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his judgment is insensibly warped by the particularity of his private opinions.--He wrote also “ The Idler," " Rasselas,"* 66 The Vision of Theodore,” “ A journey to the Western Islands of Scotland," and many other works, which our limits will not allow us to characterize, or even to enumerate.

In 1783, the palsy gave Johnson warning of the failure of his constitution. A melancholy, which in him was constitutional, and which had harassed him more or less through every period of his life, joined to a very scrupulous sense of duty, filled him with apprehension of an event, which few men have had so good a right to meet with fortitude. The last days of his existence were, however, less clouded by gloomy fears; and he departed this life, in the year 1784, with resignation and comfortable hope.

* The effect of Rasselas, and of Johnson's other moral tales, is thus beautifully illustrated by Mr. Courtenay in his “ Poetical Review." Impressive truth, in splendid fiction drest, Checks the vain wish, and calms the troubled

breast; O’er the dark mind a light celestial throws, And soothes the angry passions to repose, As oil effus'd illumes and-smooths the deep, When round the bark the swelling surges




CHAP. 1.
i Description of a Palace in a Valley.

YE who listen with credulity to the whispers of fancy, and pursue with eagerness the phantoms of hope; who expect that age will perform the promises of youth, and that the deficiencies of the present day will be supplied by the morrow; attend to the history of Rasselas, prince of Abissinia.

Rasselas was the fourth son of the mighty emperor, in whose dominions the Father of IVaters begins his course; whose bounty pours down the streams of plenty, and scatters over half the torld the harvests of Egypt.

According to the custom which has descended froin age to age among the monarchs of the torrid zone, Rasselas was confined in a private palace, with the other sons and daughters of Abissinian royalty, till the order of succession should call him to the throne.

The place which the wisdom or policy of antiquity had destined for the residence of the Abissinian princes, was a spacious valley in the kingdom of Amhara, surrounded on every side by mountains, of which the summits overhang the middle part. The only passage by which it could be entered was a cavern that passed under a rock, of which it has long been disputed whether it was the work of nature or of human industry. The outlet of the cavern was concealed by a thick wood, and the mouth which opened into the valley was closed with gates of iron, forged by the artificers of ancient days, so massy, that no man could, without the help of engines, open or shut them.

From the mountains on every side, rivulcts descended that filled all the valley with verdure and fertility, and formed a lake in the middle, inhabited by fish of cvery species, and frequented by every fowl whom nature has taught to dip the wing in water. This lake discharged its superfluities by a stream which entered a dark cleft of the mountain on the northern side, and fell with dreadful noise from precipice to precipice till it was heard no morc.

The sides of the mountains werd covered with trees, the banks of the brooks were diversified with flowers; every blast shook spices from the rocks, and every month dropped fruits upon the ground. All animals that bito

the grass, or brouse the shrub, whether wild or tame, wandered in this extensive circuit, secured from beasts of prey by the mountains which confined them. On one part were flocks and herds feeding in the pastures, on another all the beasts of chase frisking on the lawns; the sprightly kid was bounding on the rocks, the subtle monkey frolicking in the trees, and the solemn elephant reposing in the shade. All the diversities of the world were brought together, the blessings of nature were collected, and its evils extracted and excluded.

The valley, wide and fruitful, supplied its inhabitants with the necessaries of life, and all delights and superfluities were added to the annual visit which the emperor paid his chil.dren, when the iron gate was opened to the sound of music; and during eight days every one that resided in the valley was required to propose whatever might make seclusion pleasant, to fill up the vacancies of attention, and lessen the tediousness of time. Every desire was immediately granted. All the artificers of pleasure were called to gladden the festiyitv; the musicians exerted the power of harmony, and the dancers showed their activity before the princes, in hope that they should pass their lives in this blissful captivity, to which those only were admitted whose performance was thought able to add novelty to luxury. Such was the appearance of security and delight" which this retirement afforderi, that they to whom it was new, always desired that it might be perpetual; and as those on whom the iron gate had once closed, were never suffered to return, the effect of longer experience could not be known. Thus every year produced new schemes of delight, and new competitors for imprisonment.'

The palace stood on an eminence, raised about thirty paces above the surface of the lake. It was divided into many squares or courts, built with greater or less magnificence, according to the rank of those for whom they were designed. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time, and the building stood from century to century, deriding the solstitial rains, and equinoctial hurricanes, without need of reparation. - This house, which was so large as to be fully known to none but some ancient officers who successively inherited the secrets of the place, was built as if Suspicion herself had dictated the plan. To every room there was an open and a secret passage; every square had a communication with the rest, either from the upper stories by private galleries, or by subterranean passages from the lower apartments. Many of the columns had unsuspected cavities, in which a long race of monarchs had reposited their treasures. They then closed up the opening with marble, which was never io be removed but in the utmost exigen

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