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they were said to have lost, on account still continued, out of respect to the of their partiality to Minerva, in her reasonable and decent purpose for dispute with Neptune, about giving a which the law was originally enacted. name to the city.
When a speaker has delivered his In ordinary cases, all matters were first sentiments, he generally called on an
deliberated in the senate of five hun- officer, appointed for that purpose, to dred, composed of fifty fenators chosen read his motion, and propound it in out of each of the ten tribes. Each form. He then sat down, or resumed tribe had its turn of prefiding, and his discourse, and enforced his mothe fifty senators in oífice were called tion by additional arguments: and Prytanes. And, according to the num- sometimes the speech was introduced ber of the tribes, the Aitic year was by his motion thus propounded. When divided into ten parts, the four first all the speakers had ended, the people containing thirty-Six, the other thirty- gave their opinion, by stretching out five days; in order to make the Lu- their hands to him whose proposal nar year complete, which, according pleased them mort. And Xenophon to their calculation, contained one reports, that, night having come on hundred and fifty-four days. During when the people were engaged in an each of these divisions, ten of the fifty important debate, they were obliged Prytanes governed for a week, and to defer their determination till next were called Procdri: and, of these, day, for fear of confusion, when their he who in the course of the week hands were to be raised. presided for one day, was called the Porrexerunt manus, faith Cicero (pro Epistate: three of the Proedri being Flacco) & Pfephisma natum eft. And, excluded from this office.
to constitute this Psephisma or decree, The Prytanes affembled the people: the fix thousand citizens at least were re
Proedri declare the occafion; and the quired. When it was drawn up, the Epistatæ demand their voices. This name of its author, or that person was the case in the ordinary asiem- whose opinion has prevailed, was preblies: the extraordinary were con- fixed: whence, in speaking of it, they vened as well by the generals as the call it his decree. The date of it Prytanes; and sometimes the people contained the name of the Archon, met of their own accord, without wait- that of the day and month, and that ing the formalities.
of the tribe then presiding. The buThe assembly was opened by a facrifice; siness being over, the Prytanes dir
and the place was sprinkled with the missed the assembly. blood of the victim. 'Then an im- The reader who chuses to be more mi. precation was pronounced, conceived nutely informed in the customs, and in these terms: “May the gods pur. manner of procedure in the public “ fue that man to destruction, with assemblies of Athens, may consult the “ all his race, who shall act, speak, Archælogia of Archbishop Potter, Si. “ or contrive, any thing against this gonins or the Concionatrices of Arilor itate!” This ceremony being tophanes. finished, the Proedri declared the occasion of the assembly, and reported HAD we been convened, Athenians ! the opinion of the senate. if any on some new subject of debate, I had waitdoubt arose, an herald, by commissioned, until most of the usual persons had de. from the Epistatæ, with a loud voice, clared their opinions. If I had approved invited any citizen, first of those above of any thing proposed by them, I should the age of fifty, to speak his opinion : have continued filent: If not, I had then and then the rest according to their attempted to speak my sentiments. But ages. This right of precedence had since those very points on which these speakbeen granted by a law of Solon, and ers have oftentimes been heard already are, the order of speaking determined in- at this time, to be considered; though I tirely by the difference of years. In have arisen first, I presume I may expect the time of Demosthenes, this law was your pardon; for if they on former ocnot in force. It is faid to have been cafions had advised the necessary measures, sepealed about fifty years before the ye would not have found it needful to condate of this oration. Yet the custom sult at present.
Firit then, Athenians! these our affairs sentiments, he overturns whole countries; must not be thought desperate; no, though he holds all people in subjection : fome, as their fituation seems intirely deplorable. by the right of conqueft; others, under For the most shocking circumstance of all the title of allies and confederates : for our pait conduct is really the most favour- all are willing to confederate with those able to our future expectations. And whom they see prepared and resolved to what is this? That our own total indo- exert themselves as they ought. ience hath been the cause of all our pre- And if you (my countrymen!) will now fent difficulties. For were we thus dil- at length be persuaded to entertain the like trefled, in spite of every vigorous effort fentiments; if each of you, renouncing all which the honour of our state demanded, evasions, will be ready to approve himself there were then no hope of a recovery. an useful citizen, to the utmost that his
In the next place, reflect (you who have station and abilities demand; if the rich been informed by others, and you
will be ready to contribute, and the young yourselves remember) how great a power
to take the field; in one word, if
you the Lacedemonians not long since pof- be yourselves, and banith those vain hopes fefied; and with what resolution, with what which every single person entertains, that dignity you disdained to act unworthy of while so many others are engaged in pubthe state, but maintained the war against lic business, his service will not be rethem for the rights of Greecc. Why do I quired; you then (if Heaven so pleases) mention these things ? That ye may know, Mall regain your dominions, recal those that ye may fee, Athenians! that'if duly opportunities your fupineness hath neg. vigilant, ye cannot have any thing to fear; lected, and chattise the insolence of this that if once remiss, not any thing can hap- man. For you are not to imagine, that fen agreeable to your desires: witness the like a god, he is to enjoy his present then powerful arms of Lacedemon, which greatness for ever fixed and unchangeable. a just attention to your interests enabled No, Athenians! there are, who hate him, you to vanquish: and this man's late in. who fear him, who envy him, even among folent attempt, which our insensibility to those seemingly the most attached to his all our great concerns hath made the cause. These are passions common to mancause of this confusion.
