8vo.

2. Joannis Alberti Observationes Philologica in Sacros Novi Fœderis Libros. Lugd. Bat. 1725. 8vo.

3. Caroli Aurivillii Dissertationes ad Sacras Literas et Philologiam Orientalem Pertinentes. Gottingen, 1790. 8vo.

4. Miscellanea Sacra: containing an Abstract of the Scripture History of the Apostles in a new method. With Four Critical Essays 1. On the Witness of the Holy Spirit: 2. On the Distinction between Apostles, Elders, and Brethren: 3. On the Time when Paul and Barnabas became Apostles: 4. On the Apostolical Decree, &c. &c. (By Lord Barrington.) A new edition, with large editions and corrections. London, 1782. 3 vols. 8vo.

The merit of this work is generally allowed. Dr. Benson acknowledged himself much indebted to it in his history of the first planting of Christianity, and in some other of his works.

5. Jo. Hermanni Benner, Otia Sacra, de Divinis quibusdam Oraculis occupata. Gissæ, 1736. Svo.

6. The Sacred Classics defended and illustrated, by Anthony Blackwall. London, 1737. 2 vols. 8vo.

This work "gives many well chosen instances of passages in the classics, which may justify many of those in Scripture that have been accounted solecisms. They illustrate the beauty of many others, and contain good observations on the divisions of chapters and verses, by which the sense of Scripture is often obscured." (Dr. Doddridge.)

7. Zachariæ Bogan Homerus 'Eßgalwv; sive comparatio Homeri cum Scriptoribus sacris, quoad normam loquendi. Oxonii, 1658. Svo.

In the preface to this learned work the author states that it is not his intention to institute any comparison between the sacred writers and their opinions, and Homer, but simply between their idioms and ways of speaking. The author added to his book Hesiodus 'Eẞpaiwv; in which he shows how Hesiod expresses him self nearly after the same manner as Homer.

8. De Constanti et Æquabili Jesu Christi Indole, Doctrina, ac Docendi Ratione, sive Commentationes de Evangelio Joannis cum Matthæi, Marci, et Luca Evangeliis comparato. Scripsit E. A. Borger. Lugd. Bat. 1816. 8vo.

A work of deep research. Its design is to demonstrate the credibility of the four evangelists by internal arguments, deduced from the mutual comparison of their writings.

10. Lamberti Bos Exercitationes Philologica, in quibus Novi Fœderis loca nonnulla ex auctoribus Græcis illustrantur, aliorumque versiones et interpretationes examinantur. Franequeræ, 1713. 8vo.

11. Lamberti Bos Observationes Miscellaneæ ad loca quædam Novi Fœderis. Franequeræ, 1707. 8vo.

12. Lamberti Bos Ellipses Græcæ, editæ a Schaefer. Lipsiæ, 1808, or Glasgow, 1813. Svo.

13. Critical Conjectures and Observations on the New Testament, collected from various Authors, as well in regard to Words as Pointing, with the reason on which both are founded. By William Bowyer, F. S. A., Bishop Barrington, Mr. Markland, Professor Schultz, Professor Michaelis, Dr. Owen, Dr. Woide, Dr. Gosset, and Mr. Weston. A series of conjectures from Michaelis, and a specimen of Notes on the Old Testament, by Mr. Weston, are added in an Appendix London, 1812. 4to. 4th ed.

For an account of the former impressions of this valuable work, see Monthly Review, O. S. vols. xlvi. p. 555. and lxvii. p. 113.; and for an account of the present edition, see the British Critic, O. S. vol. xl. p. 507. et seq. In the preface to which journal (p. vi.) it is truly observed, that Mr. Bowyer's work is for the learned only, and for those among the learned who can discriminate and judge for themselves. Conjectures on the sacred text are at best extremely hazardous; hence it is that the work, though valuable, can deserve only a partial recommendation."

14. Observations upon the Plagues inflicted upon the Egyptians; in which is shown the peculiarity of those judgments, and their correspondence with the rites and idolatry of that people, &c. &c. By Jacob Bryant. London, 1794; 2d edition, 1810. 8vo.

"The same depth of thought, the same brilliancy of fancy, and the same extent of erudition, are proportionably conspicuous in this smaller production, as in the

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