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carrying lights tied to the ends of poles, which attracted small birds. The birds were then easily knocked down by means of thick bunches of furze, &c., mounted on long handles.

204 This is a strange repose. Cp. Macbeth, v. I, 10: “A great perturbation in nature ! to receive at once the benefit of sleep, and do the effects of watching.

207 The occasion speaks thee. Makes thee known as that which thou canst and wilt be.' 218 For ebbing men,' cp. Antony and Cleopatra, i. 4, 43— And the ebb'd man, ne'er lov'd till ne'er worth love,

Comes fear'd by being lacked.” 220 If heed me. * If [you intend to] heed me.' 226 Invest. 'Put on like a garment;' contrasted with stripping off.' The more Sebastian, by putting forward his natural indolence, seems to decline entering into Antonio's counsels, the more, as Antonio can perceive, is he really inclined to slip into them as into a garment.

232 This lord of weak remembrance appears to mean Gonzalo, though it was Francisco who said that Ferdinand might have escaped drowning. By remembrance seems to be meant, who cannot remember the best-known facts, and shall there. fore be not remembered himself when once dead.'

237 Only professes to persuade. “Who makes persuading his whole profession.'

238 Ten leagues beyond man's life. Here the unnaturalness of Claribel's going to Tunis is boldly typified and brought to view by supposing Tunis, which is almost in sight from Sicily, to be at an immeasurable distance from Naples.

242 There refers to “beyond.' “You have a hope so high that ambition can see nothing beyond it, and even doubts the discovery of anything higher.

Doubt. The absence of s marks the subjunctive.

250 She that [returning] from whom we all were sea-swallow'd ; ‘she that’ being repeated to match the three preceding sentences, here an anacoluthon. Cp. i. 2, 29, n. The Globe retains “ She that–from whom?” which is not clear.

261 Tender your own good fortune. · Esteem your own good fortune;' as Polonius, in Hamlet, i. 3, 109, says : You'll tender me a fool.”

276 Kibe. A broken chilblain.' 'Kibby' is the Devonshire form of 'chapped.'

276 Candied be they. The general meaning of 'candied'in Shakespeare is ‘sugared' or 'frozen over ;' here it seems to be rather turned to sugаr so as to melt easily.'

“Since when those frosts which winter brings,
Which candy every green.

-DRAYTON's Quest of Cynthia.


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While' is a noun ; A. 3. toil, " time. Ger.herec


280 They'll tell the clock. “Whatever we say it is the time for, they'll say, “Just so.

284 The tribute. Mentioned above, in i. 2, 115. 308 A humming. Ariel's warning song.

310 Whiles. weile.' Cp.

Pausing a while, thus to herself she mused.”--MILTON. And in the dative plural“Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers,

There whilom wont the Templar knights abide.”--SPENSER. So “Will you troll the catch you taught me but while-ere” (iii. 2, 127); i.é. 'a little time before'. Then '[during] the while [in which),' as a conjunction

'I muse, as in a trance, the while

Comes out thy deep ambrosial smile.”—TENNYSON. • Whiles' used to be more commonly used in the sense of “as long as,' while' meaning "until,' as now, in Yorkshire.

Observe the adaptation of style to sense ; prose suffices for bantering Gonzalo, but Alonzo's grief and the conspirator's treason find utterance in metre. These adaptations help to maintain the illusion that it is not that the poet writes in verse, but that the dignity or emotion of the speaker falls into it.

The intermixture of the humorous element is an essential feature of the Elizabethan drama-an element as welcome to an English as the lyrical interludes to a Greek audience. This element not only gives naturalness to the piece, but has a reflex action of its own; the “language of passion becomes elevated by comparison with the lighter conversation of men under no strong emotion.”