kind : nor must we think that his friends If there be a man in this assembly who only are exempted from them. It is true thinks that we must find a formidable they lie concealed at present, as our indoenemy in Philip, while he views, on one lence deprives them of all resource. But hand, the numerous armies which attend let us shake off this indolence! for you him; and, on the other, the weakness of see how we are situated; you see the outthe state thus despoiled of its dominions; rageous arrogance of this man, who does he thinks juftly. Yet let him reflect on not leave it to your choice whether you this: there was a time, Athenians ! when shall act, or remain quiet; but braves you we possessed Pydna, and Potidæa, and Me- with his menaces; and talks (as we are thonè, and all that country round: when informed) in a strain of the highest exmany of those states now subjected to him travagance: and is not able to rest satisfied were free and independent; and more in- with his present acquisitions, but is ever in clined to our alliance than to his. Had pursuit of further conquests; and while we then Philip reasoned in the same manner, sit down, inactive and irresolute, incloses " How Thall I dare to attack the Atheni- us on all sides with his toils. “ ans, whose garrisons command my ter- When, therefore, O my countrymen! “ ritory, while I am destitute of all af. when will you exert your vigour! When “ fiitance !” He would not have engaged roused by some event? When forced by in those enterprizes which are now crown. fome neceflity? What then are we to ed with success; nor could he have raised think of our present condition? To freehimself to this pitch of greatness. No, men, the disgrace attending on misconduct Athenians! he knew this well, that all is, in my opinion, the most urgent neces. these places are but prizes, laid between fity. Or, say, is it your sole ambition to the combatants, and ready for the con- wander through the public places, each enqueror: that the dominions of the absent quiring of the other, “What new advices?" devolve naturally to those who are in the Can any thing be more new, than that a Eeld ; the poffeßions of the supine to the man of Macedon should conquer the Athe. active and intrepid. Animated by these nians, and give law to Greece? “!s Philip
· dead ?
· dead? No, but in great danger.” How Thus far we should be provided against are you concerned in those rumours ? Sup- those sudden excursions from his own king pofé he should meet some fatal stroke : you dom to Thermopylæ, to the Chersonesus, would soon raise up another Philip, if your to Olynthus, to whatever places he thinks interests are thus regarded. For it is not proper. For of this he should necessarily to his own strength that he so much owes be persuaded, that possibly you may break his elevation, as to our supineness. And out from this immoderate indolence, and fhould some accident affect him ; should fly to fome scene of action : as you did to fortune, who hath ever been more care- Eubea, and formerly, as we are told, to ful of the state than we ourselves, now re- Haliartus, and, but now, to Thermopylæ. peat her favours (and may me thus crown But although we should not act with all them!) be assured of this, that by being this vigour, (which yet I must regard as on the spot, ready to take advantage of the our indispensable duty) fill the measures confusion, you will every where be abfo- I propose will have their use: as his fears lute masters; but in your present dispofi. may keep him quiet, when he knows we tion, even if a favourable juncture should are prepared (and this he will know, for present you with Amphipolis, you could there are too too many among ourselves not take poffeffion of it, while this suspence who inform him of every thing): or, if he prevails in your designs and in your coun. hould despise our armament, his security cils.
may prove fatal to him; as it will be ab. And now, as to the necessity of a ge- solutely in our power, at the first favourneral vigour and alacrity; of this you must able juncture, to make a descent upon his be fully persuaded: this point therefore own coasts. I shall urge no further. But the nature These then are the resolutions I proof the armament, which, I think, will ex- pose; these the provisions it will become tricate you from the present difficulties, you to make. And I pronounce it ftill the numbers to be raised, the subsidies re- farther necessary to raise some other forces quired for their support, and all the other which may harrass him with perpetual innecessaries; how they may (in my opinion) cursions. Talk not of your ten thousands, be best and most expeditiously provided; or twenty thousands of foreigners; of those these things I shall endeavour to explain. armies which appear fo magnificent on But here I make this request, Athenians ! paper; but let them be the natural forces that you would not be precipitate, but of the state: and if you chuse a single persuspend your judgment till you have heard son, if a number, if this particular man, or me fully. And it, at first, I seem to pro- whomever you appoint as general, let them pose a new kind of armament, let it not be be entirely under his guidance and authothought that I am delaying your affairs. rity. I also move you that subsistence be For it is not they who cry out, “ Instantly!" provided for them. But as to the quality, “ This moment !" whose counsels suit the the numbers, the maintenance of this body: present juncture (as it is not possible to how are these points to be settled? I now repel violences already committed by any proceed to speak of each of them diftin&tly. occasional detachment) but he who will The body of infantry therefore-But thew you of what kind that armament must here give me leave to warn you of an error be, how great, and how supported, which which hath often proved injurious to you, may subfist until we yield to peace, or till Think not that your preparations never our enemies sink beneath our arms; for can be too magnificent: great and terrible thus only can we be secured from future in your decrees; in execution weak and dangers. These things, I think, I can point contemptible. Let your preparations, let out; not that I would prevent any other your supplies at first be moderate, and add person from declaring his opinion: thus to these if you find them not sufficient. I far am ( engaged. How I can acquit say then that the whole body of infantry myself, will immediately appear: to your should be two thousand; of these, that five judgments I appeal.
hundred Mould be Athenians, of such an Firit then, Athenians! I say that you age as you shall think proper; and with a should fit out fifty Mhips of war; and then stated time for service, not long, but fuchi resolve, that on the first emergency you as that others may have their turn of duty. will embark yourselves. To these I insist Let the rest be formed of foreigners. To that you muli add transport, and other ne- these you are to add two hundred horse, cefiary vessels sufficient for half our horse. fifty of them at lealt Athenians, to ferve is the fame manner as the foot. For these not for service. My countrymen! should you are to provide transports. And now, not all these generals have been chosen what farther preparations?' 'Ten light gal- from your own body; all these several lies. For as he hath a naval power, we officers from your own body, that our mult be provided with liglit vessels, that force might be really Athenian? And yet, our troops may have a secure convoy. for an expedition in favour of Lemnos,
But whence are these forees to be sub- the general must be a citizen, while troops, fiited ? This I shall explain, when I have engaged in defence of our own territories, first given my reasons why I think such are commanded by Menelaus. I say not numbers sufficient, and why I have ad- this to detract from his merit ; but to vised that we should serve in person. As whomsoever this command hath been into the numbers, Athenians ! my reason is truited, farely he thould have derived it this : it is not at present in our power to from your
voices. provide a force able to meet him in the Perhaps you are fully sensible of these open field ; but we must harrafs him by truths; but would rather hear me upon depredations : thus the war must be car- another point ; that of the supplies ; what ried on at first. We therefore cannot we are to raise, and from what funds. To think of railing a prodigious army (for this I now proceed. --The sum therefore fuch we have neither pay nor provisions), necessary for the maintenance of these por must our forces be ablolutely mean. forces, that the soldiers may be supplied And I have proposed, that citizens hould with grain, is fomewhat above ninety tajoin in the service, and help to man our lents. To the ten gallies, forty talents, fleet ; because I am informed, that fome that each vessel may have a monthly alume fince, the state maintained a body of lowance of twenty minæ. To the two auxiliaries at Corinth, which Polyftratus thousand foot the fame sum, that each solcommanded, and Iphicrates, and Chabrias, dier may receive ten drachmæ a month and some others; that you yourselves served for corn. To the two hundred horse, for with them; and that ihe united efforts of a monthly allowance of thirty drachmä these auxiliary and domestic forces gained cach, twelve talents. And let it not be a considerable victory over the Lacedemo- thought a small convenience, that the soldians. But, ever fince our armies have diers are supplied with grain : for I am been formed of foreigners alone, their vic- clearly satisfied, that if such a provision tories have been over our allies and con- be made, the war itself will supply them federates, while our enemies have arisen with every thing else, so as to complete to an extravagance of power. And these their appointment, and this without an inarmies, with scarcely the flightest attention jury to the Greeks or allies : and I myfels to the service of the state, fail off to fight am ready to sail with them, and to answer for Artabazus, or any other person ; and for the consequence with my life, should it their general follows them: nor should we prove otherwise. From what funds