The scene is essentially subordinate. It is not this new plot against Alonzo, but the old plot against Prospero, which is the real groundwork of this piece. The dramatic purpose of it is merely to let the audience judge. for themselves of Antonio's baseness, and thus to enlist their sympathies more strongly in behalf of the rightful duke. From the sensational nature of the scene, it might, in the hands of a less skilful manager, have assumed an undue prominence, and thus have marred the unity of the play ; but as a matter of fact we never believe the plot will be successful, and yet we are revolted at the cold-blooded calculations of the plotters. What we feel is not suspense, but disgust. And why is this? Simply because of the prominence of the magical element; the very improbability which mars the completeness of the illusion preventing us from centering our interest on that which is merely a piece of bye-play.

Coleridge remarks that “here, as in many other places,

Shakespeare has shown the tendency in bad men to indulge in scorn and contemptuous expressions as a mode of getting rid of their own uneasy feelings of inferiority to the good ; and also, by making the good ridiculous, of rendering the transition of others to wickedness more easy. Shakespeare never puts habitual scorn into the mouths of other than bad men, as here in the instances of Antonio and Sebastian.

“The intended assassination of Alonzo and Gonzalo is an exact counterpart of the scene between Macbeth and his lady, only pitched in a lower key throughout, as designed to be frustrated and concealed, and exhibiting the same profound management in the manner of familiarising a mind, not immediately recipient, to the suggestion of guilt, by associating the proposed crime with something ludicrous or out of place-something not habitually matter of reverence. By this kind of sophistry the imagination and fancy are first bribed to contemplate the suggested act, and at length to become acquainted with it.”

ACT II. SCENE 2. 3 Inch-meal. From the A.S. dative ‘mælum,' “in separate portions.' Hence, literally 'inches separately.'. Cp.---.. O that I had her here, to tear her limb-meal.

-Cymbeline, ii. 4. So drop-meal,' for 'by drops;' and A.S. ‘bit-mælum,' dæl mælum,' 'by separate bits or deals.'

9 To mow, or ‘moe.' Fr. 'faire la moue,' 'to make a pouting face. It is often joined with “to mop;' i.e. 'to make a sulky or moping face.' So in stage direction, iii. 3: “Enter the shapes again, and dance with mops and mowes. Ср. –

'Apes and monkeys,
'Twixt two such shes, would chatter this way, and

Contemin with mowes the other." So in king Lear, iv. I, 64:“Flibbertigibbet [fiend) of mopping and mowing:Johnson quotes Psalm xxxv. 15: abjects came together against me unawares, making mows at me, which the printers have now altered into “making mouths."

13 Wound. Probably 'twisted round ;' not for 'wounded.'

20 Bombard. An enormous leather drinking-vessel or jug, like a black-jack' (still used at Winchester). So Falstaff is c.illed “a huge bombard of sack.”1 Henry IV. ii. 4, 497. Ben Jonson uses it like Gr. Nńkvoos, Lat. 'ampulla'

“ Their bombard phrase, their foot and half-foot words.” • Bombard' was also used for a cannon or mortar, probably of the same shape; hence to bomba'rd.'

27 Poor John. Salted herring. Cp. our use of John-Dory.'

28 Fish painted. So in Old Play: “Enter Bright, hanging out the picture of a strange fish


“ The very



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• This is the fifth fish now

That he hath shewn thus.'" 31 Makes a man. Cp. Midsummer Night's Dream, iv. 2, 18 : “We had all been made men.

33 Doit. (Venetian 'da-otto,' a piece of eight' soldi.) A half-farthing.

34 Dead Indian. Cp. HenryVIII. v. 4, 34: “Or have we some strange Indian come to court, the women so besiege us?” So Eden's Travels, 1577 : The captayne retayned two of these [Patagonian giants), which were youngest and best made.” They seem to have been sometimes exhibited embalmed, or even manufactured at home, as we see in line 61: “Do you put tricks upon 's with savages and men of Ind?”