the wonder at it; for he cannot command, who lum which I propose may be supplied, thall cannot pay his soldiers. What then do I now be explained. recommend ? That you should take away [Here the secretary of the assembly all pretences both from generals and from reads a scheme for raising the supSoldiers, by a regular payment of the army, plies, and proposes it to the people and by incorporating domestic forces with in form, in the name of the orator. ] the auxiliaries, to be as it were inspectors These are the supplies, Athenians ! in into the conduct of the commanders. For our power to raise. And, when you come at present our manner of acting is even to give your voices, determine upon some ridiculous. If a man should alk, “ Are effectual provision, that you may oppose * you at peace, Athenians ?” the answer Philip, not by decrees and letters only, would immediately be, “ By no means! but by actions. And, in my opinion, your " we are at war with Philip. Have not plan of operation, and every thing relat“ we chosen the usual generals and officers ing to your armament, will be much more « both of horse and foot ?” And of what happily adjusted, if the situation of the ose are all these, except the single person country, which is to be the scene of action, whom you send to the field ? The rest at- be taken into the account; and if you retend your priests in their processions. So fect, that the winds and seasons have that, as if you formed so many men of greatly contributed to the rapidity of Phi. clay, you make your officers for thew, and lip's conquests; that he watches the blow
ing of the Etesians, and the severity of the sure than is usually expended upon a whole winter, and forms his fieges when it is im- navy; and more numbers and greater prepossible for us to bring up our forces. It parations, than any one perhaps ever colt) is your part then to consider this, and not while your expeditions have been all too to carry on the war by occasional detach- late, as that to Methonè, that to Pegasæ, ments, (they will ever arrive too late) but that to Potidæa. The reason is this: every by a regular army constantly kept up. And thing relating to the former is ascertained for winter-quarters you may command by law; and every one of you knows long Lemnos, and Thafsus, and Sciathus, and before, who is to conduct the several enthe adjacent islands ; in which there are tertainments in each tribe ; what he is to ports and provisions, and all things neces- receive, when, and from whom, and what fary for the foldiery in abundance. As to to perform. Not one of these things is left the season of the year, in which we may uncertain, not one undetermined. But in land our forces with the greatest ease, and affairs of war, and warlike preparations, be in no danger from the winds, either up- there is no order, no certainty, no regue on the coast to which we are bound, or at lation. So that, when any accident alarms the entrance of those harbours where we us, first, we appoint our trierarchs ; then may put in for provisions—this will be ea- we allow them the exchange ; then the fily discovered. In what manner, and at supplies are considered. Thele points once what time our forces are to act, their gene- fettled, we resolve to man our feet with sal will determine, according to the junc- ftrangers and foreigners ; then find it netures of atiairs. What you are to perform, cessary to supply their place ourselves. In on your part, is contained in the decree I the midst of these delays, what we are fail. base now proposed. And if you will be ing to defend, the enemy is already master persuaded, Athenians! first, to raise these of: for the time of action we spend in pre. fupplies which I have recommended, then paring: and the junctures of affairs will not to proceed to your other preparations, your wait our flow and irresolute measures. infantry, navy, and cavalry; and, lastly, to These forces too, which we think may be confine your forces, by a law, to that ser- depended on, until the new levies are vice which is appointed to them; reserving raised, when put to the proof plainly difthe care and distribution of their money to cover their insufficiency. By these means yourselves, and ftri&tly examining into the hath he arrived at such a pitch of infolence, conduct of the general ; then, your time as to send a letter to the Eubæans, conwill be no longer wasted in continual de. ceived in such terms as thele : bates upon the same subject, and scarcely to any purpose ; then, you will deprive
The Letter is read. him of the moit considerable of his revenues. For his arms are now supported, What hath now been read, is for the by seizing and making prizes of those who most part true, Athenians ! too true! but pass the leas.-But is this all ?--No.—You perhaps not very agreeable in the recital. Thall also be secure from his attempts: not But if, by suppressing things ungrateful to as when some time since he fell on Lem- the ear, the things themselves could be prenos and Imbrus, and carried away your vented, then the sole concern of a public citizens in chains: not as when he sur- speaker should be to please. If, on the conprized your vessels at Gerastus, and spoiled trary, these unseasonably pleasing speeches them of an unspeakable quantity of riches: be really injurious, it is sametul, Athenot as when lately he made a descent on nians, to deceive yourselves, and, by dethe coast of Marathon, and carried off our ferring the confideration of every thing sacred galley : while you could neither op- disagreeable, never once to move until it pose these insulis, nor detach your forces be too late ; and not to apprehend that at such junctures as were thought conve- they who conduct a war with prudence, nient.
are not to follow, but to direct events; And now, Athenians! what is the reason to direct them with the same absolute au(think ye) that the public festivals in lo- thority, with which a general leads on his nour of Minerva and of Bacchus are al- forces : that the courle of affairs may be ways celebrated at the appointed time, whe. determined by them, and not determine ther the direction of them falls to the lot their measures. But you, Athenians, al. of men of eminence, or of persons lefs di. though poffefied of the greatest power of ftinguished: (festivals which cost more trea- all kinds, ships, infantry, cavalry, and