40 Moon-calf. Untimely birth,' 'misshapen monster.'

Gaberdine. Shepherd's coarse frock or coat. Old Fr. 'galvardine.' Cp. “My Jewish gaberdine.” -Merchant of Venice, i. 3, 113

48 Swabber. Man who washed the decks. 'Swab,'a mop of unravelled rope.

81 I will not take too much for him ; i.l. 'However much I get, it will not be too much.' Or perhaps merely, “I will get what I can.

86 Give language to a cat. Cp. proverb, “Good liquor will make a cat speak.”—STEEVENS.

99 Amen ; i.e. “Finish your draught.'
103 ‘He needs a long spoon that will eat with the devil.'
110 Siege. “Stool.' Fr. “siège.' Cp. Lat. obsidium.'

144 Cp. Midsummer Night's Dream, v. I, 263, for the man in the moon, his bush and dog. The man in the moon was supposed to be the same who gathered sticks on the sabbath day. His bush represents the sticks.-HUNTER.

151 Well drawn ; i.e. “a good draught,' as in ‘draw breath.' 175 Marmoset, a kind of monkey.

176 Scamels. Unexplained word, probably sea-gulls.' This gives a point to the word 'young;' young gulls being more easily caught. [c for e is the most difficult of all misprints to detect, so it may be a misprint for “seamels ;' i.e. 'sea-malls,' or mews.') Mr. Wright quotes for the 'godwit’ being called a “scamel’ at Blakeney in Norfolk; but the reference is still uncertain.



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The part the trio play in the piece will be seen from their reappearance in the second scene of the next act. Notice how a few bold strokes in this scene suffice to sketch the vices of a low civilization.

It has been truly remarked, what a strange harmony there is between the monster Caliban and the nature which surrounds him, and of which he is in some sense a part : whence a kind of grace, which places him as much above the drunken and graceless European as he is below Prospero and Miranda. Remark, in act iii. 3, 130, how much more sensitive he is than they to sweetness of sound.

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ACT III. SCENE I. 6 The mistress which. " Which’is now used as the neuter of who;' but which' (A.S. 'hwilc,') originally answered to such,' as 'who' answers to "he.' It was sometimes spelt ' wuche ;' hence which is Lat. qualis,' Fr. 'quel,' or le quel' (as often the which '). Originally it was used for all genders ; as in biblical language : "Jhesu Crist, the wuche is consceyved of holy gost ;”. “Our Father which art in heaven;"

Shall I bear a child, which (üres) am old ?" (Gen. xviii. 13); "He which received seed; "They which pursued after them.'

13 But [though I forget my work, I am not lazy ; for) these sweet thoughts even refresh my labours ; i.e. 'make my labours fresh again.' “The sweet thoughts which made my labours pleasures, occupy me so intensely that they make my pleasures back into labours again.' “Refresh' is, however, generally taken as refresh [me after] my labours ;' but then there is no point in the even.' The whole speech is a study of oxymoron in the strictest sense of the term. * The sports are painful, the baseness noble, poor is rich, dead is quick, labour is pleasure, and then, as the crown of all, the pleasure is so pleasant that it becomes more laborious than the labour.

14 Most busy least, when I do it. It seems to me simplest to take this as it stands, treating it as an oxymoron, 'Least most busy, when I do it [the carrying];' i.e. 'I am least busy at the time, when any one would think I am most busy ; viz., when I am carrying the logs. I am really most busy, when I am apparently resting, because then I think of my love.' [It might also be

Most busy--least ;' i.e. 'I am most busy when thinking, least [busy) when working.] As he says 'do it' he shoulders the log which he had put down while speaking.

The paradoxes are meant to portray the 'exaggeration of love.' The speech is quite like some of Shakespeare's own sonnets, as-

“Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed,

The dear repose for limbs with travel tired ;
But then begins a journey in head,
To work my mind, when body's work 's expired :
For then my thoughts (from far where I abide)

Intend a zealous pilgrimage to thee. * From o&ús, “sharp,' and uwpós, ‘dull;' hence 'pointedly foolish ;' i.e. ‘a paradox;' like 'insaniens sapientia,' uńrnp åjrwp.



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